Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Accessibility and Online Learning: Users as Learners


Published on

Presented on May 19. 2017 at UXPA Boston @UXPABOS

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Accessibility and Online Learning: Users as Learners

  1. 1. Accessibility in Online Learning: Users as Learners Mary J. Ziegler UXPA Boston May 19, 2017 1 “It is better to know how to learn than to know.” Dr. Seuss
  2. 2. Overview of Today’s Presentation 1. Context of online learning and learners as users 2. Approaches to accessibility in online learning 3. Current landscape and opportunities 2
  3. 3. ● Scope and Growth ● Learners ● Educational technologies Context of Online Learning 3
  4. 4. Scope of online learning and learners Distance education evolution Mail Radio/TV Internet Mobile Formal education open and recreational learning Professional students global, all ages Educational software applets, games 4
  5. 5. Growth and popularity of open learning MOOCs in 2016 The leading mobile app category is Education +250K Educational mobile apps (iOS and Google Play store) Reference 5
  6. 6. What is a “learner” ? A learner is someone who is learning about a particular subject or how to do something. A student is a person who is studying at a school, college, or university. - Collins English dictionary Online learning users may be learners, students, or both 6
  7. 7. Motivations for learning online ● Desire to learn/acquire knowledge, skills, a credential ● Flexible ○ Time ○ Location ○ Commitment ● Affordable ● Social or professional connections and networking ● Fun, entertainment 7
  8. 8. “I don’t need to worry about time or location restraints: I can learn wherever I want and whenever I want.” - edX learner story “I am one of those people who crave learning, but I felt that it was out of reach due to work, family, and financial constraints.” - a Coursera learner story "I learned essential tools and obtained crucial experience through completing projects. This built my portfolio and helped me attract recruiters." - a Udacity learner story 8
  9. 9. Learner activities mapped to technologies 9 Activity or learning task Educational technology, format, or means Locate, select learning Web, LMS, MOOC, apps Watch, listen to multimedia Video, podcast, vodcast, webinar Read, annotate, comment Web (html), e-books, PDF, annotation tools Communicate, discuss, share Discussion, chat, conferencing, social media Practice skill / knowledge: write, draw, compute, code, play Multiple choice, open response, drag and drop simulations, virtual environments, games Take test (knowledge assessed) Machine-graded, peer-graded, human-graded
  10. 10. Accessibility in online learning ● Expectations of learners with disability ● Approaches to accessibility in learning 10
  11. 11. Data on online learners with disabilities ● Very little data! ○ Open University UK study shows 19% have a disability ○ Usability studies on some MOOCs ● Informal feedback ○ Learner stories ○ Comments ○ Discussion forums 11
  12. 12. “The accessibility of the courses makes edX the perfect platform for me to learn about my interests.” An edX learner story 12
  13. 13. What we know about learners with disabilities ● Same motivations as all learners ● May select online because it is more accessible ● Familiar with technology and expectations line up with mainstream options on mobile and web ● May hear from them only if they hit a barrier or need an accommodation 13
  14. 14. Types of disabilities learners may have ● Temporary injury ● Health condition (temporary or chronic) ● Learning disability ● Attention deficit ● Autism spectrum ● Speech ● Mobility ● Blind or low vision ● Deaf or hard of hearing ● Cognitive ● Psychiatric ● Other 14
  15. 15. Design and development approaches to accessibility 15 Industry guidance Applicable to W3C Web Accessibility Initiative ● Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) ● Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) ● Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) Web development, authoring environments, interactions and content based on standards to reach the widest possible audience Universal Design for Learning (UDL, UID, UDI, UDforI, UDT) Frameworks for how to design instruction to consider a diverse set learner preferences
  16. 16. How WCAG principles are applied to online learning WCAG has 4 principles: perceivable, operable, understandable, robust 1 - Perceivable ❏ Captions/transcripts/audio description for video/audio ❏ Images/visuals are described ❏ Color contrast is sufficient 2 - Operable ❏ Accessible via keyboard or mouse 16
