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Skills Outlook 2015: Youth, Skills and Employability

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Skills Outlook 2015: Youth, Skills and Employability

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(Andreas Schleicher, Director for the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills) Young people around the world are struggling to enter the labour market. In some OECD countries, one in four 16-29 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. The OECD Skills Outlook 2015 shows how improving the employability of youth requires a comprehensive approach. While education, social, and labour market policies have key roles to play, co-ordination between public policies and the private sector is also crucial. The publication, which builds on the results of the 2012 Survey of Adult Skills presented in the first edition of the Skills Outlook, also presents examples of successful policies in selected countries.

Transcript

  1. 1. May 2015 Andreas Schleicher Skills Outlook 2015 Youth, Skills and Employability
  2. 2. Young people in OECD countries Many young people struggle in their transition to the labour-market
  3. 3. Youth who are neither employed nor in education (NEET) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2013 2008% As a percentage of population, 15-29 year-olds
  4. 4. Young workers in routine jobs Share of workers who consider they have little freedom to change the order of their tasks 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds%
  5. 5. Youth who are badly prepared Share of individuals with low numeracy skills 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds
  6. 6. 7 Share of young NEET by parents’ place of birth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % Native-born offspring of immigrants Offspring of native-born
  7. 7. 8 What can we do to strengthen young people’s skills and employability? Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Build a comprehensive approach
  8. 8. Skills Scoreboard: strengths and weaknesses Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills France Ireland Italy Spain Denmark Korea Norway Poland Austria Check Rep. Slovak Rep. Sweden UK, US Australia Belgium Canada Estonia Finland Germany Japan Netherlands Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market
  9. 9. Preparing youths Ensure that all youths leave school with relevant skills
  10. 10. 11 Gap in literacy and problem-solving skills between young NEETs and employed youth -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 % Literacy Problem solving in technology-rich environments
  11. 11. New graduates (<2-years) with low numeracy skills (<226 points) 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 0 5 10 15 20 25 % Score Share of new graduates with low numeracy skills Average numeracy score (right axis)
  12. 12. Students and their experience with the labour market 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % Students combining studies and work (as a share of studying youth) Studying youth (as a share of total youth)
  13. 13. 18 Gap in numeracy skills between post-secondary VET students and students in academic programmes who have spent the same number of years in education -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Percentage points Level 1 and below Level 2 Level 3 Levels 4 and 5
  14. 14. Students in upper secondary vocational education who are participating in work-based learning 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % apprenticeship working outside of apprenticeship studying only
  15. 15. 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Below level1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds % Share of workers in routine jobs by level of numeracy skills
  16. 16. Japan United States Australia Netherlands ItalyFinland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United KingdomSpain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Skills Scoreboard: Is the development of skills inclusive? Inequity Equity Low performance at school Strong link between social background and student performance Strong influence of migration background
  17. 17. Ensure that all young people leave school with relevant skills • Take a holistic approach to skills • Provide multiple pathways within the education system. Give disengaged youth a second chance to reintegrate into the education system • Develop work-based learning programmes across different types of education, including universities • Design high quality vocational education and training programmes that develop cognitive and social and emotional skills, and labour market experience • Base career guidance services on relevant assessment of the market returns of various career paths • Engage employers and other stakeholders in the education system at all levels .
  18. 18. Reengage youths Identify and help NEETs to reengage
  19. 19. Youth who risk of falling under the radar NEET who are not looking for a job 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Unemployed NEETs Inactive NEETs Share of inactive NEETs in total NEETs% % Youth who are NEET and not looking for a job (inactive) or looking for a job (unemployed), 2013
  20. 20. Skills scoreboard: How close are NEETs to the labour market? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Close Far High share of inactive NEETs Share of NEETs with poor skills Share of NEETs without baseline qualifications Share of long-term unemployed NEETs
  21. 21. 2 Identify and help the NEETs to re-engage •Develop a system of mutual obligations between youth and institutions •Encourage employment through efficient job- search assistance and training, monitoring and financial incentives •Target places in training programmes and job subsidies to youth with low skills and those who face specific barriers in the labour market .
  22. 22. Reengaging youths Remove institutional barriers to youth employment
  23. 23. 3 Remove institutional barriers to youth employment • Design skills-friendly tax policies to foster employment of low-skilled youth • Continue to lower the gap in employment protection legislation between temporary and permanent contracts • Encourage end-of-study internships within a framework that combines flexibility and obligations to firms .
  24. 24. Using skills Make better use of young workers skills
  25. 25. Young workers on temporary contracts As a share of total employment in each age group, 2013 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % 15-24 year-olds 25-54 year-olds
  26. 26. 35 Use of skills at work, by type of employment contract OECD Average England/N. Ireland (UK) Flanders (Belgium) United States Sweden Spain Slovak Republic Poland Norway Netherlands Korea Japan Italy Ireland Germany France Finland Estonia Denmark Czech Republic Canada Austria Australia Indefiniteminus fixed-term (unadjusted) Indefiniteminus fixed-term (adjusted) -20 0 20 40 Numeracy % -20 0 20 40 ICT -20 0 20 40 Problem Solving %
  27. 27. Skills Scoreboard: do workplaces promote skills? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic To a large extent To a small extent Task discretion Learning by doing Use of problem-solving skills at work Use of co-operation skills at work
  28. 28. 39 Skills mismatch by type of mismatch and age group 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified and mismatched by field of study 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Mismatched by field of study only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Literacy over-skilled only
  29. 29. 40 Wages and mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group *** 0 0 *** *** *** *** 0 *** *** *** ** 0 *** *** -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Mismatched by field of study Over-skilled Under-skilled Over-qualified Under-qualified Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50-65) As a percentage change in wages due to mismatch, 2012
  30. 30. 41 Share of individuals interested in entrepreneurship, European countries 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Average 15–24 years 25–39 years 40–54 years More than 55 years Very/Quite feasible Not very/Not feasible Don't know/Not applicable
  31. 31. 4 Making a better use of young workers’ skills • Remove barriers to geographical mobility to allow for local matching of jobs and skills • Develop (inter)national qualification frameworks and formal recognition of skills acquired through non- formal and informal learning • Promote more effective work organisation and human resource management strategies • Remove barriers to entrepreneurship • Invest in tools for assessing and anticipating skills needs .
  32. 32. Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database Without data, you are just another person with an opinion …and remember: Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter @SchleicherEDU 43

