of four “big cats” that belong to the Panthera genus. Tigers are
Tigers are easily recognizable by their stripes and their tawny
fur color, which may range from yellow to orange (the white tiger
is one notable exception).
Most tigers live in forests (for which their camouflage is
ideally suited) and grasslands. Of all the big cats, only the tiger
and jaguar are strong swimmers, and tigers may often be found
bathing in ponds, lakes and rivers. Tigers hunt alone, and their
diet consists primarily of medium-sized herbivores such as
barking deer, sambar, elk, chital, swamp deer, red deer, rusa deer,
wild pigs and buffalo, but they will also take larger prey if the
circumstances demand it.
There are eight separate subspecies of tiger, three of which are
extinct and one of which is almost certain to become so in the
near future. Their historical range (severely diminished today)
ran through Russia, Siberia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, China and
southeast Asia, including the Indonesian islands.
catamount. This big cat of many names is also
found in many habitats, from Florida swamps to
Mountain lions like to prey on deer, though they
also eat smaller animals such as coyotes,
porcupines, and raccoons. They usually hunt at
night or during the gloaming hours of dawn and
dusk. These cats employ a blend of stealth and
power, stalking their prey until an opportunity
arrives to pounce, then going for the back of the
neck with a fatal bite. They will hide large
carcasses and feed on them for several
days.Mountain lions do not like to share their
territory and are constantly on the lookout for
A fox can be any of 23 medium-sized carnivore
species in the family Canidae, most commonly a
member of the genus Vulpes, and in particular the
well-known Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes. Foxes tend to
be small by comparison with other members of
their family like wolves, jackals, and domestic
dogs; to have slender, slightly flattened skulls,
pointed muzzles, moderately short legs, large ears,
and long, bushy tails.
Unlike many canids, foxes are not pack animals;
they are solitary, opportunistic feeders that hunt
live prey by stealth and surprise, and gather a
wide variety of other foods ranging from
grasshoppers to fruit and berries.
The lion (Panthera leo) is one of the four big cats in the genus
Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males
exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living
cat after the tiger
Nearly all wild lions live in sub-Saharan Africa, but one small
population of Asian lions exists in India's Gir Forest. Asian lions
and African lions are subspecies of the same species.
Asian lions once prowled from the Middle East to India. Now,
only 200 to 260 of these magnificent animals survive in the wild.
The Gir Forest's dry teak woods were once a royal hunting ground.
Today they are a reserve where the endangered Asian lions are
heavily protected. An additional 200 Asian lions live in zoos.
Lions are the only cats that live in groups, called prides. Prides
are family units that may include up to three males, a dozen or so
females, and their young. All of a pride's lionesses are related and
female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males
eventually leave and may establish their own prides by taking over
a group headed by another male.
Snow leopards cannot roar.
Snow leopards prey upon the blue sheep (bharal) of Tibet and the
Himalaya, as well as the mountain ibex found over most of the rest
of their range. Though these powerful predators can kill animals
three times their weight, they also eat smaller fare, such as
marmots, hares, and game birds.
Snow Leopards prefer steep, rugged terrains with rocky outcrops
and ravines. This type of habitat provides good cover and clear
view to help them sneak up on their prey. They are found at high
elevations of 3000-4500 meters (9800 ft to 14800 ft.), and even
higher in the Himalayas. The snowy peaks act as a camouflage for
the animal. Snow Leopards are considered medium-sized cats,
standing about 24 inches at the shoulder and weighing around 30-
55kg. Their exquisite smoky-gray fur patterned with dark-gray to
black rosettes, camouflage them against rocky slopes. Snow
Leopards are shy and elusive and inhabit a definite home range
The animal is most active at dawn and dusk. Like most species of
cats, Snow Leopards are solitary animals, though sometimes male
and female pairs might be seen together during mating season
acceleration that would leave most automobiles in the dust, a
cheetah can go from 0 to 60 miles (96 kilometers) an hour in
only three seconds. These big cats are quite nimble at high
speed and can make quick and sudden turns in pursuit of prey.
Before unleashing their speed, cheetahs use exceptionally
keen eyesight to scan their grassland environment for signs of
prey—especially antelope and hares. This big cat is a daylight
hunter that benefits from stealthy movement and a distinctive
spotted coat that allows it to blend easily into high, dry
When the moment is right a cheetah will sprint after its
quarry and attempt to knock it down. Such chases cost the
hunter a tremendous amount of energy and are usually over in
less than a minute. If successful, the cheetah will often drag
its kill to a shady hiding place to protect it from opportunistic
animals that sometimes steal a kill before the cheetah can eat.
Cheetahs need only drink once every three to four days.
snakes commonly referred to as cobras are of the same genus, or even of
the same family.
