Basic Entomology

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  • THINK about issueASK the right questionsUtilizing RESOURCES
  • Insects are small but they have a significant impact! They are major players in all sorts of life processes.I am here to try to show you just a few ways that insects are relevant to our life and world today and why plant/insect interactions are so important!
  • The most important message to take away though is:ONLY 1% of all insect species are ever considered a pest!!
  • sensory, intake, communicationdigestion, sensory,leg & wing attachment respiration, reproduction, defense, output, special
  • One way insects sense is by vision. Simple= ocelli Complex= compound – made of 40,000 facets so vision is by mosaic. It is not as clear, but it is much better at detecting movement. It is like seeing the world through your screen door.
  • Different forms of antennae depend on their function: What it needs to smell.some GROUND dwelling..have no use for eyes, and rely on smell and taste. Some can also sense vibration through typanal membranes…located either in thorax, or along the abdomen.Chemosensation is the main mode of sensing.
  • OVIPOSITOR story: mason bees , we’ll see later…can actually deposit male (fertilized) eggs near entrance to protect his sisters… incredible accuracy!
  • Chewing, piercing-sucking, rasping-sucking, siphoning, sponging, cutting-sponging, chewing lapping
  • The piercing-sucking mouthparts are composted of 4 “stylets” that are really modified mandibles and maxilla
  • Talk about advantages and disadvantagesComplete metamorphosis: more stages for parasitism
  • Phyllum, class, order, family, tribe, genus, species… with various “subs”Organizes, provides common languageReflects evolutionary relationships Most resources have a Glossary! You will need it!
  • MONO – Eloria moth caterpillar..actually used….coca plantationsOLIGO – monarch bfly larv. milkweedPOLY – including other insects. Japanese Beetle , feeds on over 300spp of plants…prob. Is why, in huge part, it’s a PEST
  • HOW insects eat depends on SPECIALIZED MOUTHPARTS. Plant damage DIFFERS depending on what type of insect that is doing the damage.The most ancestral type of mouthpart is CHEWING.
  • Cinnabar moth damage on Noxious weed: Tansy Ragwort. This moth was introduced as a biocontrol agent, and the “damage” is caused by larval feeding on the plant.
  • The Ragwort fleabeetle was also introduced, and proved to be a more effective biocontrol agent than the Cinnabar moth. See before and after examples (several years have passed)
  • TRUE BUGS..PESTS:aphids, thrips, spider mites, whitefliesIn addition to direct feeding damage, sap suckers often act as disease vectors
  • Gall formation is insect initiated: Plant growth is altered by a signal from the insect to form gall tissue. Unknown how gall formation gets triggered… saliva, excretions? Studies show increased levels of SUGARS, LIPIDS, PROTIENS available to the gall forming insect within the gall tissue.Aside from being unsightly, most galls are not harmful to the plant.Examples: Cynipid wasps on oak….grape tube
  • Wings: Beetles have two sets of wings Meet in a straight line down the back Membranous back wings hidden under front used for flying Front or back wings may be greatly reducedMouth parts: strong mandibles predatory, seed eating, leaf chewing, scavengingStriped cucumber beetle: Diabrotica sp. Related to the spotted cucumber beetle Becoming more of a problem Also related to Western corn root worms (larvae cause similar damage to roots/crowns)
  • Either front or hind wings may be greatly reduced. I the case of blister beetles and rove beetles, it is the front wings that are reducedBlister beetles rove around on the ground eating bee and grasshopper eggs. They produce a toxin that can be hazardous to livestock.
  • Cabbage seedpod weevil Ceutorhynchus obstrictusCucumber beetle Diabrotica sp.Potato flea beetle Epitrix sp. “Shot holing”Native weevilSeed weevil on Kincaid’s lupine
  • The spotted cucumber beetle is a major pest in squash, cucumbers, beans and other crops. In this picture you can clearly see its well developed mandibles that it uses to chew holes in leaves.This weevil is an example of a seed weevil, just to give you an idea of what they look like. Weevils are also called snout beetles because of their elongated nose, and many of them are considered pests. They also have strong chewing mandibles, but they are located on the end of a long snout.Click beetles aren’t really pests, but their larvae are. Their larvae are called wire worms, and can be big pests in potatoes, sugar beats and other crops. They kind of look like millipedes without all the legs. They look similar to the larvae of ground beetles. Ground beetles are beneficial insects, so look closely before you decide to squash it. Ground beetles have two cerci at their tail end… kind of like earwigs.