Editor's Notes

  • To participate fully in society and to continue learning throughout their lives, all youth should have access to high-quality education and be given the opportunity to develop their skills. This does not imply that everyone should achieve the same learning outcomes, but that the share of youth who leave education with low skills should be minimised. Furthermore, youth from socio-economically disadvantaged, immigrant and minority backgrounds should have access to quality learning opportunities. An education system is more equitable, the smaller the differences in learning outcomes between youth from different socio-economic backgrounds and the smaller the share of low-skilled youth. To measure these concepts, the Skills Scoreboard uses five indicators showing the share of students with low skills and the impact of parental education and immigration background on learning outcomes.
    II.1. Share of students with mathematics proficiency at Level 1 or below, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    II.2. Share of students with reading proficiency at Level 1 or below, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    II.3. Students’ mathematics scores by parental education background, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of mathematics performance between students neither of whose parents has attained upper secondary education and students who have at least one parent who has attained tertiary education.
    II.4. Numeracy proficiency by parental education background, 16-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: PIAAC 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of numeracy performance between youth neither of whose parents has attained upper secondary education and youth who have at least one parent who has attained tertiary education.
    II.5. Students’ reading scores by immigration status, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of reading performance between native students whose parents are of immigrant background and native students neither of whose parents has an immigrant background.
  • Youth who are NEETs should be helped to reintegrate into the labour market or the education system in a timely manner; however, some NEET groups are more at risk of permanent detachment from the labour market than others. Education attainment and cognitive skills as well as the duration of unemployment and engagement with the labour market influence the likelihood of becoming and remaining a NEET. The Skills Scoreboard uses four indicators to measure the share of the NEETs who are more at risk of persistent detachment from the labour market.
    V.1. Share of the NEETs who are inactive, 15-29 years-old, 2013
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015 (Interim Report)
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Data for Japan refer to the NEETs group aged 15-24. The data reference for Korea is 2012.
    V.2. Share of the NEETs having literacy proficiency scores at Level 1 or below, 16-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: PIAAC 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    V.3. Share of NEETs without an ISCED 3 educational attainment, 15-29 years-old, 2013
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015 (Interim Report)
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Japan has a missing value for this indicator, since data is available only for the age group 15-24. The data reference for Korea is 2012.
    V.4. Share of the NEETs who have been unemployed for more than six months, 15-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Data for Japan refer to the NEETs group aged 15-24.
  • Description

    (Andreas Schleicher, Director for the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills) Young people around the world are struggling to enter the labour market. In some OECD countries, one in four 16-29 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. The OECD Skills Outlook 2015 shows how improving the employability of youth requires a comprehensive approach. While education, social, and labour market policies have key roles to play, co-ordination between public policies and the private sector is also crucial. The publication, which builds on the results of the 2012 Survey of Adult Skills presented in the first edition of the Skills Outlook, also presents examples of successful policies in selected countries.

