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Oda nobunaga

The first unifier of Japan

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Oda nobunaga

  1. 1. ODA NOBUNAGA 1534 - 1582
  2. 2. Contents • Historical Context • Early Life • Unification ofOwari Province • Rise to Power • Campaign against rival daimyōs • Coup at Honnō-ji and death • Death by Seppuku • Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu • Policies • References
  3. 3. Historical context • The goal of national unification and a return to the comparative political stability of the earlier Muromachi period was widely shared by the multitude of autonomous daimyōs during the Sengoku period. Oda Nobunaga was the first for whom this goal seemed attainable. Nobunaga had gained control over most of Honshu (see map below) before his death during the 1582 Honnō-ji incident, a coup attempt executed by Nobunaga's vassal,Akechi Mitsuhide. It is not certain whether Nobunaga was killed in the attack or committed seppuku.The motivation behind Mitsuhide's betrayal was never revealed to anyone who survived the incident, and has been a subject of debate and conjecture ever since the incident.[1]
  4. 4. • Following the incident, Mitsuhide declared himself master over Nobunaga's domains, but was quickly defeated byToyotomi Hideyoshi, who regained control of and greatly expanded the Oda holdings. Nobunaga's successful subjugation of much of Honshu enabled the later successes of his allies Hideyoshi andTokugawa Ieyasu toward the goal of national unification by subjugating local daimyōs under a hereditary shogunate, which was ultimately accomplished in 1603 when Ieyasu was granted the title of shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei following the successful Sekigahara Campaign of 1600.The nature of the succession of power through the three daimyōs is reflected in a well-known Japanese idiom: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."[2]
  5. 5. • Oda Nobunaga was born on June 23, 1534, in the Owari domain, and was given the childhood name of Kippōshi.[3] He was the second son of Oda Nobuhide, a deputy shugo (military governor) with land holdings in Owari Province.[3] He is said to have been born in NagoyaCastle, although this is subject to debate.Through his childhood and early teenage years, he was well known for his bizarre behaviour and received the name of Owari no Ōutsuke , The Big Fool of Owari). He was known to run around with other youths from the area, without any regard to his own rank in society.With the introduction of firearms into Japan, however, he became known for his fondness of tanegashimi firearms.An imagined portrait of Oda Nobunaga, by Jesuit painter Giovanni Niccolò, 1583–1590. Early Life
  6. 6. Unification of Owari Province • In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly. Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar. [4] Hirate Masahide, a valuable mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, performed seppuku to startle Nobunaga into his obligations. [5] :68 Succession dispute • Although Nobunaga was Nobuhide's legitimate heir, some of the Oda clan were divided against him. Collecting about a thousand men, Nobunaga suppressed those members of his family who were hostile to his rule, including his younger brother, Oda Nobuyuki.Then in 1556, he destroyed a rival branch located in Kiyosu Castle. [6] :276 • Although Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga took an army to Mino Province to aid Saitō Dōsan after Dōsan's son, SaitōYoshitatsu, turned against him.The campaign failed, as Dōsan was killed in the Battle of Nagara-gawa, andYoshitatsu became the new master of Mino in 1556. [5] Elimination of Nobuyuki • In 1557, Nobunaga's brother, Nobuyuki, was defeated in the Siege of Suemori by Ikeda Nobuteru. [5] :69 • In 1558, he protected Suzuki Shigeteru in the Siege ofTerabe. [5] • By 1559, Nobunaga had eliminated all opposition within the clan and Owari Provice. [6]
  7. 7. Rise to Power Battle of Okehazama • In 1560, ImagawaYoshimoto gathered an army of 25,000 men [7] and started his march toward Kyoto, with the pretext of aiding the frail Ashikaga shogunate.The Matsudaira clan of Mikawa Province also joinedYoshimoto's forces. Against this, the Oda clan could rally an army of only 2,000 to 3,000. [8] [9] Some of Nobunaga's advisers suggested "to stand a siege at Kiyosu". Nobunaga refused, stating that "only a strong offensive policy could make up for the superior numbers of the enemy", and calmly ordered a counterattack. [6] • Nobunaga's scouts reported thatYoshimoto was resting at the narrow gorge of Dengaku-hazama, ideal for a surprise attack, and that the Imagawa army were celebrating their victories whileYoshimoto viewed the heads. Nobunaga moved towards Imagawa's camp, and set up a position some distance away. An array of flags and dummy troops made of straw and spare helmets gave the impression of a large host, while the real Oda army hurried round in a rapid march to get behindYoshimoto's camp.The heat gave way to a terrific thunderstorm. As the Imagawa
  8. 8. • samurai sheltered from the rain Nobunaga deployed his troops, and when the storm ceased they charged down upon the enemy in the gorge, so suddenly thatYoshimoto thought a brawl had broken out among his men, only realizing it was an attack when two samurai charged up. One aimed a spear at him, whichYoshimoto deflected with his sword, but the second swung his blade and cut off Imagawa's head. [10][11] • Rapidly weakening in the wake of this battle, the Imagawa clan no longer exerted control over the Matsudaira clan. In 1561, an alliance was forged between Oda Nobunaga and Matsudaira Motoyasu (who would become (Tokugawa Ieyasu), despite the decades-old hostility between the two clans. Nobunaga also formed an alliance withTakeday Shingen through the marriage of his daughter to Shingen's son.A similar relationship was forged when Nobunaga's sister Oichi married Azai Nagamasa of Ōmi Province. [6]:277-78 [12] • Tradition dates this battle as the first time that Nobunaga noticed the talents of the sandal-bearer who would eventually becomeToyotomi Hideyoshi.