  • Can you tell me what these two examples of damage have in common, and what is different. The picture on the right is Rhododendron leaves, and the one on the right is a dead Thyme leaved fuschia. The host isn’t necessarily important.
  • Vine weevils present a good lesson in prevention, and tolerance. They are pretty difficult to control. All of the weevils are female, and therefore just one weevil can turn into a problem… one female can lay up to 500 eggs per year. Nurseries will reject a whole shipment of plants if they find even one black vine weevil in the truck. Don’t buy plants that show weevil damage on the leaves, and it could be a good idea to check the root balls of plants that you purchase between Fall and spring… this is the time when the larvae are visible.
  • True bugs have:abdomen that is Broadly joined to the thoraxTwo pairs of wingsHemelytra= front wings= most distinctive characteristicScutellumBox elder bugs are a common insect in western Oregon. They develop on maple trees during the summer. They are most visible when they congregate on or in buildings! Seal up gaps around windows and doors and put screens in windows to prevent entry.Can be pests, predators or parasites
  • Damages:tree fruit, grapes, berries, vegetables, corn, soybeans, and ornamental plants aggregates on the side of houses
  • The nomenclature used to describe insects varies: While I was reading up on the marmorated stink bug I found the thorax region of this insect described as the Prothorax, pronotum and shoulders
  • Natural enemies= green lace wings, minute pirate bug, azalea plant bugCultural control= azaleas in the sun or that are water stressed are more likely to get damaged. There are also varieties that are resistantThere are native lace bugs on Indian Plum
  • Variable life histories:Largest member of suborder= Cicadas with life cycles that last between 4 and 17 yearsAphids have many generations per yearScales (males) and white flies= last nymphalinstar is quiescent and pupalike, making it resemble complete metamorphosisProduce honeydew= sooty moldScale= European fruit lecaneum scale
  • Knowing the lifecycle helps decide how to target control effortsFlies tend to be pests in their larval stage.Walnut husk fly is related to the apple maggot it causes discoloration in walnut shell so lower value
  • Insects that cause galls are often very host specific. See examples of oak gall, mossy rose gall…In addition to flies there are also wasps (oak gall), mites (maple gall)Fungus gnats can feed on root hairs, crowns and inside stems
  • Confirmed hosts:BlueberriesCherriesWine and table grapesStrawberriesBlackberriesMarrionberriesRaspberriesPlumsPeachesFigsHardy kiwiAsian pears
  • grain belt damage picant story ghoppercpt., “bad” imageadults vs nymphsCongeners Widely varying habit Family, genus, spp. Red list to Red Book
  • They have a short proboscis that is probably used for piercing and sucking liquid.Some describe it as a scraping and sucking feeding actionMany generations per yearVery common on daisies and dandelion
  • Prefer to feed on rapidly growing tissuesCause tiny scars : “Stipling”Damaged leaves papery and distorted and discolored… often with black specksStunted growthMalformed fruit
  • Scales come off like dust11,000 species occur in US and CanadaButterflies have knobbed antenae, moths have
  • The black spotted cutworm is very common on Dutch Iris and lupines in the home gardenThe best way to identify it is the black “triangular” markings on it’s posterior segments
  • Black cutworm= grass, corn, brassicasGlassy cutworm= very common in grass, corn, brassicasCrane fly larvae do not have legs or a hard head capsule (see ruffly mouth parts..)
  • Black cutworm= grass, corn, brassicasGlassy cutworm= very common in grass, corn, brassicasCrane fly larvae do not have legs or a hard head capsule (see ruffly mouth parts..)
  • Compare the damage of Coddling Moth (Lepidoptera) to the Apple maggot (Diptera)
  • Tortricid leaf rollerPicture: male… often colors more muted as scales are brushed offFirst found in US in California Bay Area in 2007Can consume 250 known plants including grapes, apples and other economically important cropsIt feeds on foliage, reducing photosynthetic ability… weakens plants.It can also feed directly on fruit making it unmarketableIt has not been found in Oregon yet, BUT master gardeners are one of the first lines of defense!
