Framework for Designing MOOCs


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Framework for Designing MOOCs

  1. 1. A Framework for Designing an OnlineEducational Service1With space, time, content and context ceasing to bebarriers, education is entering a new era.Prof. Bala Iyer, Babson College@BalaIyerMay 17, 2013
  2. 2. Seen this before?During the 1920s and 1930s, several land-grant universities offeredextension courses and home-study courses over the radio airwaves.During the growth of television in the 1950s, CBS, in partnership withNew York University, broadcast full college courses at 6 a.m. inits Sunrise Semester series. The first class, a comparative literaturecourse, enrolled 177 for-credit students; another 120,000 people tookit without credit. (CBS cancelled Sunrise Semester in 1982)2
  3. 3. AgendaWhat is blended learning?StakeholdersFrameworkGovernanceWhat can companies do?List of programs3
  4. 4. 4Our belief is that deep, radical and urgent transformation isrequired in higher education as much as it is in school systems.Our fear is that, perhaps as a result of complacency, caution oranxiety, or a combination of all three, the pace of change is tooslow and the nature of change too incremental.
  5. 5. 5Classroom lectures has been the dominant model foreducational instruction for the last 500 years
  6. 6. 6Education suffers from the “cost disease.” Technologyand wage increases aside, the price of education is on arocket course, with no levelling in sight.
  7. 7. 7Outstanding student loans ($914b) bigger than credit card andauto loans.Mary Meekers annual Internet Trends presentation 2013
  8. 8. 8Students have 10 to 18 minutes of optimal focus during a 90 min. lecture.Then there would come a lapse. Attention would eventually return, but falls “to three- orfour-minute [spurts].Salman Khan
  9. 9. 9Education development and delivery has to becomemore personalized
  10. 10. 10Blended learning has the potential to make educationmore personalized
  11. 11. 11Architects of blended learning environments have to makemany design choices to makeWe explore those choices here….
  12. 12. Blended Learning The combination of different learning delivery tools and teaching and learning modelsto create rich, adaptive, and meaningful learning experiences The integration of face-to-face and online learning to help enhance the classroomexperience and extend learning through the innovative use of information andcommunications technology. Blended strategies enhance student engagement andlearning through online activities to the course curriculum, and improve effectivenessand efficiencies by reducing lecture time.12Potential Aspects:Face to Face InstructionOnline Asynchronous DiscussionsWeb Conferencing toolsMobile applicationsSimulations and gamesSocial media integrationRich Media (audio and video)
  13. 13. 13Source: Mathieu Plourde, “MOOC, every letter is negotiable”
  14. 14. Blended Learning Approach: Summary of LearningsBenefits Pedagogical richness (shifting from apresentational format to active learning) Greater access to personalized learning, toresources and experts; Greater flexibility; Greater accommodation for learners andteachers of diverse backgrounds; Increased interaction and sense ofcommunity; and Increased cost-effectiveness (e.g., reducedseat time, decreased costs)14Source: Issues in Digital Technology in Education/Blended LearningChallenges Administrative challenges (lack ofawareness, policies, plans, goals, supportrelated to blended learning), Re-designing courses and/or programs, Faculty preparedness, and Quality assuranceCritical Success Factors-Peer to peer interaction-Integration with workflow-Teacher engagement-Quality of material-Analytics-Social network and archives
  15. 15. Stakeholder AnalysisOnline PlatformStudentTeacher/facilitatorPlatformprovider SponsorSocialconstructivismInnovativePedagogy/ImpactRichengagementInstitutionalROIValue PropositionContentproviderRe-usableContent15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. Framework for Making Design Choices Context Educational ModelStudentsContentCommunityDelivery and Learner SupportTraining Online Platform Business Model/Revenue Model Governance Measurement and Evaluation: Assessment and Credentialing17
  18. 18. Context (1): Key Themes LearnedCultural: Cultural attitude towards learning in the target population Differences by learner’s age or gender Taboos regarding learning Cultural attitude towards the technological aspects of e-learning Socially/culturally accepted/preferred learning stylesRegulatory Situation Regulatory situation regarding information, communication and technology Access to set up/obtain electronic services Censorship in place regarding information and communicationSkills Skill-sets to address the learning goals Need for identification of required skills and plan for development Plan to design, develop and deliver the solutionsSource: Implications of the Local Context in Global Distance Educationby Rye and Stokken, University of Agder, Norway] 18“Student’s daily environments are important for helping determine how wellstudents perform and participate in online education”*
  19. 19. Context (2): Key Themes LearnedMaterial Factors Existing learning delivery infrastructure Desired technical environment given the stated goals Access of target audience to technology Relevant M&E metrics Necessary environment/features (if any) required to address the agreed upon goals Technical standards defined for training, design and developmentInternationalization Degree of formality/informality defining the interaction in the synchronous e-learning setup Amount of conflict tolerable during group debates and forums Role of personal opinion as opposed to group opinion Role of teachers or trainers in facilitation Preferred interface in each country (computer-human interface or human-humaninterface or human-materials interface) Cultural acceptance of use of webcam – gender differences Gendered approach to teaching: Males teaching women?19Source: Issues in Internationalization of education: The case of a Danish Business School exporting ablended learning MBA program to developing countries.