  9. 9. Siege of Inabayama Castle • In Mino, SaitōYoshitatsu died suddenly of illness in 1561, and was succeeded by his son, Saitō Tatsuoki.Tatsuoki, however, was young and much less effective as a ruler and military strategist compared to his father and grandfather. [8] :57 • Taking advantage of this situation, Nobunaga moved his base to Komaki Castle and started his campaign in Mino at the 1561 Battle of Moribe.[5] :216 By convincing Saitō retainers to abandon their incompetent and foolish master, Nobunaga weakened the Saitō clan significantly, eventually mounting a final attack in 1567 when he captured Inabayama Castle.[6] :278 • After taking possession of the castle, Nobunaga changed the name of both the castle and the surrounding town to Gifu. Remains of Nobunaga's residence in Gifu can be found today in Gifu Park.[13] • Naming it after the legendary Mount Qi in China, on which the Zhou dynasty started, Nobunaga revealed his ambition to conquer the whole of Japan. He also started using a new personal seal that read Tenka Fubu [14] which means “All of the world by force of arms" or "Rule the Empire by Force".[8] :278
  10. 10. Campaign in Kyoto • In 1568, AshikagaYoshiaki went to Gifu to ask Nobunaga to start a campaign toward Kyoto.Yoshiaki was the brother of the murdered thirteenth shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate, Yoshiteru, and wanted revenge against the killers who had already set up a puppet shōgun, AshikagaYoshihide. Nobunaga agreed to installYoshiaki as the new shōgun and, grasping the opportunity to enter Kyoto, started his campaign. An obstacle in southern Ōmi Province was the Rokkaku clan. Led by RokkakuYoshikata, the clan refused to recognizeYoshiaki as shōgun and was ready to go to war. In response, Nobunaga launched a rapid attack, driving the Rokkaku clan out of their castles. [6] :278-9 • On 9 Nov. 1568, Nobunaga entered Kyoto.Yoshiaki was made the 15th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate. However, Nobunaga refused any appointment fromYoshiaki, and their relationship grew difficult, though Nobunaga showed the Emperor great respect.[15] [6] :279-281 Oda Nobunaga armour
  11. 11. CAMPAIGN AGAINST RIVAL DAIMYŌS Japan around 1582. The areas in purple show the areas controlled by the Oda in 1560, and the grey area were the territory Nobunaga controlled at the time of his death in 1582.
  12. 12. Battle of Anegawa • The Asakura clan was particularly disdainful of the Oda clan's increasing power. Furthermore, AsakuraYoshikage had also protected AshikagaYoshiaki, but had not been willing to march toward Kyoto.[6] :281 • When Nobunaga launched a campaign into the Asakura clan's domain, Azai Nagamasa, to whom Nobunaga's sister Oichi was married, broke the alliance with Oda to honor the Azai-Asakura alliance which had lasted for generations.With the help of Ikko rebels, the anti-Nobunaga alliance sprang into full force, taking a heavy toll on the Oda clan. At the Battle of Anegawa,Tokugawa Ieyasu joined forces with Nobunaga and defeated the combined forces of the Asakura and Azai clans.[6]:282 • The Enryaku-ji monastery on Mt. Hiei, with it sōhei (warrior monks) of theTendai school who aided the anti-Nobunaga group by helpingAzai-Asakura alliance, was an issue for Nobunaga since the monastery was so close to his base of power. Nobunaga attacked Enryaku-ji and razed it in October 1571, killing "monks, laymen, women and children" in the process.The whole mountainside was a great slaughterhouse, and the sight was one of unbearable horror.”[6] :284
  13. 13. Siege of Nagashima and Ishiyama Hongan-ji • During the siege of Nagashima, Nobunaga inflicted tremendous losses to the Ikkō-irri resistance who opposed samurai rule.The siege finally ended when Nobunaga surrounded the enemy complex and set fire to it, killing tens of thousands.[5] :221-25 • He later succeeded in taking their main stronghold at Ishiyama Hongan-ji after an 11-year siege that ended with its surrender.[16]
