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Greek

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by:
Jason O. Salvadora
from UNEP, IRIGA CITY PHILIPPINES

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Greek

  1. 1. Klasikal na Kabihasnan<br />Ng Daigdig<br />SINAUNANG KABIHASNAN NG GRESYA<br />
  2. 2. Heograpiya<br />
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  5. 5. SinaunangKabihasnan ng Minoan at MycenaeanArchaic Greece (1450 - 700 B.C.E.) <br />
  6. 6. Kabihasnang Minoan<br />
  7. 7. Ang kabihasnangMinoe o sibilisasyongMinoano ay isang dating kabihasnan sa pulo ng Creta na nagsimulanoongPanahon ng Tansong-Pula. Umiiralitomulanoongmga 2700 BK. Tumagalitomagpahanggangmga 1450 BK, bagonapalitan ng kalinangangMiseneo. Hindi namantalaganalalaman ng mgadalubhasa kung ano ang tawag ng mgaMinoe o Minoanopara sa kanilangmgasarili, sapagkatnagmulalamangkaySir Arthur Evans ang kapangalanangMinoan, na ibinataymula sa maalamat o mitikongnilalang na si Haring Minos.<br />Mulingnatuklasan ang kalinangangMinoe sa pagsisimula ng ika-20 daangtaon sa pamamagitan ng pangunguna ni Evans, isangBritanikongarkeologo. Noong 1939, inilarawanito ni Will Durantbilang "ang unangugnay sa loob ng tanikalangEuropeo".<br />
  8. 8. kauna-unahangkabihasnangumusbong sa Greece<br />Pinamunuan ni Haring Minos na anak ni Zeus at Europa<br />Knossos – maunlad na lungsod at sentro ng Minoan na nasira dahil sa lindol, pagkasunog at pananalakay ng mga dayuhan.<br />Minotaur – isangdambuhala na may ulo ng toro at katawan ng tao na nasila ni Theseus, hari ng Athens.<br />
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  12. 12. Kabihasnang Mycenaean<br />Ang Miseno o Misenas ay isangpook na arkeolohikongnasaGresya. Matatagpuanito sa mga 90 kilometropatimog-kanluran ng Atenas, nasahilagang-silangan ng Peloponeso. Nasa 6 na kilometrongpatimognito ang Argos, habangnasa 48 kilometrongpahilagang-silangannaman ang Corinto. Mula sa burol na kinalalagyan ng palasyongMiseneo o Miseneano, matatanaw ang kahabaan ng Argolidpatungo sa GulpongSaroniko.<br />
  13. 13. Noongikalawangmilenyo BK, isa ang Miseno sa pangunahingsentro o lundayan ng kabihasnangGriyego. Isa itong malakas na puwersangmilitar na nangingibabaw sa karamihan ng katimugangGresya. Tumutukoy sa Miseno at MiseneongGresya (o MiseneanongKabihasnan) ang panahon ng Kasaysayan ng Gresyamulamga 1600 BK magpahanggangmga 1100 BK.<br />Sila ang pumalit sa kalinangangMinoano.<br />
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  15. 15. KilalangharisiKing Agamemnon ng Mycenae<br />Mycenae – pinakamalakinglungsod ng Mycenaean.<br />Ang karibal ng Troy, isang mayamang lungsod sa Asia Minor.<br />
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  19. 19. Kulturang HellenicHellenic/ Classical Greece (700 - 324 B.C.E.) <br />
  20. 20. Ang KlasikongGresya ay dating kultura na napakaunlad at mabigat na naimpluwensiyahan ang kultura ng Sinaunang Roma at sa karamihan ng Kanluraningmundo. Hinangomula sa karamihan sa makabagongpulitika, artistikongkaisipan, siyantipikongkaisipan, panitikan at pilosopiya ang sinaunanglipunan na ito. Sa konteksto ng sining, arkitektura, at kultura ng SinaunangGresya, umaayon sa klasikongpanahon ang karamihan sa mga ika-4 at ika-5 siglo.<br />
  21. 21. Hellen – ninuno<br />Hellenic – kabihasnan<br />Hellas – bansa<br />Hellenes – tao<br />
  22. 22. Ang pólis (Gryego: πόλις) ay isanglungsod o lungsod-estado. Orihinal itong tumukoy sa mgalungsodestado ng sinaunangGresya.<br />Pólis<br />
  23. 23. Archaic and Classical polis<br />Basic and indicating elements are:<br />Self-governance, autonomy and independence (city-state)<br />Agora: the social hub and financial marketplace, on and a round a centrally located large open space<br />Acropolis: the citadel, inside which a temple had replaced the erstwhile Mycenaeananáktoron (palace) or mégaron (hall)<br />Greek urban planning and architecture, public, religious, and private (see Hippodamian plan)<br />