When disturbed, most of these snakes can rear up and spread their neck
(or hood) in a characteristic threat display.King cobras can reach 18 feet
(5.5 meters) in length, making them the longest of all venomous snakes.
When confronted, they can raise up to one-third of their bodies straight
off the ground and still move forward to attack. They will also flare out
their iconic hoods and emit a bone-chilling hiss that sounds almost like a
Their venom is not the most potent among venomous snakes, but the
amount of neurotoxin they can deliver in a single bite—up to two-tenths
of a fluid ounce (seven milliliters)—is enough to kill 20 people, or even an
elephant. Fortunately, king cobras are shy and will avoid humans
whenever possible, but they are fiercely aggressive when cornered.
King cobras live mainly in the rain forests and plains of India,
southern China, and Southeast Asia, and their coloring can vary greatly
from region to region. They are comfortable in the trees, on land, and in
water, feeding mainly on other snakes, venomous and nonvenomous. They
will also eat lizards, eggs, and small mammals.
They are the only snakes in the world that build nests for their eggs,
habitats, hunting small animals such as birds and rodents.
They kill their prey with a venomous bite, rather than by
constricting. All rattlesnakes possess a set of fangs with
which they inject large quantities of hemotoxic venom.
The venom travels through the bloodstream, destroying
tissue and causing swelling, internal bleeding, and intense
pain. Some species, such as the Mojave Rattlesnake,
additionally possess a neurotoxic component in their
venom that causes paralysis and other nervous symptoms.
However, rattlesnakes fall prey to hawks, weasels, king
snakes, and a variety of other species. Rattlesnakes are
heavily preyed upon as neonates, while they are still weak
and mentally immature. Very large numbers of
rattlesnakes are killed by humans. Rattlesnake
populations in many areas are severely threatened by
habitat destruction, poaching, and extermination
America. Although the name actually applies to a group of snakes, it is
often used to refer only to one species in particular, the common or green
anaconda, Eunectes murinus, which is one of the largest snakes in the
world.Green anacondas can grow to more than 29 feet (8.8 meters), weigh
more than 550 pounds (227 kilograms), and measure more than 12 inches
(30 centimeters) in diameter. Females are significantly larger than males.
Other anaconda species, all from South America and all smaller than the
green anaconda, are the yellow, dark-spotted, and Bolivian
varieties.Anacondas live in swamps, marshes, and slow-moving streams,
mainly in the tropical rain forests of the Amazon and Orinoco basins.
They are cumbersome on land, but stealthy and sleek in the water. Their
eyes and nasal openings are on top of their heads, allowing them to lay in
wait for prey while remaining nearly completely submerged.
They reach their monumental size on a diet of wild pigs, deer, birds,
turtles, capybara, caimans, and even jaguars. Anacondas are nonvenomous
constrictors, coiling their muscular bodies around captured prey and
squeezing until the animal asphyxiates. Jaws attached by stretchy
ligaments allow them to swallow their prey whole, no matter the size, and
they can go weeks or months without food after a big meal.
Female anacondas retain their eggs and give birth to two to three
dozen live young. Baby snakes are about 2 feet (0.6 meters) long when
inches long, including a long, bushy tail. They weigh between seven
and 14 pounds. Their red-and-white markings blend in with the red
mosses and white lichens that grow on the trees in which they live.
Their soft, dense fur covers their entire body—even the soles of their
feet. Red pandas use their long, bushy tails to balance when they're in
trees. They also cover themselves with their tails in winter.
Distribution and Habitat: Red pandas live in the cool temperate
bamboo forests in Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in China, in the
Himalayas, and in Myanmar. They share part of their range with
Diet: Red pandas primarily eat bamboo leaves as well as berries,
blossoms, bird eggs, and various plants' small leaves. Their broad
teeth and strong jaws allow them to chew bamboo's tough leaves and
stalks. They also have a small, bony projection on their wrists that
helps them grip bamboo stalks. Giant pandas also have this thumb-
Reproduction: After a gestation of about 134 days, litters of one to
four young are born. Young stay in the nest for about 90 days, remain
close to their mother until the next mating season begins, and reach
adult size at about 12 months. Adult red pandas lead solitary lives.
Conservation: Red pandas are listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an arboreal
herbivorous marsupial native to Australia, and the
only extant representative of the family
The koala is found in coastal regions of eastern
and southern Australia, from Adelaide to the
southern part of Cape York Peninsula. Populations
also extend for considerable distances inland in
regions with enough moisture to support suitable
woodlands. The koalas of South Australia were
largely exterminated during the early part of the
20th century, but the state has since been
repopulated with Victorian stock. The koala is not
found in Tasmania or Western Australia.
