Soils & Organic Fertility Management

1,177 views

Published on

Warren Roberts/George Kuepper
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013
Horticulture #2: May 11

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,177
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
35
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
66
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Soils & Organic Fertility Management

  1. 1. Soils and OrganicFertility ManagementWarren RobertsGeorge Kuepper
  2. 2. Last Class - Soil ManagementSite Selection, Soil FertilityWarren RobertsGeorge Kuepper
  3. 3. Ideal Soil• 50% Solid Matter• 45% Mineral• 5% Organic• 50% Pore Space• 25% Water• 25% Air
  4. 4. Soil Fertility• Essential Plant Nutrients• C HOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn Co Mo Cl
  5. 5. pH and Nutrient Availability
  6. 6. SoilFertilityNutrientMovement
  7. 7. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30050100150200250300350400450N (pounds per acre)raw1raw2raw3raw4syn1syn2Linear(syn2)Sample Date
  8. 8. 0 5 10 15 20 25 300200400600800100012001400P (lbs per acre)raw1 raw2raw3 raw4syn1 syn2Samples Date
  9. 9. Soil Test
  10. 10. Organic Matter• Wonderful• Holds Water• ImprovesDrainage• HoldsNutrients• Improves Tilth
  11. 11. Biological Properties ofSoil•Organic Matter Content•Plants•Animals•Microbial Biomass
  12. 12. Life
  13. 13. Soil Life - Animals• Earthworms• Mites• Nematodes• Protozoa• Beetles• Termites
  14. 14. Soil Life - Microbes• Bacteria•Single Cell• Millions per Gram• 1,000,000,000,000,000 per Acre• Fungi•Long filaments (hyphae)• Hundreds of Thousands per Gram•100,000,000,000,000 per Acre
  15. 15. Roles of Bacteria and Fungi• Organic Matter Decomposition• Soil Stabilization• Aeration• Tilth• Nitrogen Fixation
  16. 16. Mycorrhizae (Fungus – Root)
  17. 17. Mycorrhizae (Fungus – Root)
  18. 18. Organic Soil Fertilizers• Options• Buy• Grow Your Own
  19. 19. Organic GuidelinesProducer shall manage cropnutrients and soil fertilitythrough rotations, cover crops,and the application of plant andanimal materials (manures).
  20. 20. Organic GuidelinesProducer shall manage plant andanimal materials to maintain orimprove soil organic matter content in amanner that does not contribute tocontamination of crops, soil, or waterby plant nutrients, pathogenicorganisms, heavy metals, or residues ofprohibited substances.
  21. 21. Compost
  22. 22. PhosphorusA producer may useColloidal, rock phosphateBone mealGuanoFish emulsion processing
  23. 23. PotassiumA producer may use• Wood ashes• Rock dusts (granite, feldspar,greensand)• Sulfate of potash magnesia• Natural potassium sulfate• Fly ash• Recycled potassium-rich organic matter.
  24. 24. Calcium• Can Use•Agricultural limestone•Agricultural gypsum• Do Not Use•slaked or hydrated lime.
  25. 25. NitrogenA producer may use•Green manures•Legumes•Compost•Vegetable meals•Animal by-products and fishemulsion.
  26. 26. Cover Crops and Green Manures• Cover Crops•Grown in Winter• Green ManureCrops•Grown in Summer
  27. 27. Litter, Manure, etc• Smelly• Ammonia• NH3
  28. 28. April 14Cover Crops
  29. 29. RyeApril 16Rye or Wheat
  30. 30. Legumes
  31. 31. Legume - Definition• a dry dehiscent one-celled fruitdeveloped from a simple superiorovary and usually dehiscing intotwo valves with the seedsattached to the ventral suture
  32. 32. Legume - DefinitionA pod, such as that of a pea or bean, thatsplits into two valves with the seeds attachedto one edge of the valves.
  33. 33. Legumes• Peas• Beans• Soybeans• Purple Hull Peas• Crimson Clover• Sweet Clover• Hairy Vetch• Alfalfa• Lespedezea• Black Locust• Honey Locust• Kudzu• Mesquite• Redbuds• Wisteria
  34. 34. Arrowleaf CloverApril 16
  35. 35. Hairy VetchApril 16
  36. 36. Crimson CloverApril 16Crimson Clover
  37. 37. Nitrogen is Nutrient that isMost Limiting to Plant GrowthAtmosphere is 78% Nitrogen
  38. 38. Legume – Bacteria Symbiosis• Captures Nitrogen from the Air• Makes Nitrogen Available to Plant• Bacteria Responsible• Rhizobia (Rhizobium)• Bradyrhizobium (Soybeans)rhi·zo·bi·um
  39. 39. Rhizobium group andspeciesLegumes treatedRhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifoliCrimson clover, Red clover, WhitecloverRhizobium leguminosarum biovarphaseoliKidney beans, Snap beans, String beans,Wax beansRhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceaeAustrian winter pea, Common vetch,Garden pea, Hairy vetchRhizobium sp. CrownvetchBradyrhizobium japonicum SoybeansBradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna)Common lespedeza, Cowpea, Peanut,Velvet beanSinorhizobium melilotiAlfalfa, Medic, Yellow or white sweetclover
  40. 40. Inoculum• Use slurry• Commercial Sticker• Sugar-water solution• Karo syrup solution
  41. 41. Precautions !!!!• Inoculum is Alive (hopefully!)• Inoculum can Die (unfortunately)• Note Expiration Date• Avoid Fertilizers, Chemicals,Chlorine
  42. 42. Precautions !!!!• Refrigerate during Storage• Keep temperature below 90 F• Avoid High or Low pH• Avoid Exposure to Sunlight
  43. 43. Summary (Plants and Microbes)• Add organic matter• Avoid compaction• Timely irrigation• Promote drainage• Promote aeration• Neutral pH
  44. 44. Crimson CloverApril 16Crimson Clover
  45. 45. Organic Matter

×