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May 2015
Andreas Schleicher
Skills Outlook 2015
Youth, Skills and
Employability
Young people in OECD countries
Many young people struggle
in their transition to the labour-market
Youth who are neither employed nor in education (NEET)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
2013 2008%
As a percentage of population, 15-...
Young workers in routine jobs
Share of workers who consider they have little freedom to change the order of their tasks
0
...
Youth who are badly prepared
Share of individuals with low numeracy skills
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
%
16-29 year-olds 30-54 y...
7
Share of young NEET by parents’ place of birth
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
%
Native-born offspring of immigrants Offspring of nat...
8
What can we do to strengthen young people’s skills
and employability?
Make a better use of young
people’s skills at work...
Skills Scoreboard: strengths and weaknesses
Make a better use of
young people’s skills at
work
Integrate youth into
the la...
Preparing youths
Ensure that all youths leave school
with relevant skills
11
Gap in literacy and problem-solving skills between
young NEETs and employed youth
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
%
Literacy ...
New graduates (<2-years) with low numeracy skills (<226 points)
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
0
5
10
15
20
25
% Score
Share ...
Students and their experience with the labour market
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
%
Students combining studies and work (as a sh...
18
Gap in numeracy skills between post-secondary VET students and students in
academic programmes who have spent the same ...
Students in upper secondary vocational education
who are participating in work-based learning
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
7...
22
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Below level1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds
%
Share o...
Japan
United States
Australia
Netherlands
ItalyFinland Germany
Canada
Belgium Denmark
Ireland
Norway Poland
United Kingdom...
Ensure that all young people leave school with relevant skills
• Take a holistic approach to skills
• Provide multiple pat...
Reengage youths
Identify and help NEETs to reengage
Youth who risk of falling under the radar
NEET who are not looking for a job
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0
5
10
15
20
25
...
Skills scoreboard: How close are NEETs to
the labour market?
Japan
United States
Australia
Netherlands
Italy
Finland
Germa...
2
Identify and help the NEETs to re-engage
•Develop a system of mutual obligations between
youth and institutions
•Encoura...
Reengaging youths
Remove institutional barriers to youth
employment
3
Remove institutional barriers to youth employment
• Design skills-friendly tax policies to foster
employment of low-skil...
Using skills
Make better use
of young workers skills
Young workers on temporary contracts
As a share of total employment in each age group, 2013
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
%
15-24 ye...
35
Use of skills at work, by type of employment contract
OECD Average
England/N. Ireland (UK)
Flanders (Belgium)
United St...
Skills Scoreboard: do workplaces promote skills?
Japan
United States
Australia
Netherlands
Italy
Finland
Germany
Canada
Be...
39
Skills mismatch
by type of mismatch and age group
0
5
10
15
20
25
Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers
(30-49)
Older workers...
40
Wages and mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group
***
0
0
***
***
***
***
0
***
***
***
**
0
***
***
-25
-20
-15
-1...
41
Share of individuals interested in entrepreneurship, European
countries
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Ave...
4
Making a better use of young workers’ skills
• Remove barriers to geographical mobility to allow for
local matching of j...
Find Out More at:
http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm
All national and international publications
The complete micro-...
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Skills Outlook 2015: Youth, Skills and Employability

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(Andreas Schleicher, Director for the OECD Directorate for Education and Skills) Young people around the world are struggling to enter the labour market. In some OECD countries, one in four 16-29 year-olds is neither employed nor in education or training. The OECD Skills Outlook 2015 shows how improving the employability of youth requires a comprehensive approach. While education, social, and labour market policies have key roles to play, co-ordination between public policies and the private sector is also crucial. The publication, which builds on the results of the 2012 Survey of Adult Skills presented in the first edition of the Skills Outlook, also presents examples of successful policies in selected countries.

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  • It looks that we simplify our approach when mnking such analysis, the real problem is in not included here ... HBR says, based on review of 500 big Companies - they "hired for skills and fired for atitude" in the past, and they should hire for an ATTITUDE, especially in the knowledge era.
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  • I agree with the OECD statements in many respects. However at one point I disagree: Germany should not run in the "Over-Academization-Trap". One-third of college dropouts already speaks for itself. This is a waste of economic resources.
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Skills Outlook 2015: Youth, Skills and Employability