  20. 20. Educational Model: StudentsEnrollment/profile Selection process Preferred Demographics Language of instruction Geographical focus Charged Or sponsoredParticipationFour groups of participants: those who completed most assignments, those who audited, those who gradually disengaged and those who sporadically sampled.20Key finding: high correlationbetween “completing learners” andparticipation on forum pages; themore students interacted with otherson the forum page, the better theylearned. [Lytics Lab link]
  21. 21. Educational Model: ContentStructure Guidelines and methodologies in place for designing and developing content Content listed in categories and subcategories Approach to conent: Learning object (like PBS) or modular objects (FastTrack) orvideos (TEDx) or discussion boards Single or multiple source(s) of contentQuality Ranking of content, e.g. top selling or recent additions Featuring content for more attention User rated content Expert rating content Keyword search capability Materials used for accreditation/certification meet professionalstandards/qualifications? Formal quality procedures, such as ISO 9001 in place21
  22. 22. Educational Model: ContentIntellectual Property Localization of content Adaptation to local realities by partnering Owner of content -- Third-party, company or user Agreed upon and shared terms and conditions? Decisions: Authors using their own End User Licensing Agreement (EULA) Platform owner dictating the EULA? Authors using Open Source guideline Owners charging for the content?22
  23. 23. Educational Model: Community Status of curated community Status of moderator role One large community versus indexed by cohorts Types of networks Developmental and/or social Personal learning networks Membership: Inclusion of facilitator/faculty M&E: Community analytics23Two Cheers for Web U! Link
  24. 24. Educational Model: Delivery Synchronous and/versus asynchronous Pedagogical model as experiential, lecture, simulation, games or case-based Content delivered face to face by partners Blend of distance learning and Face-to-face Use of partners Emphasis on train the trainers (critical aspect)24
  25. 25. Content Delivery25All running AndroidCommand and ControlAdopt and ExtendMarketplace
  26. 26. Learner SupportOptions for the provision of support services: Technology and business wrap-around Call center? Peer to peer? KMS/LMS Moderated discussion boards Trained facilitators, advisors, mentors26*Source: Massive open online courses as new educative practice. George Siemens. 2012
  27. 27. What is a platform?A business platform is a set of capabilities used by multiple parties that Has “options” value Creates Network Effects Has explicit Architectural Control Points A product or service should perform at least one essential function withinwhat can be described as a “system of use” or solve an essentialtechnological problem within an industry, and It should be easy to connect to or build upon to expand the system of use aswell as to allow new and even unintended end-uses*27*Source: Platform Leaders by Gawer and Cusumano, MIT Sloan ManagementReview, Winter 2008]
  28. 28. Platform ConceptPlatformStudentsComplementorsAccreditors, Mentoring, AnalyticsCall centers, trainersTeachers/facilitatorsBid for revenue Support developmentSearch for informationContent developersSponsorCommunityEngagementQuality content28
  29. 29. Online Platform: Has to support….. Students– Enrollment, target Development Content Community Delivery Usability Learner support Training Student Assessment & credentialing Outcomes29
  30. 30. Platform: Usability and DevelopmentPossibilities Does the platform recommend content for users? Can content can be given meta data by authors? Can content can be piloted/previewed before using? Can content can be sorted by reviews? Can content can be filtered by device compatibility? Do you provide a list of all courses subscribed by student? Does platform provide metrics by user and by course? Can owners check course quality? Will users be permitted to review courses? How long does user have access to content?30Development Decisions:-Make, buy or rent?-Single player or consortium?-Open or closed?
