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Try out the interactive SQL Basics course at LearnSQL.com, and check out our other SQL courses.
LearnSQL.com is owned by Vertabelo SA
vertabelo.com | CC BY-NC-ND Vertabelo SA
SQL Basics Cheat Sheet
SQL,orStructuredQueryLanguage,isalanguagetotalkto
databases.Itallowsyoutoselectspecificdataandtobuild
complexreports.Today,SQLisauniversallanguageofdata.Itis
usedinpracticallyalltechnologiesthatprocessdata.
SQL
SAMPLE DATA
CITY
id name country_id population rating
1 Paris 1 2243000 5
2 Berlin 2 3460000 3
... ... ... ... ...
COUNTRY
id name population area
1 France 66600000 640680
2 Germany 80700000 357000
... ... ... ...
ALIASES
COLUMNS
SELECT name AS city_name
FROM city;
TABLES
SELECT co.name, ci.name
FROM city AS ci
JOIN country AS co
ON ci.country_id = co.id;
QUERYING MULTIPLE TABLES
INNER JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
[INNER] JOIN country
ON city.country_id = country.id;
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
2 Berlin 2
3 Warsaw 4
COUNTRY
id name
1 France
2 Germany
3 Iceland
JOIN (or explicitly INNER JOIN) returns rows that have
matching values in both tables.
LEFT JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
LEFT JOIN country
ON city.country_id = country.id;
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
2 Berlin 2
3 Warsaw 4
COUNTRY
id name
1 France
2 Germany
NULL NULL
LEFT JOIN returns all rows from the left table with
corresponding rows from the right table. If there's no
matching row, NULLs are returned as values from the second
table.
RIGHT JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
RIGHT JOIN country
ON city.country_id = country.id;
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
2 Berlin 2
NULL NULL NULL
COUNTRY
id name
1 France
2 Germany
3 Iceland
RIGHT JOIN returns all rows from the right table with
corresponding rows from the left table. If there's no
matching row, NULLs are returned as values from the left
table.
FULL JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
FULL [OUTER] JOIN country
ON city.country_id = country.id;
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
2 Berlin 2
3 Warsaw 4
NULL NULL NULL
COUNTRY
id name
1 France
2 Germany
NULL NULL
3 Iceland
FULL JOIN (or explicitly FULL OUTER JOIN) returns all rows
from both tables – if there's no matching row in the second
table, NULLs are returned.
CITY
country_id id name
6 6 San Marino
7 7 Vatican City
5 9 Greece
10 11 Monaco
COUNTRY
name id
San Marino 6
Vatican City 7
Greece 9
Monaco 10
NATURAL JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
NATURAL JOIN country;
NATURAL JOIN will join tables by all columns with the same
name.
NATURAL JOIN used these columns to match rows:
city.id, city.name, country.id, country.name
NATURAL JOIN is very rarely used in practice.
CROSS JOIN
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city
CROSS JOIN country;
SELECT city.name, country.name
FROM city, country;
CROSS JOIN returns all possible combinations of rows from
both tables. There are two syntaxes available.
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
1 Paris 1
2 Berlin 2
2 Berlin 2
COUNTRY
id name
1 France
2 Germany
1 France
2 Germany
QUERYING SINGLE TABLE
Fetchallcolumnsfromthecountry table:
SELECT *
FROM country;
Fetchidandnamecolumnsfromthecity table:
SELECT id, name
FROM city;
SELECT name
FROM city
ORDER BY rating DESC;
Fetchcitynamessortedbytherating column
intheDESCendingorder:
SELECT name
FROM city
ORDER BY rating [ASC];
Fetchcitynamessortedbytherating column
inthedefaultASCendingorder:
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE name LIKE '_ublin';
Fetchnamesofcitiesthatstartwithanyletterfollowedby
'ublin'(like DublininIrelandorLublininPoland):
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE name != 'Berlin'
AND name != 'Madrid';
FetchnamesofcitiesthatareneitherBerlinnorMadrid:
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE rating IS NOT NULL;
Fetchnamesofcitiesthatdon'tmissaratingvalue:
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE country_id IN (1, 4, 7, 8);
FetchnamesofcitiesthatareincountrieswithIDs1,4,7,or8:
FILTERING THE OUTPUT
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE rating > 3;
Fetchnamesofcitiesthathavearatingabove3:
COMPARISON OPERATORS
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE name LIKE 'P%'
OR name LIKE '%s';
Fetchnamesofcitiesthatstartwitha'P'orendwithan's':
TEXT OPERATORS
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE population BETWEEN 500000 AND 5000000;
Fetch names of cities that have a population between
500K and 5M:
OTHER OPERATORS
• 
avg(expr) − average value for rows within the group
• count(expr) − count of values for rows within the group
• max(expr) − maximum value within the group
• min(expr) − minimum value within the group
• sum(expr) − sum of values within the group
AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS
CYCLING
id name country
1 YK DE
2 ZG DE
3 WT PL
... ... ...