  1. 1. May 2015 Andreas Schleicher Skills Outlook 2015 Youth, Skills and Employability
  2. 2. Young people in OECD countries Many young people struggle in their transition to the labour-market
  3. 3. Youth who are neither employed nor in education (NEET) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2013 2008% As a percentage of population, 15-29 year-olds
  4. 4. Young workers in routine jobs Share of workers who consider they have little freedom to change the order of their tasks 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds%
  5. 5. Youth who are badly prepared Share of individuals with low numeracy skills 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds
  6. 6. 7 Share of young NEET by parents’ place of birth 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % Native-born offspring of immigrants Offspring of native-born
  7. 7. 8 What can we do to strengthen young people’s skills and employability? Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Build a comprehensive approach
  8. 8. Skills Scoreboard: strengths and weaknesses Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market Improve young people education and skills France Ireland Italy Spain Denmark Korea Norway Poland Austria Check Rep. Slovak Rep. Sweden UK, US Australia Belgium Canada Estonia Finland Germany Japan Netherlands Improve young people education and skills Make a better use of young people’s skills at work Integrate youth into the labour market
  9. 9. Preparing youths Ensure that all youths leave school with relevant skills
  10. 10. 11 Gap in literacy and problem-solving skills between young NEETs and employed youth -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 % Literacy Problem solving in technology-rich environments
  11. 11. New graduates (<2-years) with low numeracy skills (<226 points) 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 0 5 10 15 20 25 % Score Share of new graduates with low numeracy skills Average numeracy score (right axis)
  12. 12. Students and their experience with the labour market 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % Students combining studies and work (as a share of studying youth) Studying youth (as a share of total youth)
  13. 13. 18 Gap in numeracy skills between post-secondary VET students and students in academic programmes who have spent the same number of years in education -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Percentage points Level 1 and below Level 2 Level 3 Levels 4 and 5
  14. 14. Students in upper secondary vocational education who are participating in work-based learning 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % apprenticeship working outside of apprenticeship studying only
  15. 15. 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Below level1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 16-29 year-olds 30-54 year-olds % Share of workers in routine jobs by level of numeracy skills
  16. 16. Japan United States Australia Netherlands ItalyFinland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United KingdomSpain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Skills Scoreboard: Is the development of skills inclusive? Inequity Equity Low performance at school Strong link between social background and student performance Strong influence of migration background
  17. 17. Ensure that all young people leave school with relevant skills • Take a holistic approach to skills • Provide multiple pathways within the education system. Give disengaged youth a second chance to reintegrate into the education system • Develop work-based learning programmes across different types of education, including universities • Design high quality vocational education and training programmes that develop cognitive and social and emotional skills, and labour market experience • Base career guidance services on relevant assessment of the market returns of various career paths • Engage employers and other stakeholders in the education system at all levels .
  18. 18. Reengage youths Identify and help NEETs to reengage
  19. 19. Youth who risk of falling under the radar NEET who are not looking for a job 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Unemployed NEETs Inactive NEETs Share of inactive NEETs in total NEETs% % Youth who are NEET and not looking for a job (inactive) or looking for a job (unemployed), 2013
  20. 20. Skills scoreboard: How close are NEETs to the labour market? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic Close Far High share of inactive NEETs Share of NEETs with poor skills Share of NEETs without baseline qualifications Share of long-term unemployed NEETs
  21. 21. 2 Identify and help the NEETs to re-engage •Develop a system of mutual obligations between youth and institutions •Encourage employment through efficient job- search assistance and training, monitoring and financial incentives •Target places in training programmes and job subsidies to youth with low skills and those who face specific barriers in the labour market .
  22. 22. Reengaging youths Remove institutional barriers to youth employment
  23. 23. 3 Remove institutional barriers to youth employment • Design skills-friendly tax policies to foster employment of low-skilled youth • Continue to lower the gap in employment protection legislation between temporary and permanent contracts • Encourage end-of-study internships within a framework that combines flexibility and obligations to firms .
  24. 24. Using skills Make better use of young workers skills
  25. 25. Young workers on temporary contracts As a share of total employment in each age group, 2013 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % 15-24 year-olds 25-54 year-olds
  26. 26. 35 Use of skills at work, by type of employment contract OECD Average England/N. Ireland (UK) Flanders (Belgium) United States Sweden Spain Slovak Republic Poland Norway Netherlands Korea Japan Italy Ireland Germany France Finland Estonia Denmark Czech Republic Canada Austria Australia Indefiniteminus fixed-term (unadjusted) Indefiniteminus fixed-term (adjusted) -20 0 20 40 Numeracy % -20 0 20 40 ICT -20 0 20 40 Problem Solving %
  27. 27. Skills Scoreboard: do workplaces promote skills? Japan United States Australia Netherlands Italy Finland Germany Canada Belgium Denmark Ireland Norway Poland United Kingdom Spain Estonia Austria Sweden France Korea Slovak Republic Czech Republic To a large extent To a small extent Task discretion Learning by doing Use of problem-solving skills at work Use of co-operation skills at work
  28. 28. 39 Skills mismatch by type of mismatch and age group 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified and mismatched by field of study 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Mismatched by field of study only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Over-qualified only 0 5 10 15 20 25 Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50- 65) Literacy over-skilled only
  29. 29. 40 Wages and mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group *** 0 0 *** *** *** *** 0 *** *** *** ** 0 *** *** -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Mismatched by field of study Over-skilled Under-skilled Over-qualified Under-qualified Youth (16-29) Prime-age workers (30-49) Older workers (50-65) As a percentage change in wages due to mismatch, 2012
  30. 30. 41 Share of individuals interested in entrepreneurship, European countries 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Average 15–24 years 25–39 years 40–54 years More than 55 years Very/Quite feasible Not very/Not feasible Don't know/Not applicable
  31. 31. 4 Making a better use of young workers’ skills • Remove barriers to geographical mobility to allow for local matching of jobs and skills • Develop (inter)national qualification frameworks and formal recognition of skills acquired through non- formal and informal learning • Promote more effective work organisation and human resource management strategies • Remove barriers to entrepreneurship • Invest in tools for assessing and anticipating skills needs .
  32. 32. Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database Without data, you are just another person with an opinion …and remember: Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter @SchleicherEDU 43

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