The giant panda has an insatiable appetite for
bamboo. A typical animal eats half the day—a full
12 out of every 24 hours—and relieves itself
dozens of times a day. It takes 28 pounds (12.5
kilograms) of bamboo to satisfy a giant panda's
daily dietary needs, and it hungrily plucks the
stalks with elongated wrist bones that function
rather like thumbs. Pandas will sometimes eat
birds or rodents as well.
The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges
in central China, mainly in Sichuan province, but
also in the Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Due
to farming, deforestation and other development,
the panda has been driven out of the lowland areas
where it once lived.
though it also occurs in Southeast Asia. The Australian
animals may be descendents of Asian dingoes that were
introduced to the continent some 3,000 to 4,000 years
These golden or reddish-colored canids may live alone
(especially young males) or in packs of up to ten
animals. They roam great distances and communicate
with wolf-like howls.
Dingo hunting is opportunistic. Animals hunt alone
or in cooperative packs. They pursue small game such as
rabbits, rodents, birds, and lizards. These dogs will eat
fruits and plants as well. They also scavenge from
humans, particularly in their Asian range.
Dingoes breed only once a year. Females typically give
birth to about five pups, which are not independent
The washed green head is large, the neck is short, the greenish
yellow legs are rather short and the feet are small. The beak is
strong, arched and hooked-tipped. The tail is narrow and of
medium length. The back and scapulars are brown. The shoulder
of the wing, outer webs of the flight feathers and the rump are
all violet. The bases of the primaries and their coverts are pale
greenish blue and the outer tail feathers are elongated and
blackish. The chin is whitish, shading to rich lilac of the breast.
The underparts are greenish blue. The bill is black and the eyes
are brown. It has large wings and strong flight.
Grasslands, open woods and regions where palm trees grow
The species ranges more or less continuously throughout
eastern and southern Africa from the Red Sea coasts of Ethiopia
and northwest Somalia to the Angola coast and northern South
Africa. Lilac Breasted Rollers inhabit acacia country with well
spaced trees, rolling bushy game lands, riverside areas and
cultivated land, but they do not associate with human
Many macaws have vibrant plumage. The coloring is suited to
life in Central and South American rain forests, with their green
canopies and colorful fruits and flowers. The birds boast large,
powerful beaks that easily crack nuts and seeds, while their dry,
scaly tongues have a bone inside them that makes them an effective
tool for tapping into fruits.
Macaws also have gripping toes that they use to latch onto
branches and to grab, hold, and examine items. The birds sport
graceful tails that are typically very long.
Macaws are intelligent, social birds that often gather in flocks
of 10 to 30 individuals. Their loud calls, squawks, and screams
echo through the forest canopy. Macaws vocalize to communicate
within the flock, mark territory, and identify one another. Some
species can even mimic human speech.
Flocks sleep in the trees at night, and in the morning they may
fly long distances to feed on fruit, nuts, insects, and snails. Some
species also eat damp soil, which may help to neutralize chemicals
in their fruity diet and ease their stomachs.
white stripes on wings and tail.
Underparts are reddish-brown. Head and back show the same colour. Broad
rounded wings are heavily marked black and white. Square tail is black and
shows a white wide band. Head has a conspicuous crest, made with long
chestnut feathers, with a bold black tip. This crest may take two forms,
according to the moment. It may be as held straight, or erected in a rounded
Dark bill is long, slender and down-curved. Eyes are dark brown. Legs and
feet are brownish.
Female is duller than male.
Immature resembles female with shorter crest.
African Hoopoe lives in open and brushy areas. We can find it in parks
and gardens, thornveld and riverine woodlands in dry areas.
African Hoopoe is distributed in Europe, Tropical Asia and Madagascar.
It lives in Africa (of course) where it is widespread, except in western and
central equatorial lowlands forests.
African Hoopoe has an undulating and erratic flight, as a butterfly. It
has strong flight, with irregular wing beats. Hoopoe can soar very high to
escape a raptor, but usually, it flies just above the ground.
African Hoopoe feeds on insects and earthworms, but also frogs and small
snakes and lizards. It may eat some seeds and berries, but in very small
easily thanks to the long toes. In this species, the female is larger than the male, and their mating
system is reversed. The adult has rich chestnut to rufous-cinnamon upperparts, but rump and
secondaries are darker and primaries are black. The upperwing shows glossy sheen in good lighting.
The black hindneck contrasts with the white foreneck. The tail is short.The underparts are darker
maroon-chestnut, except the chin, throat and foreneck which are white, turning golden yellow on the
upper breast. On the head, the pale blue bill extends to a large pale blue to grey blue frontal shield.