  14. 14. Battle of Nagashino • One of the strongest rulers in the anti-Nobunaga alliance wasTakeda Shingen, in spite of his generally peaceful relationship and a nominal alliance with the Oda clan. In 1572, at the urgings of the shōgun, Shingen decided to make a drive for the capital starting with invadingTokugawa territory.Tied down on the western front, Nobunaga sent lackluster aid to Ieyasu, who suffered defeat at the Battle of Mikatagahara in 1573. However, after the battle, Tokugawa's forces launched night raids and convincedTakeda of an imminent counter-attack, thus saving the vulnerableTokugawa with the bluff.This would play a pivotal role inTokugawa's philosophy of strategic patience in his campaigns with Oda Nobunaga. Shortly thereafter, theTakeda forces were neutralized after Shingen died from throat cancer in April 1573.[12] :153-56 • This was a relief for Nobunaga because he could now focus onYoshiaki, who had openly declared hostility more than once, despite the imperial court's intervention. Nobunaga was able to defeatYoshiaki's forces and send him into exile, bringing the Ashikaga shogunate to an end in the same year. Also in 1573, Nobunaga successfully destroyed Asakura and Asai, driving them both to suicide.[12] :156 [6] :281,285-286 • At the decisive Battle of Nagashino, the combined forces of Nobunaga andTokugawa Ieyasu devastated the Takeda clan with the strategic use of arquebuses. Nobunaga compensated for the arquebus's slow reloading time by arranging the arquebusiers in three lines, firing in rotation. From there, Nobunaga continued his expansion, sendingAkechi Mitsuhide to pacifyTanba Province before advancing upon the Mori.[6] :287,306
  15. 15. Surrender of Ishiyama Hongan-ji • In 1574 Nobunaga became Gondainagon and Ukon'etaishō. By 1576 he was given the title of Minister of the Right (Udaijin).[17] The Oda clan's siege of Ishiyama Hongan-ji in Osaka made some progress, but the Mori clan of the Chugōku region broke the naval blockade and started sending supplies into the strongly fortified complex by sea. As a result, in 1577, Hashiba Hideyoshi was ordered to confront the warrior monks at Negoroji.[6]:288-289[5] :228 • However, Uesugi Kenshin, rival ofTakeda Shingen and Oda, clashed with Oda during the Battle ofTedorigawa.The result was a decisive Uesugi victory. However, Kenshin's sudden death in 1578, ended his movement south.[5]:12- 13,228,230 [6]:288 • Nobunaga forced the Ishiyama Hongan-ji to surrender in 1580, employed the only samurai of African origin Yasuke as one of his retainers in 1581 and destroyed theTakeda clan in 1582. Nobunaga's administration was at its height of power and he was about to launch invasions into Echifo Province and Shikoku. • In the 1582 Battle ofTenmokuzan,Takeda Katsuyori committed suicide after his defeat at the hands of Oda Nobunaga andTokugawa Ieyasu.[5]
  16. 16. Coup at Honnō-ji and death • In 1582, Nobunaga's former sandal bearer Hashiba Hideyoshi invaded Bitchū Province, laying siege to TakamatsuCastle.The castle was vital to the Mori clan, and losing it would have left the Mori home domain vulnerable. Led by MōriTerumoto, reinforcements arrived, prompting Hideyoshi to ask for reinforcements from Nobunaga. Nobunaga promptly ordered his leading generals to prepare their armies, the overall expedition to be led by Nobunaga.[11] :241 [6] :307a • Nobunaga left Azuchi Castle for Honnō-jo in Kyoto, where he was to hold a tea ceremony. Hence, he only had 30 pages with him, while his son Nobutada had brought 2000 of his cavalrymen.[11] :243
  17. 17. Death by Seppuku • Mitsuhide chose that time to attack. On June 21, 1582, Mitsuhide took a unit of his men and surrounded the Honnō-ji while sending another unit ofAkechi troops to assault Myōkaku-ji, initiating a full coup d’état. At Honnō-ji, Nobunaga's small entourage was soon overwhelmed and, as the Akechi troops closed in on the burning temple where Nobunaga had been residing, he decided to commit seppuku in one of the inner rooms.[18] His son Nobutada was then killed.[6] :307-308 • The cause of Mitsuhide's "betrayal" is controversial. It has been proposed that Mitsuhide may have heard a rumor that Nobunaga would transfer Mitsuhide's fief to the page, Mōri Ranmaru, with whom Nobunaga is alleged to have been in a ritualized homosexual relationship, a form of patronage, known as shudō.[19]
  18. 18. Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu • Oda Nobunaga,Toyotomi Hideyoshi andTokugawa Ieyasu are three men credited with the unification of Japan.All three were born within 8 years of each other (1534 to 1542), started their careers as samurai and finished them as statesmen. Nobunaga inherited his father's domain at the age of 17, and quickly gained control of Owari province through gekokujo. Hideyoshi started his career in Nobunaga's army as an ashigaru, but quickly rose up through the ranks as a samurai. Ieyasu initially fought against Nobunaga, but later joined his army.[12]:142