  24. 24. Temples, altars and sacred precincts: one or more are dedicated to the poliouchos, the patron deity of the city; each polis kept its own particular festivals and customs (Political religion, as opposed to the individualized religion of the later antiquity). Priests and priestesses, although often drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class: they were ordinary citizens who, on certain occasions, were called to perform certain functions.<br />Gymnasia<br />Theatres<br />
  25. 25. Walls: used for protection from invaders<br />Coins: minted by the city, and bearing its symbols<br />Political life: it revolved around the sovereign Ekklesia (the assembly of all adult male citizens for deliberation and voting), the standing boule and other civic or judicial councils, the archons and other officials or magistrates elected either by vote or by lot, clubs, etc., and sometimes punctuated by stasis (civil strife between parties, factions or socioeconomic classes, e.g. aristocrats, oligarchs, democrats, tyrants, the wealthy, the poor, large or small landowners, etc.)<br />
  26. 26. Publication of state functions: laws, decrees and major fiscal accounts were published, and criminal and civil trials were also held in public<br />Synoecism, conurbation: Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, and the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis' citizens would have lived in the suburbs or countryside. The Greeks did not regard the polis as a territorial grouping so much as a religious and political association: while the polis would control territory and colonies beyond the city itself, the polis would not simply consist of a geographical area. Most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries (common-ancestry lineages), and finally génea (extended families)<br />
  27. 27. Social classes and citizenship: Dwellers in the polis were generally divided into four types of inhabitants, with status typically determined by birth: <br />Citizens with full legal and political rights, i.e. adult free men born legitimately of citizen parents. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, and the obligation to serve when at war.<br />Citizens without formal political rights, but full legal rights: the citizens' female relatives and underage children, whose political rights and interests were represented, and property held in trust, by their adult male relatives.<br />
  28. 28. Citizens of other poleis who chose to reside elsewhere (the metics, μέτοικοι, métoikoi, literally "transdwellers"): though free-born and possessing full rights in their place of origin, had full legal rights but no political rights in their place of residence. Metics could not vote, could not be elected to office, could not bear arms and could not serve in war. They otherwise had full personal and property rights, albeit subject to taxation.<br />Slaves: chattel in full possession of their owner, and with no privileges other what their owner would grant (or revoke) at will.<br />
  29. 29. The Acropolis of Athens as seen from Mount Lycabettus (northeast). The wooded Hill of the Nymphs is half-visible on its right, and Philopappos Hill on the left, immediately behind. Philopappos Monument stands where, in the distant background, the coast of Peloponnese meet the waters of the Saronic Gulf..<br />
  30. 30. A hoplite was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greekcity-states. Hoplites were primarily armed as spear-men and fought in a phalanx formation. The word "hoplite" (Greek: ὁπλίτηςhoplitēs; pl. ὁπλίταιhoplitai) derives from "hoplon" (ὅπλον, plural hoplaὅπλα), the type of the shield used by the soldiers, although, as a word, "hopla" could also denote weapons held or even full armament. In later texts, the term hoplite is used to denote any armored infantry, regardless of armament or ethnicity.<br />Hoplite<br />