  • Root feeding leads to lack of vigourOften found in patches or circlesThey are considered a huge pest in organic gardens and farmsNot much is knownWhat works for one person, doesn’t work for othersTo monitor put out slices of potatoes under up turned garden pots
  • True insects have 3 body parts and 3 sets of legs
  • European red mites cause stippling and in serious cases “bronzing” of leavesSpruce spider mite effects all conifers. This picture is Douglas fir. Effective control during summer includes overhead watering and insecticidal soap. Unusual b/c overwinter as eggsSpider mite on tomatoGall mite on big leaf maple
  • Hobo spider is also known as the Aggressive House spider. The spider is neither aggressive or overly prone to living in household environments. At some point it’s latinname:Tegenariaagrestis(agrestis means “rural” in latin) was misinterpreted to mean aggressive.Easiest to ID what is NOT a hoboCan’t rely on size or color because they vary and can be similar between species
  • Giant house spiders and other look alikes are much more common than Hobo spidersIt is unusual to find them in the houseThose giant brown hairy ones are giant house spidersOnly giant house spider and domestic house spider have spots on sternum (at base of legs). They may be very faint!Stripes on cephlothorax= NOT hoboStripes on legs = NOT hoboShiny reddish legs= NOT hobo
  • Pterostichus melanariusLady bug: aphidsSoldier beetle: pollen, nectar, aphids, caterpillars, soft bodied insectsScaphinotusangusticollis: Snails
  • The red mites are predatory.
  • I’m just going to stick to beneficials!
  • Parasitized aphids: Aphid mummies! Note the “tail pipes” or cornicles (this is the telltale sign that you would look for to know that it is an aphid). The circular “trap doors” on their backs are the spots where the grown parasitoids exited their home.
  • Top right: Hymenoptera laying eggs inside a log (more likely, laying eggs in a larvae found inside the log..!)Top left: parasitized lepidoptera larva. This would be an “ecto parasite” because the eggs are on the outside of the host.Bottom left: Hymenoptera parasitizing a pupae in the soilBottom right: life cycle of the Hymenoptera that parasitizes aphids (aphid mummies seen on previous slide)Hyperparasitoidism is when a parasitoid on/inside a host is parasitized by another parasitoid…
  • Not all insects that visit flowers are pollinators!Here is a clearwing moth on a native forget me notTiny diptera on Royal jacobs ladder
  • Flowers with open corollas are usually pollinated by many different insects. Other flowers with specialized flower shapes may be better suited to particular pollinators: humming birds, bats, bumble bees, etc.Some insects are just cheaters and get away with the nectar without helping with pollination.Bottom: human vs insect view of flower color!
  • How could you tell that this is a fly and not a bee?: only two wings (bees have 4). If you look closely you can see the second set of modified wings on flies called a haltier.Do you see anything else in the picture besides the syrphid fly larvae and aphids? Could some of these aphids be parasitized?