  17. 17. How WCAG principles are applied to online learning, cont’d 17 3 - Understandable ❏ Navigation and terminology is consistent ❏ Language of text is identified 4 - Robust ❏ Works across devices - assistive technology, mobile
  18. 18. How universal design enhances accessibility ● Recognize diversity of learners ● Provide flexible or multiple options: ○ Present content in multiple ways ○ Allow for flexible means to communicate ○ Allow for different means to demonstrate knowledge ● Establish clear and consistent expectations and objectives 18
  19. 19. Example of universal design options for video 1. Video player 2. Audio stream 3. In-line captions 4. Video file for offline viewing 5. Interactive or downloadable transcript 6. PDF Handout of graphic Screenshot taken from MITx on edX: Just Money: Banking as if Society Mattered 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 5
  20. 20. Learner meets content What’s essential to the learning? ● What are all the ways possible to present a concept? ● What are all the ways to interact with the content? Provide all you can! 20 Graphic courtesy of grbcoolkid
  21. 21. Example of Visual Content and Description Description: Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), formed by two alpha subunits (top) and two gamma subunits (bottom). The 4 heme groups are also displayed. All chains (ribbons) are rainbow-colored from blue to red (N- to C-termini) Question: Is the description sufficient to learn this content without the visual? Is the essential information provided? 21
  22. 22. Learner meets inaccessible content ● What if presentation is inextricably linked to a content? ● What is core to demonstration of knowledge? ● What if additional supports are needed? Involve experts! On content, presentation, accommodation, etc. 22 Graphic courtesy of grbcoolkid
  23. 23. Current and Future Landscape ● Ingredients for success ● Challenges ● Opportunities 23
  24. 24. Contributors and experts in online learning 24 Teachers, instructors, faculty Content authors and creators Platform, web, app developers Develop learning environment Instructional designers Design content to fit technology Educational technologists Provide expertise on how the learning technology works Open education resources, publishers, accreditors, test centers, etc. Provide external content and assessment Digital learning scientists, data scientists, UX, accessibility and usability, disability specialists Roles evolving Students and learners Users of learning technology
  25. 25. Educational technology mapped to accessibility 25 Educational technology, format, or means Example of accessibility strategy or support LMS, MOOC, apps Apply WCAG 2.0 AA Video, podcast, vodcast, webinar Provide captions/transcripts, audio description, flexible methods of interaction (voice, keyboard) Discussion, chat, conferencing, social media Provide flexible means of interaction (voice, keyboard) Web (html), e-books, PDF, annotation tools Provide text to speech and describe images Multiple choice, open response, drag and drop, simulations, virtual environments, games Apply WCAG 2.0 AA, especially for interactions Assessments Apply WCAG 2.0 AA, address peer submissions accessibility, process to request additional time
  26. 26. Key ingredients to online learning accessibility ● Accessible development environment (platform, application, LMS) ● Design of instructional content and interactions ● Content creators/authors provide accessible content in the form of text descriptions, verbalizing well in video, etc. ● Innovation in new technologies for communication ● Learner/user data on what is working 26
  27. 27. Online accessibility opportunities to improve 27 ● Image and audio description requires content expertise and understanding of how to describe visuals ● Flexible assessments hard to make equitable ● Communication tools across disability types ● WCAG one-size fits all approach has gaps for learning ○ How do we consider everyone? ○ W3C AccessLearn Community Group
  28. 28. References and resources References ❏ Francisco Iniesto: What are the Expectations of Disabled Learners when Participating in a MOOC? Presented at Learning at Scale, Cambridge MA, April 20, 2017 ❏ W3C Web Accessibility Initiative ❏ W3C Community Group AccessLearn ❏ National Center for Universal Design for Learning, ❏ Sheryl Burgstahler, Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice, 2008. Learn Online! ❏ TeachAccess Tutorial ❏ Digital Accessibility - a FuturnLearn MOOC from University of Southhampton 28
  29. 29. Questions? “It is better to know how to learn than to know.” Dr. Seuss Mary J. Ziegler @youhavetime 29