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CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 4


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CP US - Ch. 21 - Sec. 4

  1. 1. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>The Big Four- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain- David Lloyd George </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France- Georges Clemenceau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy- Orlando Vittorio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America- Woodrow Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany and Russia were not invited </li></ul>
  2. 2. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>Collapsed Empires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hohenzollern Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hapsburg Austria-Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanov Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in national self-determination problems </li></ul>
  3. 3. EUROPE – BEFORE 1914
  4. 4. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>Agenda- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To repair political and economic fabric of ½ the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent a recurrence of the violence of World War I </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>Secret diplomacy among the Euro powers </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression of ethnic minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Political system of autocracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privileged elite control the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free and open negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Map to be redrawn with consideration for ethnic self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Institution of democracy throughout Europe </li></ul>
  6. 6. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>Two hoped-for unintended legacies of World War I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eternal peace among the nations of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal liberty for the people of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gap between intent and achievement of the Peace Settlement is what is most notable </li></ul>
  7. 7. EUROPE AFTER 1919
  8. 8. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>League of Nations- April 28, 1919 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to national self-determination went unrecognized in non-Euro nations of the colonial world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin American and Asian nations pleaded with the U.S., Britain, and France for self-determination, but were not granted their independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seemed as if Wilsonian principles were only reserved for white nations of the western world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>First casualty of Wilson’s plan was open negotiations for peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Four held secret meetings with no written record until Britain objected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenants/Treaties were nowhere near “openly arrived at” as most were done secretly as had been the situation prior to the war </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>The Big Four disregarded public opinion at home and only relied upon their closest advisors and themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson overlooked the midterm elections in 1918 in which the Republicans gained Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who did not support his negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Senators Borah (ID) and Lodge (MA) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>In America, Wilson returned home to a hostile Republican Senate who refused to give consent to the three treaties signed by him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace treaty with Germany (Treaty of Versailles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial losses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce their army to 100,000 troops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce their navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay reparations to the Allied countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral security treaty with France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenant of the League of Nations </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>Resulted in termination of America’s participation in the peacekeeping in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Only aspect they agreed to was the military occupation of the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended prematurely also as they pulled out in 1923 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. PEACE OF PARIS <ul><li>The Allies began to fight amongst each other over pieces of the Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Hostilities increased and led to the inability to later enforce the provisions of the Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>The Peace of Paris was doomed to failure due to the fact that it could not be executed (not because of its inherent problems) </li></ul>