  • Shelter: Crop rotation, Beetle banks, alternate row harvest, perennial hedgerows, or perennial plantings among otherwise annual crops
  • Angelica: ladybird beetles, lacewingsCilantro: hover flies, parasitoid wasps and flies,Lomatium: native beesLovage: parasitoid waspsOthers include: DillFennelCarawayAniseChervilBlue lace flowerWhite lace flowerQueen Ann’s lace
  • Goldenrod: Soldier beetles, predatory bugs, lady beetles, parasitoid waspsChamomile: lady beetlesCosmos: hover flies, lace wings, minute pirate bugsOregon sunshine: native insects and pollenators
  • Basic Entomology

    1. 1. Introductory Entomology<br />Master Gardener Training<br />February 16, 2010<br />Linn and Benton Co., OR<br />Laurel Moulton<br /> --Graduate Student -- <br />Oregon State University<br />
    2. 2. The Menu for today:<br />Basic Entomology<br />Identifying plant damage<br />Common insect orders<br />BREAK<br />Lab<br />Beneficial insects<br />Habitat<br />
    3. 3. Goals for today<br />Basic knowledge<br />Questions to ask<br />Resources<br />What is this ?<br />How do I fix it???<br />
    4. 4. Small bodies, BIG impact<br /><ul><li>waste management
    5. 5. nutrient cycling
    6. 6. crop protection
    7. 7. food webs
    8. 8. cultural value
    9. 9. plant propagation
    10. 10. entomophagy
    11. 11. disease transmission
    12. 12. destroy commodities</li></ul>Christian Grantham<br />
    13. 13. from Gullen & Cranston, “The insects: and outline of entomology”<br />
    14. 14. Basic anatomy<br />Head: <br /><ul><li>Sensory
    15. 15. Intake
    16. 16. Communication</li></ul>Thorax: <br /><ul><li>Wing attachment
    17. 17. leg attachment</li></ul>Abdomen: <br /><ul><li>Digestion
    18. 18. Respiration
    19. 19. Reproduction</li></ul>Arthropods:<br /> Insects= 6 legs<br />Non insect Arthropods:<br />
    20. 20. What’s inside?<br />
    21. 21. Sensory: Visual <br />Geoff Woodard<br /><ul><li>Ocelli</li></ul>light vs. dark<br /><ul><li>Compound eyes</li></ul>Mosaic<br />Movement<br />UV detection<br />Bjorn Roslett<br />Photo credits: Univ. of Wisconsin Dept. of Entomology<br />
    22. 22. Chemosensory: Antennae<br />“Smell”<br />Pheromones <br />Structure = function!<br />
    23. 23. Chemosensory: Antennae<br />filiform<br />pectinate<br />aristate<br />clavate<br />setacious<br />serate<br />flabellate<br />
    24. 24. Legs/tarsi<br />Vibration<br />Taste <br />Ovipositor<br />Suitable habitat<br />Egg laying preference<br />Sensory: Other<br />Stanislav Georb<br />
    25. 25. Piercing-sucking<br />Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Structure = Function
    26. 26. Variable
    27. 27. Modified </li></ul>sponging<br />chewing<br />siphoning<br />D.G. MacKean<br />From: A. Imms<br />
    28. 28. Zweibel laboratory<br />
    29. 29. Insect Metamorphosis<br />COMPLETE<br />SIMPLE<br />nymph – adult<br />same habitat<br />same resources<br />“adult”<br />winged<br />reproductive<br />egg – larva – pupa - adult<br />different habitats<br />often different diet<br />advantages ?<br />parasitism<br />adults may not feed<br />Invasive.org<br />
    30. 30. What’s in a name?- Taxonomy - <br />Organizational language<br />Family Genus species<br />Classification<br />Latin roots: “-ptera”,“hemi-”,“holo-”<br />Directional<br />dorsal, ventral<br />anterior, posterior<br />basal, apical<br />
    31. 31. Insects & plants<br />
    32. 32. Herbivory<br />Plant experiences:<br />Tissue loss<br />Seed reduction<br />Reduced vitality/vigor<br />Pathogens<br />Insect receives:<br />Nutrition<br />Growth<br />Habitat<br />
    33. 33. Phytophagy = plant eater<br />Polyphagous<br />Monophagous <br />Oligophagous<br />Most specific<br />Specialists<br />1:1<br />More broad<br />Related genera<br />1: a few<br /><ul><li>a.k.a Generalists
    34. 34. Unrelated families