The rest of the crown is black. The head sides are white. The eyes are dark brown. The long legs and
the very long toes are greyish-blue to olive-brown.The female has similar plumage but she is larger
than the male.The immature has blackish washed brown
crown and hindneck. It has a white supercilium and the frontal shield is absent or slightly
developed. The upperparts are pale brown. The underparts are white, and we can see an indistinct
yellowish breast band.
The African Jacana frequents the freshwater wetlands with floating vegetation, and especially
lily pads and other emergent plants in swamps and marshes.
It shelters in the taller aquatic vegetation which provides it a good cover. It spends most of its life
on these large floating leaves.
The African Jacana breeds in wetlands throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but it avoids the forested
regions and the arid areas.
The African Jacana usually flies over short distances on rounded wings. The legs hang or are held
straight out behind. This bird is a weak flier.
The African Jacana feeds on insects and larvae, worms, snails, molluscs and crustaceans, spiders
and some seeds.
It gleans the preys from the surface and can catch flying insects.
The African Jacana is usually common to abundant throughout most of the range. The species may
be locally threatened by habitat loss, flooding, drainage of wetlands and overgrazing.
Eggs and chicks are preyed upon by aquatic snakes.
The Water lilies are destroyed by the invasive introduced nutria (Myocastor coypus), but the jacana is
able to nest on other floating plants such as the exotic water fern of genus Salvinia.
The average length for the Mandarin Duck is between 43-51cm, wings folded
22.1-22.6cm. They have a tail length of 10.2-10.4cm and an average bill length
of 27.9mm. In full plumage, the male Mandarin is the most beautiful of all
ducks. The males have an iridescent crown extending to a long crest and chestnut
cheeks. The breast is maroon with black and white vertical stripes; the abdomen
and underside are white with gold and black flanks. The back and tail are olive
brown, the upper tail coverts are blue/green, and the scapulars are iridescent
blue. The outer tertials are orange and gold on the inner web and form a sail
shape and the upper wing surface is mostly olive brown. This sail shape feature
along with the white-eye stripe that extends from the bill and tapers toward the
back of the head distinguishes the male from all others. Their bill is red and they
have whitish legs with yellow feet.
The Mandarin Duck originated in China but can be found almost anywhere
there is a suitable habitat. They are
semi-migratory and semi-colonial. They are scattered throughout Southeast
Russia, Northeast China, Japan, Southern England and Siberia.
Mandarins prefer to live in woodlands next to water that has many trees with
holes for nesting. They favor mountain areas with streams, marshland and
The Mandarins diet consists of seeds, acorns, grain, aquatic plants, insects,
land snails and fish. The diet is seasonal, in the fall acorns and grains are
favored while in the spring insects, snails, fish and vegetation are preferred.
During the summer months dew worms, grasshoppers, small fish, frogs, mollusks
is a honeycomb of bone that actually contains a lot of air.
While its size may deter predators, it is of little use in
But the toucan's bill is useful as a feeding tool. The birds
use them to reach fruit on branches that are too small to
support their weight, and also to skin their pickings. In
addition to fruit, Toco toucans eat insects and, sometimes,
young birds, eggs, or lizards.
Toco toucans live in small flocks of about six birds. Their
bright colors actually provide good camouflage in the dappled
light of the rain forest canopy. However, the birds commonly
keep up a racket of vocalization, which suggests that they are
not trying to remain hidden.
Toucans nest in tree holes. They usually have two to four
eggs each year, which both parents care for. Young toucans do
not have a large bill at birth—it grows as they develop and
does not become full size for several months.The toucan's
large, colorful bill may look like it packs a bite, but it is
different species of macaws and they range in size from a
little over three feet to one foot. They have beautiful,
graceful, tails that are as long or longer than their bodies.
They also have long, pointed wings that enable them to fly
Macaws have sharp, hooked bills which are perfect for
eating nuts, fruits, and seeds. The beak is strong and is
used to break open nut pods. Their feet have a very strong
grip which allow them to grasp easily. Two of their toes
point forward and two point backward. They can use their
foot to grasp food and bring it to their mouth.
Macaws are very social and intelligent animals. They
can be found in Central and South America in the canopy
and emergent layers of the rainforest. They like to nest in
holes in trees. Macaws are on the endangered species list
because their numbers are declining due to rainforest
I feel gratified, at this very outset, to Mrs. Neasamni ,
Environmental science teacher for having given us the
opportunity to work on this project, which gives us a
lot of knowledge about Animals and Birds. It gives
us great pleasure to thank you for your invaluable
suggestions, constant encouragement and help to
accomplish this task efficaciously.
Thank You!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Thank You!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!