  31. 31. A hoplite was primarily a free citizen who was usually individually responsible for procuring his armor and weapon. In most Greek city-states, citizens received at least basic military training, serving in the standing army for a certain amount of time. They were expected to take part in any military campaign when they would be called for duty. The Lacedaemonian citizens (Sparta) were renowned for their lifelong combat training and almost mythical military prowess, while their greatest adversaries, the Athenians, were exempted from service only after the 60th year of their lives.<br />
  32. 32. Phalanx<br />The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ, Modern Greek: φάλαγγα, phālanga) (plural phalanxes or phalanges; Ancient and Modern Greek: φάλαγγες, phālanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greekwarfare, although the ancient Greek writers used it to also describe any massed infantry formation, regardless of its equipment, as does Arrian in his Array against the Allans when he refers to his legions. <br />
  33. 33. In Greek texts, the phalanx may be deployed for battle, on the march, even camped, thus describing the mass of infantry or cavalry that would deploy in line during battle. They used shields to block others from getting in. They marched forward as one entity, crushing opponents. The word phalanx is derived from the Greek word phalanx, meaning the finger.<br />While the Spartan phalanx used a shorter more versatile spear, the Macedonian phalanx that Alexander commanded used a "sarisa" which was a much longer and heavier spear which required the use of two hands.<br />
  34. 34. Lungsod Estado ng Sparta<br />Famous ancient Spartans<br />Agis I – king<br />Agis II – king<br />Agesilaus II – king<br />Cleomenes I – king<br />Leonidas I (c. 520-480 BC) – king, famous for his actions at the Battle of Thermopylae<br />Cleomenes III – king and reformer<br />Lysander (5th–4th century BC) – general<br />Lycurgus (10th century BC) – lawgiver<br />Chionis (7th century BC) – athlete<br />Cynisca (4th century BC) – princess and athlete<br />Chilon – philosopher<br />Gorgo – queen and politician<br />Helen – of the Trojan War, Queen of Sparta<br />Menelaus – King of Sparta during the Trojan War<br />
  35. 35. manidirigmang polis<br />matatagpuansa Peloponnesus<br />sandatahanglakas at militar<br />pananakopnglupain at pagpapalakasngmilitar<br />Lacedaemon – dating pangalan<br />Oligarkiya<br />Karibalng Athens<br />Mandirigmang Polis ng Sparta<br />
  36. 36. PamahalaanMgaHarilahini Hercules<br />2 inihahalalngaristokrato<br />Pangunahanangsundalo at panrelihyongritwal<br />Assembly kalalakihan lampas 30 taonggulang<br />magpasangmgabatas, magpasya kung digmaan o kapayapaan<br />Ephors at Elders 5 bagongmiyembrongEphors<br />28 natao lampas 60 taonggulangangmga Elders<br />Uri ngLipunanAristocrats – mayayaman, pakikidigma<br />Perioeci – mangangalakal, malalayangtao<br />Helots – magsasaka, alipin<br />
  37. 37. Kulturamilitaristiko– makagawangmgamamamayangmagtatanggolsa Sparta; magingpinakamalakassaGresya; manakopnglupa<br />o 7 taonggulangangsimulang training ng military<br />o 20 taonggulangmagpapakasal<br />o 30 taonggulangmaninirahansakampo military hanggang 60 taonggulang<br />May kalayaanangmgakababaihan<br />o Makapagproducengmalusognabata<br />mahiligsabugtong, sports<br />takotsapagbabago<br />Xenophobia – takotsadayuhan<br />Masmahalagaangmilitar<br />
  38. 38. DahilanngPagbagsakAthens<br />Rebelyong Helots<br />Kurapsyon<br />Pagbabang birth rate<br />Kakulangansateknolohiya<br />
  39. 39. Demokratikong Polis<br />Cradle of the Western Civilization<br />Malapitsakaragatan (kalakalan)<br />Kapataganna may mgaburol at bundok (Mt. Lyccabettus)<br />Iniwasanangsentralisadongpamumuno at monarkiya<br />Demokratikong Polis ng Athens<br />