SKATING
id name country
1 YK DE
2 DF DE
3 AK PL
... ... ...
AGGREGATION AND GROUPING
GROUP BY groupstogetherrowsthathavethesamevaluesinspecifiedcolumns.
Itcomputessummaries(aggregates)foreachuniquecombinationofvalues.
SUBQUERIES
Asubqueryisaquerythatisnestedinsideanotherquery,orinsideanothersubquery.
There are differenttypesofsubqueries.
SET OPERATIONS
Set operations are used to combine the results of two or more queries into a
single result. The combined queries must return the same number of columns and
compatible data types. The names of the corresponding columns can be different.
CITY
country_id count
1 3
2 3
4 2
CITY
id name country_id
1 Paris 1
101 Marseille 1
102 Lyon 1
2 Berlin 2
103 Hamburg 2
104 Munich 2
3 Warsaw 4
105 Cracow 4
EXAMPLE QUERIES
SELECT COUNT(*)
FROM city;
Findoutthenumberofcities:
SELECT COUNT(rating)
FROM city;
Findoutthenumberofcitieswithnon-nullratings:
SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT country_id)
FROM city;
Find outthenumberofdistinctivecountryvalues:
SELECT MIN(population), MAX(population)
FROM country;
Find outthesmallestandthegreatestcountrypopulations:
SELECT country_id, SUM(population)
FROM city
GROUP BY country_id;
Findoutthetotalpopulationofcitiesinrespectivecountries:
SELECT country_id, AVG(rating)
FROM city
GROUP BY country_id
HAVING AVG(rating)  3.0;
Find outtheaverageratingforcitiesinrespectivecountriesiftheaverageisabove3.0:
UNION
SELECT name
FROM cycling
WHERE country = 'DE'
UNION / UNION ALL
SELECT name
FROM skating
WHERE country = 'DE';
UNION combines the results of two result sets and removes duplicates.
UNION ALL doesn't remove duplicate rows.
This query displays German cyclists together with German skaters:
INTERSECT
SELECT name
FROM cycling
WHERE country = 'DE'
INTERSECT
SELECT name
FROM skating
WHERE country = 'DE';
INTERSECT returns only rows that appear in both result sets.
This query displays German cyclists who are also German skaters at the same time:
EXCEPT
SELECT name
FROM cycling
WHERE country = 'DE'
EXCEPT / MINUS
SELECT name
FROM skating
WHERE country = 'DE';
EXCEPT returns only the rows that appear in the first result set but do not appear
in the second result set.
This query displays German cyclists unless they are also German skaters at the
same time:
SINGLE VALUE
SELECT name FROM city
WHERE rating = (
SELECT rating
FROM city
WHERE name = 'Paris'
);
The simplest subquery returns exactly one column and exactly one row. It can be
used with comparison operators =, , =, , or =.
This query finds cities with the same rating as Paris:
MULTIPLE VALUES
SELECT name
FROM city
WHERE country_id IN (
SELECT country_id
FROM country
WHERE population  20000000
);
Asubquerycanalsoreturnmultiplecolumnsormultiplerows.Suchsubqueriescanbe
usedwithoperatorsIN,EXISTS, ALL,orANY.
Thisqueryfindscitiesincountriesthathaveapopulationabove20M:
CORRELATED
SELECT *
FROM city main_city
WHERE population  (
SELECT AVG(population)
FROM city average_city
WHERE average_city.country_id = main_city.country_id
);
Thisqueryfindscountriesthathaveatleastonecity:
SELECT name
FROM country
WHERE EXISTS (
SELECT *
FROM city
WHERE country_id = country.id
);
Acorrelatedsubqueryreferstothetablesintroducedintheouterquery.Acorrelated
subquerydependsontheouterquery.Itcannotberunindependentlyfromtheouter
query.