  19. 19. Policies • Militarily, Nobunaga changed the way war was fought in Japan. His matchlock armed foot soldiers displaced mounted soldiers armed with bow and sword. He built iron plated warships and imported saltpeter and lead for manufacturing gunpowder and bullets respectively, while also manufacturing artillery. His ashigaru foot soldiers were trained and disciplined for mass movements, which replaced hand-to-hand fighting tactics.They wore distinctive uniforms which fostered esprit de corps. He was ruthless and cruel in battle, pursuing fugitives without compassion.Through wanton slaughter, he became the ruler of 20 provinces. [6]:309-310 • After consolidating military power in provinces he came to dominate, starting with Owari and Mino, Nobunaga implemented a plan for economic development.This included the declaration of free markets (rakuichi), the breaking of trade monopolies, and providing for open guilds (rakuza). Nobunaga instituted rakuichi rakuza policies as a way to stimulate business and the overall economy through the use of a free market system.[13]
  20. 20. • These policies abolished and prohibited monopolies and opened once closed and privileged unions, associations and guilds, which he saw as impediments to commerce. Even though these policies provided a major boost to the economy, it was still heavily dependent on daimyōs' support. Copies of his original proclamations can be found in Entoku-ji in the city of Gifu.[13][6]:300 • Nobunaga initiated policies for civil administration, which included currency regulations, construction of roads and bridges.This included setting standards for the road widths and planting trees along roadsides.This was to ease transport of soldiers and war material in addition to commerce. In general, Nobunaga thought in terms of "unifying factors," in the words of George Sansom.[6] :300-302
  21. 21. Grave of Oda Nobunaga at Mount Kōya, Wakayama Prefecture
  22. 22. • [1] Berry, Mary Elizabeth (1982). Hideyoshi. Cambridge and London: The Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. pp. 41–43. ISBN 0-674-39026-1. • [2] Found in:Duiker, William J.; Jackson J. Spielvogel (2006). World History, Volume II. Cengage Learning. pp. 463, 474. ISBN 0-495-05054-7., attributed to C. Nakane and S. Oishi, eds., Tokugawa Japan (Tokyo, 1990), p.14. Hashiba is the family name that Toyotomi Hideyoshi used while he was a follower of Nobunaga. • [3] Jansen, Marius (2000). The Making of Modern Japan, p. 11 • [4] Okanoya, Shigezane (2007) [Translation based on 1943 edition published by Iwanami Shoten, Japan. First published in 1871.]. Dykstra, Andrew; Dykstra, Yoshiko, eds. Meishōgenkōroku [Shogun and Samurai – Tales of Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu] (PDF). translated by Andrew and Yoshiko Dykstra from the original Japanese. Retrieved 2010-07-21. Tale 3 – His Extraordinary Appearance • [5] Turnbull, Stephen (1998). The Samurai Sourcebook. Cassell & Co. p. 215. ISBN 1854095234. • [6] Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0804705259. • [7] Takeuchi, Rizō. (1985). Nihonshi shōjiten, p. 233 • [8] Turnbull, Stephen (1987). Battles of the Samurai. Arms and Armour Press. p. 37. ISBN 0853688265. • [9] Weston, Mark. "Oda Nobunaga: The Warrior Who United Half of Japan". Giants of Japan: The Lives of Japan's Greatest Men and Women. New York: Kodansha International, 2002. 140–145. • [10] Seal, F. W. "Oda Nobunaga". • [11] Sato Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. pp. 234–37. ISBN 9781590207307. • [12] Turnbull, Stephen R. (1977). The Samurai: A Military History. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. p. 144. • [13] Gifu City Walking Map. Gifu Lively City Public Corporation, 2007. • [14] Gifu Castle. Retrieved December 5, 2007. • [15] Saito, Hisho. A History of Japan. p. 130. • [16] Winkler, Lawrence (2016-08-03). Samurai Road. Bellatrix. ISBN 9780991694181. • [17] Wakita Osamu (1982), "The Emergence of the State in Sixteenth-Century Japan: From Oda to Tokugawa", The Journal of Japanese Studies, 8 (2): 343–67 • [18] Beasley, W. G. (August 31, 2000). "The Unifiers". The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan. University of California Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-520-22560-2. • [19] Koike, Togoro (1963). Koshoku monogatari. Kamakura insatsu. pp. 184–85.