    35. 35. 1: whatever’s in the fridge</li></li></ul><li>Defoliation<br />Chewing<br />Lepidoptera, Coleoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Holes<br />Skeletonizing<br />Defoliation<br />Univ. of Kentucky<br />D G Mackean<br />
    36. 36. Ravenous plant munching can be a good thing… Biocontrol<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
    37. 37. Ragwort fleabeetle<br />Peter McEvoy<br />Cinnabar moth<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
    38. 38. Plant Mining<br />Chewing <br />Larvae of <br />Diptera<br />Lepidoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Trails, tunnels<br />Frass<br />Secondary infections<br /> Univ. of Hawaii<br />USDA-APHIS<br />
    39. 39. Sap Suckers<br />Piercing-Sucking <br />Most life stages:<br />Homoptera<br />Heteroptera<br />Symptoms<br />discoloration<br />reduced vigor <br />wilting, curling<br />spittle<br />Disease transmission<br />D G Mackean<br />APSnet.org<br />
    40. 40. Gall Formation<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Plant response<br />salivary fluids<br />egg laying<br />not generally harmful<br />Hymenoptera, Homoptera<br />Symptoms on<br />leaves<br />stems/twigs<br />flowers<br />Univ. Of Wisc.onsin<br />Ohio State Univ.<br />Oregon BLM<br />
    41. 41. Common insect orders<br />
    42. 42. James Young 2008<br /> Coleoptera“sheath-wings”<br />Beetle<br />BEETLES<br />Chewing mouthparts<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />Elytra<br />hardened/leathery front wings <br />Largest order if insects<br />Sam Houston 2009<br />
    43. 43. Not all beetles have full elytra…<br />
    44. 44. Cabbage seed weevil<br />Cucumber beetle<br />Coleoptera: Black vine weevil<br />Potato flea beetle<br />James Young 2007<br />
    45. 45. <ul><li>Wire worm
    46. 46. Seed weevil
    47. 47. Spotted cucumber beetle</li></ul>Mark Gray<br />Ground beetle larva <br />NOT wire worm<br />Mark Fowler 2005<br />
    48. 48. Black vine weevil<br />
    49. 49. Black vine weevil<br />Chris Adam 2007<br />B. Anderson and M. Reding 2009<br />
    50. 50. Box elder bug<br />Heteroptera<br />“different-winged“<br /><ul><li>TRUE BUGS
    51. 51. Piercing-Sucking mouthparts
    52. 52. Simple metamorphosis
    53. 53. Front wing is divided
    54. 54. thickened at base
    55. 55. membranous at tip
    56. 56. Scutellum</li></li></ul><li> Pest Alert:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Peter Shear<br />Peter Shear<br />James LaBonte<br />
    57. 57. Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />
    58. 58. Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />Pro thorax<br />Pronotum<br />Shoulders<br />
    59. 59. Azalea lace bug<br />Identifying character: lacy wings!<br />Damage: extensive leaf stippling<br />Photos: Robin Rosetta<br />
    60. 60. Homoptera<br />“same-winged“<br /><ul><li> APHIDS, WHITEFLIES, SCALES, PLANT HOPPERS, CICADAS
    61. 61. Piercing-Sucking mouthparts </li></ul> - Vector disease<br /><ul><li> Wings with uniform texture</li></ul>- Held tent-like over body<br /><ul><li>Many plant pests</li></ul>Robin Rosetta<br />UC IPM<br />Eric Matthews<br />
    62. 62. Aphids!<br />WSU Whatcom Co. Extension<br />Blueberry scorch virus<br />= disease vector!<br />Cornicles = Aphid<br />WSU Whatcom Co. Extension<br />Barley yellow dwarf virus<br />
    63. 63. Diptera“two-wings”<br />FLIES<br />Chewing, often modified<br />Sponging (cutting)<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />One pair of wings<br />Hind “wings” reduced: Halter<br />
    64. 64. Apple maggot<br /><ul><li>Red sphere trap+lure</li></ul>NEW PEST ALERT…<br />Canadian ministry of Ag.<br />Cal extension<br />Beet leaf miner<br />Crane fly<br />A. Schattmann<br />
    65. 65. Fungus gnat<br />Debbie Roos NC extenstion<br />Goldenrod <br />gall fly<br />W. Abrahamson and P. Heinrich<br />