Thisqueryfindscitieswithapopulationgreaterthanthe average populationinthe
country:

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sql basic.pdf

  • 1. Try out the interactive SQL Basics course at LearnSQL.com, and check out our other SQL courses. LearnSQL.com is owned by Vertabelo SA vertabelo.com | CC BY-NC-ND Vertabelo SA SQL Basics Cheat Sheet SQL,orStructuredQueryLanguage,isalanguagetotalkto databases.Itallowsyoutoselectspecificdataandtobuild complexreports.Today,SQLisauniversallanguageofdata.Itis usedinpracticallyalltechnologiesthatprocessdata. SQL SAMPLE DATA CITY id name country_id population rating 1 Paris 1 2243000 5 2 Berlin 2 3460000 3 ... ... ... ... ... COUNTRY id name population area 1 France 66600000 640680 2 Germany 80700000 357000 ... ... ... ... ALIASES COLUMNS SELECT name AS city_name FROM city; TABLES SELECT co.name, ci.name FROM city AS ci JOIN country AS co ON ci.country_id = co.id; QUERYING MULTIPLE TABLES INNER JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city [INNER] JOIN country ON city.country_id = country.id; CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 2 Berlin 2 3 Warsaw 4 COUNTRY id name 1 France 2 Germany 3 Iceland JOIN (or explicitly INNER JOIN) returns rows that have matching values in both tables. LEFT JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city LEFT JOIN country ON city.country_id = country.id; CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 2 Berlin 2 3 Warsaw 4 COUNTRY id name 1 France 2 Germany NULL NULL LEFT JOIN returns all rows from the left table with corresponding rows from the right table. If there's no matching row, NULLs are returned as values from the second table. RIGHT JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city RIGHT JOIN country ON city.country_id = country.id; CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 2 Berlin 2 NULL NULL NULL COUNTRY id name 1 France 2 Germany 3 Iceland RIGHT JOIN returns all rows from the right table with corresponding rows from the left table. If there's no matching row, NULLs are returned as values from the left table. FULL JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city FULL [OUTER] JOIN country ON city.country_id = country.id; CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 2 Berlin 2 3 Warsaw 4 NULL NULL NULL COUNTRY id name 1 France 2 Germany NULL NULL 3 Iceland FULL JOIN (or explicitly FULL OUTER JOIN) returns all rows from both tables – if there's no matching row in the second table, NULLs are returned. CITY country_id id name 6 6 San Marino 7 7 Vatican City 5 9 Greece 10 11 Monaco COUNTRY name id San Marino 6 Vatican City 7 Greece 9 Monaco 10 NATURAL JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city NATURAL JOIN country; NATURAL JOIN will join tables by all columns with the same name. NATURAL JOIN used these columns to match rows: city.id, city.name, country.id, country.name NATURAL JOIN is very rarely used in practice. CROSS JOIN SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city CROSS JOIN country; SELECT city.name, country.name FROM city, country; CROSS JOIN returns all possible combinations of rows from both tables. There are two syntaxes available. CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 1 Paris 1 2 Berlin 2 2 Berlin 2 COUNTRY id name 1 France 2 Germany 1 France 2 Germany QUERYING SINGLE TABLE Fetchallcolumnsfromthecountry table: SELECT * FROM country; Fetchidandnamecolumnsfromthecity table: SELECT id, name FROM city; SELECT name FROM city ORDER BY rating DESC; Fetchcitynamessortedbytherating column intheDESCendingorder: SELECT name FROM city ORDER BY rating [ASC]; Fetchcitynamessortedbytherating column inthedefaultASCendingorder: SELECT name FROM city WHERE name LIKE '_ublin'; Fetchnamesofcitiesthatstartwithanyletterfollowedby 'ublin'(like DublininIrelandorLublininPoland): SELECT name FROM city WHERE name != 'Berlin' AND name != 'Madrid'; FetchnamesofcitiesthatareneitherBerlinnorMadrid: SELECT name FROM city WHERE rating IS NOT NULL; Fetchnamesofcitiesthatdon'tmissaratingvalue: SELECT name FROM city WHERE country_id IN (1, 4, 7, 8); FetchnamesofcitiesthatareincountrieswithIDs1,4,7,or8: FILTERING THE OUTPUT SELECT name FROM city WHERE rating > 3; Fetchnamesofcitiesthathavearatingabove3: COMPARISON OPERATORS SELECT name FROM city WHERE name LIKE 'P%' OR name LIKE '%s'; Fetchnamesofcitiesthatstartwitha'P'orendwithan's': TEXT OPERATORS SELECT name FROM city WHERE population BETWEEN 500000 AND 5000000; Fetch names of cities that have a population between 500K and 5M: OTHER OPERATORS • avg(expr) − average value for rows within the group • count(expr) − count of values for rows within the group • max(expr) − maximum value within the group • min(expr) − minimum value within the group • sum(expr) − sum of values within the group AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS CYCLING id name country 1 YK DE 2 ZG DE 3 WT PL ... ... ... SKATING id name country 1 YK DE 2 DF DE 3 AK PL ... ... ... AGGREGATION AND GROUPING GROUP BY groupstogetherrowsthathavethesamevaluesinspecifiedcolumns. Itcomputessummaries(aggregates)foreachuniquecombinationofvalues. SUBQUERIES Asubqueryisaquerythatisnestedinsideanotherquery,orinsideanothersubquery. There are differenttypesofsubqueries. SET OPERATIONS Set operations are used to combine the results of two or more queries into a single result. The combined queries must return the same number of columns and compatible data types. The names of the corresponding columns can be different. CITY country_id count 1 3 2 3 4 2 CITY id name country_id 1 Paris 1 101 Marseille 1 102 Lyon 1 2 Berlin 2 103 Hamburg 2 104 Munich 2 3 Warsaw 4 105 Cracow 4 EXAMPLE QUERIES SELECT COUNT(*) FROM city; Findoutthenumberofcities: SELECT COUNT(rating) FROM city; Findoutthenumberofcitieswithnon-nullratings: SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT country_id) FROM city; Find outthenumberofdistinctivecountryvalues: SELECT MIN(population), MAX(population) FROM country; Find outthesmallestandthegreatestcountrypopulations: SELECT country_id, SUM(population) FROM city GROUP BY country_id; Findoutthetotalpopulationofcitiesinrespectivecountries: SELECT country_id, AVG(rating) FROM city GROUP BY country_id HAVING AVG(rating) 3.0; Find outtheaverageratingforcitiesinrespectivecountriesiftheaverageisabove3.0: UNION SELECT name FROM cycling WHERE country = 'DE' UNION / UNION ALL SELECT name FROM skating WHERE country = 'DE'; UNION combines the results of two result sets and removes duplicates. UNION ALL doesn't remove duplicate rows. This query displays German cyclists together with German skaters: INTERSECT SELECT name FROM cycling WHERE country = 'DE' INTERSECT SELECT name FROM skating WHERE country = 'DE'; INTERSECT returns only rows that appear in both result sets. This query displays German cyclists who are also German skaters at the same time: EXCEPT SELECT name FROM cycling WHERE country = 'DE' EXCEPT / MINUS SELECT name FROM skating WHERE country = 'DE'; EXCEPT returns only the rows that appear in the first result set but do not appear in the second result set. This query displays German cyclists unless they are also German skaters at the same time: SINGLE VALUE SELECT name FROM city WHERE rating = ( SELECT rating FROM city WHERE name = 'Paris' ); The simplest subquery returns exactly one column and exactly one row. It can be used with comparison operators =, , =, , or =. This query finds cities with the same rating as Paris: MULTIPLE VALUES SELECT name FROM city WHERE country_id IN ( SELECT country_id FROM country WHERE population 20000000 ); Asubquerycanalsoreturnmultiplecolumnsormultiplerows.Suchsubqueriescanbe usedwithoperatorsIN,EXISTS, ALL,orANY. Thisqueryfindscitiesincountriesthathaveapopulationabove20M: CORRELATED SELECT * FROM city main_city WHERE population ( SELECT AVG(population) FROM city average_city WHERE average_city.country_id = main_city.country_id ); Thisqueryfindscountriesthathaveatleastonecity: SELECT name FROM country WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT * FROM city WHERE country_id = country.id ); Acorrelatedsubqueryreferstothetablesintroducedintheouterquery.Acorrelated subquerydependsontheouterquery.Itcannotberunindependentlyfromtheouter query. Thisqueryfindscitieswithapopulationgreaterthanthe average populationinthe country: