From Democracy To Fascism


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From Democracy To Fascism

  1. 1. Authoritarian Regimes: Japan<br />From Democracy to Fascism<br />*SEQ Examinable<br />
  2. 2. Reasons for Failure of Japanese Democracy<br />Diet’s ineffectiveness<br />Corruption<br />Economic problems<br />Taisho Emperor - son of the Meiji Emperor. His reign was known as the era of Taisho Democracy (Reigned from 1912 – 1926)<br />
  3. 3. The Diet’s Limited Power<br />2 houses<br />House of Peers – members of imperial family, Japanese nobles who’re nominated by Emperor<br />House of Representatives – Elected by Japanese pple. Emperor can dissolve house.<br />The Imperial Diet in session<br />
  4. 4. The Diet’s Limited Power<br />However, real power was with Emperor, Genro, army & navy ministers<br />Japan had no democratic tradition<br />Emperor usually appointed ministers who were loyal to him – many of these were old & conservative.<br />Many saw civilian politicians as weak & soft, esp. in Jp foreign policy<br />
  5. 5. Corruption<br />Zaibatsus were supporting & bankrolling politicians & their election campaigns<br />Had a lot of influence in the govt.<br />Could influence law-making in their favour.<br />
  6. 6. Economic Problems <br />Rice farmers had little land & had to pay high rental<br />Workers also had to put up with long hours & harsh working conditions<br />Trade imbalance – needed to import food to feed growing population<br />Japanese rice farmers faced very harsh working conditions<br />
  7. 7. Great Depression<br />Protectionism occurred<br />Japanese exports suffered<br />Silk industry was hardest hit<br />High unemployment & inflation<br />Japanese began to blame the democratic govt.<br />Japanese silk farmers feeding silk worms – silk was Japan’s major export in the early 1900s.<br />
  8. 8. The Rise of Fascism<br />External Reasons<br />Worsening foreign relations with west<br />Rise of Chinese nationalism<br />Internal Reasons<br />Showa Restoration<br />Patriotic Societies<br />Strong Military Influence<br />Il Duce’s influence had extended to the far east.<br />
  9. 9. External – Worsening Foreign Relations<br />Competition with America over Pacific islands<br />LON refused to acknowledge the equality of races<br />Washington Naval Conference (1921) – Japan received unfavourable naval ratio America (5) : Britain (5) : Japan (3)<br />Competition over the Pacific Islands strained Japanese relations with America.<br />
  10. 10. The Imperial Navy resented being treated as a 2nd rate power, especially when it had defeated the Russians & Chinese in naval battles<br />
  11. 11. Worsening Foreign Relations<br />London Disarmament Conference (1930) – Military felt that civilian govt was soft.<br />Strict American immigration laws (1920s) – made Japanese feel inferior<br />By the early 1900s, many Japanese immigrants or issei had flocked to America in search of a better life<br />
  12. 12. External – Rise of Chinese Nationalism<br />Japan defeated China in 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War<br />Since then, exploited China’s weakness<br />TOV awarded Shantung Peninsula to Japan – sparked off May 4th Movt & anti-Japanese sentiments<br />Saw China’s vast resources as answer to economic problems<br />Wanted to supplant China as Asia’s no. 1 power<br />
  13. 13. Rise of Chinese Nationalism<br />Chinese protestors take to the streets in outrage over Japanese seizure of Shantung.<br />The foreign powers helping themselves to a piece of China<br />The giant killer<br />
  14. 14. Internal Reasons – Showa Restoration<br />Showa Restoration – education emphasised intense nationalism & anti-foreign sentiments<br />Also focused on blind loyalty to the emperor.<br />Showa Emperor or more commonly known by his name, Hirohito. (Reigned 1926 – 1989)<br />
  15. 15. Patriotic Societies<br />Ultra-nationalistic organisations<br />Pushed for aggressive foreign policy & militarism<br />Believed Jp’s destiny was to “go forth, conquer & rule!”<br />Many of these societies worked against the civilian govt whom they believed were soft<br />The rising sun flag of Imperial Japan. A symbol of Japanese aggression & imperialism<br />
  16. 16. Increasing Military Influence<br />Military had been successful in battles since 1895.<br />Made military very influential<br />People saw military action as the answer to their probs, also saw civilian govt as weak<br />Military were soon acting independently from civilian govt.<br />
  17. 17. Military Takeover of Japan<br />PM Ki Inukai was assassinated by army in 1932<br />His murderers served light sentences<br />Succeeding PMs felt increasingly pressured by military’s ambitions.<br />By the mid 1930s, Japan had become a military controlled government.<br />
  18. 18. Reasons for Failure of Japanese Democracy<br />Diet’s ineffectiveness<br />Corruption<br />Economic problems<br />Rise of Fascism<br />Internal Reasons<br />Showa Restoration<br />Patriotic Societies<br />Strong Military Influence<br />External Reasons<br />Worsening foreign relations with west<br />Rise of Chinese nationalism<br />