    66. 66. Spotted winged drosophila<br />Spotted Wing Drosophila<br />D. Bruck 2009<br />M. Hauser, CDFA<br />Mike Reitmajer 2009<br />
    67. 67. Drosophila suzukii locations in Oregon, 2011<br />Confirmed locations from collected fruits or trapping by ODA, APHIS and OSU<br />
    68. 68. Guidelines for Monitoring Adult SWD Presence<br />Clear container with lid, ~10 holes (3/16”) around the side of container<br />1.5-2 inches of solution<br />Real apple cider vinegar + small drop of unscented liquid dish soap<br />Service traps weekly<br />Hang from plant or stake in shade at fruiting level in the canopy, out of wind<br />Place as many traps in your susceptible crops as you can reasonably maintain<br />Pay particular attention to high risk areas<br />Diverse field edges with ample shade<br />Deploy traps just prior to fruit coloring<br />Count and record the number of male SWD weekly<br />*Watch website for regional detections of SWD<br />
    69. 69. Spotted Winged Drosophila<br />Drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest<br />of berry and stone fruits<br />Oregon Non-Commercial Homeowners<br />Backyard Management Guide<br />Backyard Gardener Monitoring<br />To share your information with OSU researchers, make sure to provide as much of the requested information as possible.<br /><ul><li>Report any findings of SWD adults and larvae in fruit to your nearest extension office
    70. 70. Fill out the online excel record sheet and email to : SWD.OREGON@GMX.COM</li></ul>Found on SWD website, For Gardeners<br />http://swd.hort.oregonstate.edu<br />
    71. 71. Orthoptera<br />“long-winged“<br /><ul><li> GRASSHOPPERS, KATYDIDS, CRICKETS
    72. 72. Chewing
    73. 73. Simple metamorphosis
    74. 74. Characteristic legs</li></ul> - Hind leg= modified for jumping, <br /> - thickened femur<br /> - sound production<br /><ul><li> Not much of a pest on west side…</li></ul>©Red Planet Inc. <br />
    75. 75. Isoptera<br />“similar-winged“<br /><ul><li> TERMITES
    76. 76. Chewing
    77. 77. Structural pests
    78. 78. Beaded antennae
    79. 79. Social castes</li></ul> - colonies<br /> - queen, workers<br />© Lucas Raptis 2008<br />photo: Kevin Hall 2008<br />
    80. 80. Thysanoptera“fringe-wing”<br />THRIPS<br />Sucking or rasping-sucking<br />Intermediate development <br />wings develop in 3rd larval stage<br />Go through pupal stage<br />4 wings fringed with hair<br />Sample: yellow sticky card<br />TX A&M extension<br />Bumblebee.org<br />
    81. 81. Feed on flowers, fruit, leaves, twigs, buds<br />Disease vectors<br />A.M Varela<br />
    82. 82. Butterflies of Singapore<br />Glen K. Peterson<br />Lepidoptera: Butterflies & moths“scale-wings”<br />Long proboscus: siphoning<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />2 pairs of wings<br />Butterfly wings upright at rest<br />Moth wings flat at rest<br />
    83. 83. Cabbage Looper<br />Indian meal moth<br />Peach tree borer<br />
    84. 84. Cabbage butterfly<br />Cabbagelooper<br />OSU IPPC<br />NM extension<br />TX A&M extension<br />Love Apple Farm 2008<br />
    85. 85. Cutworms: Black spotted cutworm<br />Photos: OSU IPPC<br />Robin Rosetta<br />
    86. 86. Other common cutworms…<br />Black cutworm<br />NOT a cutworm: What is it? Why?<br />Glassy cutworm<br />
    87. 87. Other common cutworms…<br />Black cutworm<br />NOT a cutworm: What is it? Why?<br />Glassy cutworm<br />No legs!<br />Ruffly posterior<br />
    88. 88. WSU extension<br />Coddling Moth<br />Doug Wilson USDA-ARS<br />Apple maggot<br />
    89. 89. Be on the lookout for: Light brown apple moth<br />D. Williams<br />
    90. 90. Class: Isopoda“same foot”<br /><ul><li> PILL-BUGS, ROLY-POLYS, SOWBUGS
    91. 91. “non-insect arthropod”
    92. 92. Habitat:
    93. 93. moist, damp, dark
    94. 94. soil macrofauna
    95. 95. Scavengers =
    96. 96. plant tissue
