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Sparta 100825212506-phpapp02

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Sparta 100825212506-phpapp02

  1. 1. ATHENS
  2. 2. SOLON
  4. 4. SPARTA • Ito ay lungsod estado sa timog na bahagi ng peninsulang gresya. – Ito ay kilala sa tawag na Peloponnesus na pinaninirahan ng mga Dorian na ninuno ng mga Spartan. • Nabubuhay sa pamamagitan ng pagsasaka. • Ang lumalaking populasyon ang nag-udyok sa kanila upang makakuha ng maraming lupain – Sinimulan nila ang pananakop noong 500 BK nang mahulog ang halos buong pulo ng Peloponnesus • Kinalimutan ng Sparta ang komersyo at industriya, sining, panitikan at pilosopiya
  5. 5. PAGSASANAY NG SPARTAN • Ang bagong silang na sanggol ay sinusuri ng isang komite. – Pinapatay ang sanggol kapag mahina. Inihuhulog sa bangin. • Pinapasok sa isang espesyal na pagsasanay sa gulang na pito. – Nananatiling kasapi hanggang18. – Ang mga babae ay nananatili sa bahay ngunit ang mga lalaki ay nakatira sa mga barracks. – Sinasanay ang mga lalaki upang maging mahusay na mga mandirigma. • Sinasanay sa palakasan at pakikidigma, sinanay silang magtiis sa hirap at huwag magreklamo.
  6. 6. pagsasanay • Nagsisimula ang pormal na pagsasanay sa edad na 18 – 2 taon upang makumpleto ang pagsasanay • Sa gulang na 20 silay tumitira sa barracks o dormitoryo sa kampo. – Ang mga lalaking ito ay naging miyembro ng Asembleya sa gulang na 30 • Hindi pinahihintulutan mag-asawa so loob ng 10 taon. – Naglilingkod sa militar hanggang sa gulang na 60
  7. 7. Ang Lipunang Spartan spartiate periocci helot • Ang mga mamamayan at sundalo • Mga mangangalakal at malalayang tao • Aliping tagabungkal ng lupa
  8. 8. HELOTS • Ang mga lalaking Spartan ay pinagkakalooban ng mga lupain upang masuportahan ang sarili – Ang pagsasaka ay isinasagawa ng mga helots – Ang mga helots ay.. • Mga aliping pag-aari ng pamahalaan ng Sparta • Lahat ng gawain ay nakaatang sa mga helots
  9. 9. Mga batang Spartan
  10. 10. • Ginawang mga helots ang mga nasakop mula sa Peloponnesus – Hindi malaya ang mga helots – Maaaring magkapamilya, ngunit hindi maaaring iwanan ang mga lupang sakahan. – Noong 6th Century B.C. higit na mas marami ang populasyon ng helots kumpara sa mga mamamayang Spartan. 10=1
  11. 11. • Lahat ng mga Spartans ay pantay-pantay – Hinikayat ang simpleng pamumuhay ng mga Spartan upang hindi magkaroon ng pagitan ang mayayaman at mahihirap. – Ipinagbawal ang mga alahas, magagarbong kasuotan, luho at pagmamay-ari ng mga yaman.
  12. 12. • Ang mga babae ay nag- aasawa sa gulang na 18 o 20 ngunit namumuhay ng malayo sa asawa. – Ang mga lalaki ay nakatira sa mga barracks hanggang sa gulang na 30 kung saan maaari na silang magtayo ng pamilya. – Ang mga babae ay kailangang maging malusog upang manganalk ng malusog na sanggol.
  13. 13. Pamahalaan ng Sparta • May 2 hari – Pinamumunuan ang Spartan Army at ang kabuuan ng Sparta – Ang pagiging hari ay namamana • Gerousia – Binubuo ng konseho ng 28 tao – Lahat ng 60 taon pataas ay kasapi – Nagpapanukala ng mga batas • Asembleya ng mga Spartans – Lahat ng lalaking nasa hustong gulang ay kasapi – Maaaring bumoto sa mga batas – Pinamumunuan ng 5 kasapi ng ephors King Leonidas
  14. 14. Lumawak ang kapangyarihan dahil sa pagkontrol sa Peloponnesian League Nagpupulong upang pagusapan ang mga mahahalagang isyu ng lungsod-estado. Ang mga desisyon ay isinasagawa sa pamamagitan ng boto ng nakararami. SPARTA CONTROLLED THE PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE
  15. 15. pamahalaan athens • Demokratikong lungsod- estado • Asembleya- pinakamakapangyarihan sa lahat. Binubuo ng kalalakihang 18 patanda. • Konseho ng 500- namamahala sa estado • 10 heneral-mga mambabatas at administrador sparta • Militarismong lungsod- estado • Asembleya- may kaunting kapangyarihan • Konseho ng matatanda- namamahala sa estado, may kakayahang gumawa ng mga batas
  16. 16. Pamahalaan athens • Delian League liga o samahan ng mga lungsod estado sparta • Peloponnesian League itinatag ng Sparta
  17. 17. REFORMS OF SOLON • Abolished practice of enslaving a person for unpaid debts and freed all persons enslaved for that reason • Abolished all feudal obligations that commoners owed the aristocracy • Widened political participation – Broke monopoly aristocrats had over Council of Athens, elected positions, and Assembly of Athens – Allowed all citizens regardless of wealth to serve in Assembly – Opened up position of archon and seat in Council of Athens to wealthy hoplites – Created new 400 member body which acted as Supreme Court – Established right of any citizen to bring a case to court
  18. 18. REFORMS BACKFIRE A LITTLE • Solon’s reforms went long way towards opening up Athenian society and government to a greater number of people – But they did not immediately end the turmoil that plagued the city • Athens did prosper – Rapid population growth, geographic expansion, various public works projects – But Solon’s reforms increased infighting by multiplying the number of factions struggling for control • Even resulted in several dictatorships (tyrannies)
  19. 19. REFORMS OF CLEISTHENES • Cleisthenes kept promise to demos – Population of city and region divided into ten tribes – Each included people from all walks of life – Each elected representatives to the Council, elected generals and public officials, and jurors to Supreme Court • Cleisthenes permanently broke power of old aristocracy and established the foundation for democracy
  20. 20. ARCHAIC GREECE • At beginning of period, most of the Aegean world was divided into independent principalities – Had simple social structures with nobility on top and everyone else below • By 500 BC, principalities had been transformed into city- states – Aristocracy reduced to just one faction of many – Aristocratic value system subsided in favor of a new one based on service to the community and the law
  21. 21. POETS • Old value system of aristocracy was based on fighting and an obsession with honor – But the new city-state, with its commercial and business activities, had little use for a bunch of jealous, warring aristocrats with their inflated sense of honor • Required instead justice, established by law according to rational and regular procedures • Poets at the forefront of attack on old aristocratic value system – Example: Archilocus – Argued old aristocratic and heroic values were out of touch with the times • Silly and counter to the need for law and order
  22. 22. CHANGES IN RELIGION • Gods reflected aristocratic values in Homer’s poems – Obsessed with fighting, killing, and performing heroic feats • During the Archaic Ages, gods became more interested in justice – Urged men to be content with their lot in life • To go against this was now considered hubris – Insolence against the gods • Religion modified during Archaic Age to reinforce new value system and discourage the old
  23. 23. SUMMARY • Mutually-reinforcing cycle – Growth of business and trade undermined the aristocratic monopoly over society • Decline of aristocracy was accompanied by a parallel decline in their value system – Helped by propaganda attacks by poets and a gradual shift in religious emphasis – Decline of aristocratic value system was paralleled by the rise of a new value system based on law, order, and stability • Encouraged further business growth and prosperity – Sped up the decline of the aristocracy – Provided good environment for development of literature and beginning of philosophic and scientific speculation
  24. 24. GREEK POLITICAL CULTURE • In Greek polis, the state was society – Two were completely integrated with each other • Power was not delegated to a permanent group of legislators, judges and bureaucrats – Citizens were expected to play an immediate and direct role in legislation, the judiciary, and executive policy-making • Fundamental principle of most Greek city-sates that officials should be constantly changed – Giving almost everyone a chance to actively running the polis
  25. 25. PRIVATE SPHERE/PUBLIC SPHERE • No “diffusion of loyalty” – No chance for citizen to develop non-state loyalties • Only one state religion • No non-state cultural associations – All art was public and all cultural events were state affairs – Nothing in the Greek polis existed to distract the citizen from his loyalty to the state • Private sphere linked tightly to the state, focusing everyone’s absolute loyalty to that institution
  26. 26. POLITICAL ASSUMPTIONS • Taken for granted that all important questions regarding policy-making, legislation, and judiciary was the concern of all citizens – Professionals did not dominate government • Power was not dissipated among a multitude of specialized departments and institutions – Rested fully in the hands of the people
  27. 27. CITIZENSHIP • All city-states restricted who could become a citizen – General tendency in Archaic Age was towards less restrictivness • Citizens only made up part of total population – Rest were foreigners, slaves, and freedmen
  28. 28. SLAVES AND FREEDMEN • Slaves played crucial role in economy of all city-states of ancient Greece – And in Sparta, they were the economy • Freedmen worked as craftsmen, small farmers, small retail merchants – But they worked for themselves, not for others • To work for someone else on a regular basis was the mark of a slave – Essential characteristic of a freedman was economic independence • No matter how low-level or demeaning the work they did
  29. 29. FREEDMEN • Freedmen often very poor – Did not view themselves as oppressed working class – Complaints directed against the rich • Especially wealthy creditors • Slogans concerned lack of political participation or the elimination of debts – Saw themselves as independent businessmen • Wanted recognition of their status and relief from the costs of doing business – Never formed any kind of alliance with slaves to overcome their mutual exploitation • Because they say themselves as inherently better than slaves
  30. 30. GREEK FAMILY • Archaic Greeks viewed family as immortal – Founded in mythical days and would continue forever – Male head of family therefore had to work to ensure this immortality • By expanding its economic base, performing religious rituals, worshipping ancestors, having children – Family without children was not considered a family at all • Family heads under great pressure to keep their families going by having children
  31. 31. MARRIAGE • Marriage was a carefully considered, regulated step – Were prearranged – Couple became engaged as children after long negotiations between parents – It was understood that love would develop after marriage • Not before
  32. 32. GREEK WOMEN • Greeks attached immense importance to chastity of citizen women – It was of utmost importance that legitimacy of offspring not be questions on the grounds of a pre- marital or extra-marital affair – Took every precaution to segregate women from men • Even set aside a part of the house for exclusive use of women – Adultery considered a serious crime that threatened foundation of the state • Not just a private matter
  33. 33. CITIZEN AND SLAVE WOMEN • Women had no political role – Charged with running households and nothing else • Slave women and freedman women had more freedom – Since they were not considered important enough to worry about • No one cared if their families remained intact or not • Could pretty well do what they wanted in their private lives
  34. 34. FINAL POINT • Neither male nor female citizens enjoyed a high degree of freedom (in the modern sense of the term) – Greek ideas of freedom implied conformity to community standards of behavior • Community needs defined the roles of men and women and restricted the freedom of both • Male family heads had little choice over who and when he should marry, whether to have children, etc. – Law and custom demanded that he subordinate his own needs and desires to those of his family and the community at large – In exchange, men and women enjoyed a strong and stimulating community life » A trade off between liberty and security, with security receiving the most emphasis