  31. 31. Usability: Key Themes LearnedStudent Feedback Each course with own support forum Opportunity for users to leave suggestions for new courses and make suggestions forimprovements Opportunity for users to create user profiles Ability for users to share course performance on social mediaAuthors Authors to track analytics through an API Plan for deployment/dedication of authors to countries Profile pages for authors Courses sorted by authors31
  32. 32. Training: One of the most critical piecesTeachers and Facilitators Core curriculum Blended learning strategies Content provider Content development32Teachers and students lack the necessary cognitive skills formaking effective use of online technologiesPedagogical and Design Aspects of a Blended Learning Course, Karen Precel, YoramEshet-Alkalai, and Yael Alberton, IRRODL, Vol. 10 No. 2 (2009)Source
  33. 33. Measurement and EvaluationEvaluation Specific M&E plan Timeline Participants Process for action on feedback How do we define success?Number of studentsMentoring relationships developedNew businesses startedRevenues increasedLevel of engagementSocial network33
  34. 34. Business Model Revenue model Cost structure Key partners Key resources Key activities34
  35. 35. Some Revenue ModelsInformation Business Matching students with employers AdvertisingComplementary Goods Books, discussion boards, proctoring, certification, authentic assessment, screening Tutoring,Licensing content to schools Freemium Tuition Self-service --Renting platform as a learning management system Production assistance – design help Funding from foundationsSources : How EdX Plans to Earn, and Share, Revenue From Its Free Online Courses by SteveKolowich, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb 21, 2013What Campus Leaders Need to Know About MOOCs, An EDICAUSE educational briefing.35
  36. 36. Types of Investments36 Technical e.g., videography, editing, graphic design Instructional e.g., instructional design, teaching assistant support Library e.g., resource discovery, copyright clearance
  37. 37. Costs of Blended LearningOne Time Periodic Recurring Bandwidth & Wireless/Wired Connectivity Furniture Power Access (laptopCarts and/or wiredoutlets) Design & Implementation Consulting Services Initial ProfessionalDevelopment/ R&D Quality Control & Admin Technology Devices Headphones and Other Accessories Training Licenses for Digital Content & Tools Licenses for HLMSOr Other IntegratedPlatform Blended LearningLead/Coach Increased IT Support orIT Lead Marketing/Sales37Source: Educational Elements: Blended Learning on a Budget Education Elements, Inc. January 2013
  38. 38. Example Cost Structure: edX edX will collect the first $50,000 generated by a course, or$10,000 for each recurring course. The organization and theuniversity partner will each get 50 percent of all revenuebeyond that threshold. edX charges a base rate of $250,000 for each new course, plus$50,000 for each time a course is offered for an additional term38
  39. 39. Measurement and EvaluationEvaluation Specific M&E plan Timeline Participants Process for action on feedback How do we define success?Number of studentsMentoring relationships developedNew businesses startedRevenues increasedLevel of engagementSocial network39
  40. 40. Assessment and Credentialing Policy on assessment and/or credentialing? Use of automated (Udacity) support Provision of Peer to Peer assessment? Instructor evaluation Third party assessment? Certificate upon completion Possibility of badges (StackExchange)/credentialing fortracking progress40
  41. 41. Governance: Themes Learned Need to be managed like any large project A governance group represented by each stakeholder Policies and guidelines Principles based decision making Key decisions must be approved by this group The rationale for each decision must be captured Track CSFs Learn and publish best practices Focus on people and process41
  42. 42. What can companies do?Level 1: Provide customized educational programs tosupport a missionLevel 2: Develop generalized internal training programs totrain the trainersLevel 3: Provide formal educational programs to thirdparties for self-serviceLevel 4: Work with third parties to develop educationalprograms to support their missionLevel 5: participate in communities of interest that buildtheir own training program42
  43. 43. Programs Yentels - Young European Entrepreneurs E-Learning Suite - (Europe) Cisco Entrepreneur Institute - (provider is (Global) Dubai Chamber e-Learning Program for Entrepreneurs - MINDSET - Kaufmann Foundation Entrepreneurship Course - (provideris (Latin America, Asia) EO [Entrepreneurs Organization] Bootcamp - (South Africa) Women European Entrepreneurs e-Learning suite - Entrepreneurs ProgramStart Up Lab - (Europe) ELFE - E-Learning for Female Entrepreneurs - (Europe) e-Learning for Entrepreneurs - Small Business Development Center - (NH) HP Life E-learning - (Global) Black Enterprise Small Business University - sponsored by Dell!! - (US) Afriversity, the meeting place for African Entrepreneurs - (Africa) Turning on Mobile Learning in Africa and the Middle East (MEA)43
  44. 44. More programs The Yoza Cellphone Stories project in South Africa (South Africa) The MoMath project in South Africa WOMEN’S DIALOG AND DISTANCE LEARNING:A University in the Arab World Link44
  45. 45. Program brief (1)Program Market Sponsors NotesYentels Europe LeonardoProgrammeFree, games, knowledgebaseCEI Global Cisco, partners Franchise modelDubai Chamber UAE Cisco CEI Online courses in EnglishEO South Africa GetSmarter,Western CapeLocal GovtLearn from entrepreneursWENTELS Europe Six partners Focus on women, serious gamesNHSBDC NH Public service ofNH, AT&TCourses and mentoring45
  46. 46. Program brief (2)Program Market Sponsors NotesHP-LIFE 49 countries, 1.2million trainedHP, EDC,UNIDO, ORTFranchise model and onlineSmall BusinessUniversityBlack Enterprise Dell Prize money for engagementAfriversity Afrpreneurs Companysponsors, partnersCrowdfunding for entrepreneursMoMath South Africa, 25,000learners, 500teachers, 172 schoolsNokia, SA Govt. Text-based 10,000 mathexercises46
  47. 47. Questions47