    97. 97. detritus</li></li></ul><li>Symphyla“”<br />Garden symphylans<br />Related to millipedes<br />3-6mm long<br />Feed on fine roots and germinating seeds<br />7-8 per shovel= pest<br />Sampling with potato…<br />
    98. 98. Arachnida“spider”<br />spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions<br />Two body segments<br />4 pairs of legs<br />Bio-bee.com<br />
    99. 99. Mites<br />Spruce spider mite<br />European red mite<br />Canadian ministry ofagriculture<br />Jack DeAngeles<br />UC Georgia<br />Spider mite<br />Maple Gall mite<br />Ronald S. Kelly<br />
    100. 100. Hobo??<br />Giant house spider??<br />D. Hagon<br />
    101. 101. NOT a Hobo<br />D. Boe<br />NOT a Hobo<br />NOT a Hobo<br />David Phillips<br />Maybe a Hobo<br />R. Vetter<br />
    102. 102. Black widow<br />Most poisonous spider in Oregon<br />Less than 1% of bites result in death<br />Dark places: wood piles, basements, garages<br />ID characteristic: red hourglass on females<br />False black widow: no red markings<br />
    103. 103. Break time!<br />
    104. 104. Beneficial insects<br />
    105. 105. Lee R. 2007<br />Dave Ingram<br />
    106. 106. Predatory mites<br />Denis Crawford<br />
    107. 107. Neuroptera<br />“net-wing”<br />LACEWING<br />
    108. 108. Mantodea<br /><ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS
    109. 109. Predators!
    110. 110. Simple metamorphosis</li></ul> - Ootheca – Nymph – Adult<br /><ul><li>Raptorial foreleg
    111. 111. Business of Bugs</li></ul>Lance Cromwell<br />©2004 V.J.Hickey<br />
    112. 112. <ul><li>Big eyed bug
    113. 113. Minute pirate bug
    114. 114. Crab spider
    115. 115. Hover fly</li></ul>Jack Dykinga<br />Jack Dykinga<br />Pamela Martin<br />
    116. 116. Hymenoptera “membrane wing”<br />WASPS, BEES, SAWFLIES, ANTS<br />Chewing, lapping<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />4 membranous wings<br />Ovipositor often modified into stinger <br />Beneficial services:<br />Pollinators<br />Parasitoids<br />mutualism<br />Dan Perlman<br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />
    117. 117. What are these?<br />
    118. 118. Parasitoid wasps<br /><ul><li>What is the difference between a Parasite and parasitoid??
    119. 119. Parasite = host survives
    120. 120. Parasitoid = host is killed
    121. 121. All life stages are targeted
    122. 122. Egg
    123. 123. Larvae
    124. 124. Pupae
    125. 125. Adult
    126. 126. Hyperparasitoidism</li></ul>© Dwight Kuhn<br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />
    127. 127. Pollinators: beyond honey bees<br />
    128. 128. Pollination<br />Diptera , Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera<br />Bats, birds…<br />Specificity<br />corolla structure<br />nectar timing<br />co-evolution?<br />Cheating<br />Visit ≠ pollination<br />Nectar thieves<br />James Altland, OSU<br />Yoshioka et al., 2005<br />
    129. 129. Diptera<br /><ul><li>Syrphid flies
    130. 130. Adults
    131. 131. pollinate
    132. 132. feed on nectar
    133. 133. Larvae
    134. 134. predacious
    135. 135. 1 can consume >100 aphids per month</li></li></ul><li>Go to native bee slides…<br />
    136. 136. Habitat: Conservation Biocontrol<br />Be careful with pesticides<br />Provide alternative habitat<br />Shelter<br />Pollen<br />nectar<br />Alternative prey<br />
    137. 137. Carrot family: <br />Lovage<br />Lomatium<br />G.D. Car 2007<br />Angelica<br />Cilantro/Coriander<br />
    138. 138. Cosmos<br /> Tom Adams 2005<br />Goldenrod<br />Chamomile<br />Oregon sunshine<br /> Native seed network<br />
    139. 139. Habitat:<br />Plant flowers… try some natives<br />Let some of your salad mix go to seed!<br />Flowers from mustards & cabbages beneficial<br />Leave “beetle banks” in farm fields<br />Diverse structure<br />Water<br />Hiding places<br />
    140. 140. Resources!<br />Don’t forget the resource handout!<br />

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