    Transcript

    1. 1. May 2015 Andreas Schleicher Skills Outlook 2015 Youth, Skills and Employability
    2. 2. Young people in OECD countries Many young people struggle in their transition to the labour-market
    3. 3. Youth who are neither employed nor in education (NEET) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2013 2008% As a percentage of population, 15-29 year-olds
    4. 4. Young workers in routine jobs Share of workers who consider they have little freedom to change the order of their tasks 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds%
    5. 5. Youth who are badly prepared Share of individuals with low numeracy skills 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds
    6. 6. 7 Share of young NEET by parents’ place of birth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % Native-born offspring of immigrants Offspring of native-born
    7. 7. 8 What can we do to strengthen young people’s skills and employability? Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Build a comprehensive approach
    8. 8. Skills Scoreboard: strengths and weaknesses Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills France Ireland Italy Spain Denmark Korea Norway Poland Austria Check Rep. Slovak Rep. Sweden UK, US Australia Belgium Canada Estonia Finland Germany Japan Netherlands Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market
    9. 9. Preparing youths Ensure that all youths leave school with relevant skills
    10. 10. 11 Gap in literacy and problem-solving skills between young NEETs and employed youth -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 % Literacy Problem solving in technology-rich environments
    11. 11. New graduates (<2-years) with low numeracy skills (<226 points) 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 0 5 10 15 20 25 % Score Share of new graduates with low numeracy skills Average numeracy score (right axis)
    12. 12. Students and their experience with the labour market 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % Students combining studies and work (as a share of studying youth) Studying youth (as a share of total youth)
    13. 13. 18 Gap in numeracy skills between post-secondary VET students and students in academic programmes who have spent the same number of years in education -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Percentage points Level 1 and below Level 2 Level 3 Levels 4 and 5
    14. 14. Students in upper secondary vocational education who are participating in work-based learning 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % apprenticeship working outside of apprenticeship studying only
    15. 15. 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Below level1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds % Share of workers in routine jobs by level of numeracy skills
    16. 16. Japan United States Australia Netherlands ItalyFinland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United KingdomSpain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Skills Scoreboard: Is the development of skills inclusive? Inequity Equity Low performance at school Strong link between social background and student performance Strong influence of migration background
    17. 17. Ensure that all young people leave school with relevant skills • Take a holistic approach to skills • Provide multiple pathways within the education system. Give disengaged youth a second chance to reintegrate into the education system • Develop work-based learning programmes across different types of education, including universities • Design high quality vocational education and training programmes that develop cognitive and social and emotional skills, and labour market experience • Base career guidance services on relevant assessment of the market returns of various career paths • Engage employers and other stakeholders in the education system at all levels .
    18. 18. Reengage youths Identify and help NEETs to reengage
    19. 19. Youth who risk of falling under the radar NEET who are not looking for a job 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Unemployed NEETs Inactive NEETs Share of inactive NEETs in total NEETs% % Youth who are NEET and not looking for a job (inactive) or looking for a job (unemployed), 2013
    20. 20. Skills scoreboard: How close are NEETs to the labour market? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Close Far High share of inactive NEETs Share of NEETs with poor skills Share of NEETs without baseline qualifications Share of long-term unemployed NEETs
    21. 21. 2 Identify and help the NEETs to re-engage •Develop a system of mutual obligations between youth and institutions •Encourage employment through efficient job- search assistance and training, monitoring and financial incentives •Target places in training programmes and job subsidies to youth with low skills and those who face specific barriers in the labour market .
    22. 22. Reengaging youths Remove institutional barriers to youth employment
    23. 23. 3 Remove institutional barriers to youth employment • Design skills-friendly tax policies to foster employment of low-skilled youth • Continue to lower the gap in employment protection legislation between temporary and permanent contracts • Encourage end-of-study internships within a framework that combines flexibility and obligations to firms .
    24. 24. Using skills Make better use of young workers skills
    25. 25. Young workers on temporary contracts As a share of total employment in each age group, 2013 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % 15-24 year-olds 25-54 year-olds
    26. 26. 35 Use of skills at work, by type of employment contract OECD Average England/N. Ireland (UK) Flanders (Belgium) United States Sweden Spain Slovak Republic Poland Norway Netherlands Korea Japan Italy Ireland Germany France Finland Estonia Denmark Czech Republic Canada Austria Australia Indefiniteminus fixed-term (unadjusted) Indefiniteminus fixed-term (adjusted) -20 0 20 40 Numeracy % -20 0 20 40 ICT -20 0 20 40 Problem Solving %
    27. 27. Skills Scoreboard: do workplaces promote skills? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic To a large extent To a small extent Task discretion Learning by doing Use of problem-solving skills at work Use of co-operation skills at work
    28. 28. 39 Skills mismatch by type of mismatch and age group 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified and mismatched by field of study 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Mismatched by field of study only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Literacy over-skilled only
    29. 29. 40 Wages and mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group *** 0 0 *** *** *** *** 0 *** *** *** ** 0 *** *** -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Mismatched by field of study Over-skilled Under-skilled Over-qualified Under-qualified Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50-65) As a percentage change in wages due to mismatch, 2012
    30. 30. 41 Share of individuals interested in entrepreneurship, European countries 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Average 15–24 years 25–39 years 40–54 years More than 55 years Very/Quite feasible Not very/Not feasible Don't know/Not applicable
    31. 31. 4 Making a better use of young workers’ skills • Remove barriers to geographical mobility to allow for local matching of jobs and skills • Develop (inter)national qualification frameworks and formal recognition of skills acquired through non- formal and informal learning • Promote more effective work organisation and human resource management strategies • Remove barriers to entrepreneurship • Invest in tools for assessing and anticipating skills needs .
    32. 32. Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database Without data, you are just another person with an opinion …and remember: Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter @SchleicherEDU 43

