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### Ch 5_lect_1.pptx

• 3. Topic 5.1: The Force of Gravitation  Explanation of Force of gravitation  Introduction  Newton’s view about gravitation  Law of gravitation
• 4. Introduction  The first man who came up with the idea of gravity was Isaac Newton.  It was an evening of 1665 when he was trying to solve the mystery why planets revolve around the Sun. Suddenly an apple fell from the tree under which he was sitting.  The idea of gravity flashed in his mind.  He discovered not only the cause of falling apple but also the cause that makes the planets to revolve around the Sun and the moon around the Earth.
• 5. Newton’s view about gravitation  On the basis of his observations  Newton concluded that the force which causes an apple to fall on the Earth and the force which keeps the moon in its orbit are of the same nature.  He further concluded that there exists a force due to which everybody of the universe attracts every other body. He named this force the force of gravitation.
• 6. Law of Gravitation: Statement Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
• 7. Law of Gravitation: Mathematical Form  Consider two bodies of masses 𝑚1 and 𝑚2.  According to the law of gravitation, the gravitational force of attraction F with which the two masses 𝑚1 and 𝑚2 separated by a distance d attract each other is given by: →𝐹 ∝ 𝑚1𝑚2 →𝐹 ∝ 1 𝑑2 →𝐹 ∝ 𝑚1𝑚2 𝑑2 →𝐹 = 𝐺 𝑚1𝑚2 𝑑2  G is the proportionality constant. It is called the universal constant of gravitation.  It is constant everywhere, its value is 𝐺 = 6.673 × 10−11𝑁𝑚2𝑘𝑔−2
• 8. Law of Gravitation  Due to small value of G, the gravitational force of attraction between objects around us is very small and we do not feel it.  Since the mass of Earth is very large, it attracts nearby objects with a significant force.  The weight of an object on the Earth is the result of gravitational force of attraction between the Earth and the object.
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