    Editor's Notes

  • To participate fully in society and to continue learning throughout their lives, all youth should have access to high-quality education and be given the opportunity to develop their skills. This does not imply that everyone should achieve the same learning outcomes, but that the share of youth who leave education with low skills should be minimised. Furthermore, youth from socio-economically disadvantaged, immigrant and minority backgrounds should have access to quality learning opportunities. An education system is more equitable, the smaller the differences in learning outcomes between youth from different socio-economic backgrounds and the smaller the share of low-skilled youth. To measure these concepts, the Skills Scoreboard uses five indicators showing the share of students with low skills and the impact of parental education and immigration background on learning outcomes.
    II.1. Share of students with mathematics proficiency at Level 1 or below, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    II.2. Share of students with reading proficiency at Level 1 or below, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    II.3. Students’ mathematics scores by parental education background, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of mathematics performance between students neither of whose parents has attained upper secondary education and students who have at least one parent who has attained tertiary education.
    II.4. Numeracy proficiency by parental education background, 16-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: PIAAC 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of numeracy performance between youth neither of whose parents has attained upper secondary education and youth who have at least one parent who has attained tertiary education.
    II.5. Students’ reading scores by immigration status, 15 years-old, 2012
    Source: PISA 2012
    Note: The indicator is calculated as the ratio of reading performance between native students whose parents are of immigrant background and native students neither of whose parents has an immigrant background.
  • Youth who are NEETs should be helped to reintegrate into the labour market or the education system in a timely manner; however, some NEET groups are more at risk of permanent detachment from the labour market than others. Education attainment and cognitive skills as well as the duration of unemployment and engagement with the labour market influence the likelihood of becoming and remaining a NEET. The Skills Scoreboard uses four indicators to measure the share of the NEETs who are more at risk of persistent detachment from the labour market.
    V.1. Share of the NEETs who are inactive, 15-29 years-old, 2013
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015 (Interim Report)
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Data for Japan refer to the NEETs group aged 15-24. The data reference for Korea is 2012.
    V.2. Share of the NEETs having literacy proficiency scores at Level 1 or below, 16-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: PIAAC 2012
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking.
    V.3. Share of NEETs without an ISCED 3 educational attainment, 15-29 years-old, 2013
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015 (Interim Report)
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Japan has a missing value for this indicator, since data is available only for the age group 15-24. The data reference for Korea is 2012.
    V.4. Share of the NEETs who have been unemployed for more than six months, 15-29 years-old, 2012
    Source: Education at a Glance 2015
    Note: The inverse of the indicator is considered in the ranking. Data for Japan refer to the NEETs group aged 15-24.
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