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  41. 41. PamahalaanIsinilangangDEMOKRASYA – pamahalaanngnakararami<br />Solon(638-559 BCE)<br />§ Lumikhang Council of 400<br />oPisistratus(608-527 BCE)<br />Cleisthenes <br />§ Ostracism – pinahihintulutanangmgamamamayannapalayasinangsinumangopisyalnamapanganibsa Athens<br />Pericles(443 – 429 BCE)<br />§ Tugatogngdemokrasya<br />§ Pag-uposaopisinangmgakaraniwangmamamayan<br />Direct Democracy – direktangnakababahagiangmga Athenians sapagpilingkinatawan at maaaringmanungkulan<br />Subalithindikasamaangmgababae at banyaga<br />
  42. 42. KulturaLahatngmgalalaki ay edukado<br />o Sa edadna7 – 18 taonggulang, sila ay pinag-aaralsamgapribadongpaaralan o mgapribadong tutor; walangpampublikongpaaralan<br />§ Pagbasa<br />§ Pagsulat<br />§ Math<br />§ Palakasan<br />§ Pagkanta at Paggamitngmgainstrumento<br />o Pagdatingng 18 taonggulang, sila ay sumusumpasaharapni Zeus, pamilya at kaibiganupangganapngmagingmamamayanng Athens<br />o Katungkulan: saumaga - magtrabaho, sagabi - makipagpulong<br />
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  45. 45. Panahon ni Pericles: Ang Golden Age ng AthensGolden Age ng Democracy<br />Golden Age - pinakamataasnaantasng: kapangyarihan<br />kayamanan<br />kultura<br />Kapayapaan<br />Pamanang Golden Age ng Athens demokrasya<br />trial by jury – paghaharapsa 500 jury<br />epics – mahahabangtulatungkolsamgabayani at diyos<br />scientific method<br />architecture<br />theatre<br />Socratic Method – Question and Answer method<br />Philosophy<br />Olympics (karangalanni Zeus)<br />Arkitektura<br />Mga Columns: Donic, Ionic, Corinthian<br />
  46. 46. Istruktura:<br />o Parthenon – templonaparangalkay Athena<br />§ Phidias – gumawangpalamuting Parthenon<br />o Agora – parisukatnalugarbukasparasamgapagsasalo at pagtitipon<br />o Temple of Olympian Zeus – temploparangalkay Zeus, angangharing Olympian Gods<br />Mga Ambag ng Kabihasnan ng Gresya Mga Dakilang Griyego <br />
  47. 47. Agham<br />o Pythagoras – Geometry (Pythagorean Theorem)<br />o Archimedes – circumference ngbilog; specific gravity<br />o Euclid – Amang Geometry<br />o Aristarchus – rebolusyon at rotasyonngmundo<br />o Erastosthenes – circumference ngdaigdig; latitude at longitude samapa<br />Drama<br />o Aristophanes – tanyagsapagsulatngkomedya<br />o Aeschylus,Sophocles, Euripedes– drama/trahedya<br />
  48. 48. Medisina<br />o Hippocrates – AmangMedisina<br />o Herophilus – Amang Anatomy<br />o Erasistratus – Amang Physiology<br />Kasaysayan<br />o Herodotus – AmangKasaysayan<br />o Thucydides – sumulatng History of the Peloponnesian War<br />
  49. 49. Pilosopiya<br />o Socrates – katwiran at hindiemosyonangdapatmanaigsapag-uugali; <br />§ “the unexamined life is not worth living”<br />o Plato – estudyanteni Socrates; <br />§ angbatas ay parasalahat; <br />§ tangingmgapilosopoangmaaaringmagingmatalino at magagalingnapinuno<br />o Aristotle – estudyanteni Plato; guroni Alexander the Great<br />§ pinag-aralanangmgahayop, halaman, astronomiya, at pisika; <br />§ tiningnanangiba’tibanguringpamahalaan<br />
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  53. 53. AngSinaunangPalarongOlimpiko ay isinasagawangmgaGriyegoparaparangalanangmgadiyos. Nagmumulaangmgaatleta, angmgakalahoknamanlalaro, salahatngmgalungsodngGresya. GinaganapangmgaPalarongOlimpikotuwingikaapatnataonsabuwanngAgosto. Kabilangsamgakaganapangpalaro at palakasanangbuno, suntukan, paghahagisngdiskus at habelina, mgaunahansapagtakbo. Tangingmgakoronalamangnayarisamgadahonanggantimpala, subalitsadyangnagingnapakahalagangkarangalansapagwawagi kung kaya'tumaabotngmgataonangidinaraosnapagsasanayngmgakalalakihanparamakaipagtunggali at mapanalunanangkoronangdahon.<br />Sinaunang Palarong Olimpiko<br />
  54. 54. BinubuoangmitolohiyangGriyegongisangmalakingbahagingmgakoleksyonngmgasalaysaynaipinapaliwanagangpinagmulanngmundo at dinidetalyeangmgabuhay at pakikipagsapalaranngmgaiba'tibangmgadiyos, diyosa, at bayani. Sa una, ipinamamahagiangmgasalaysaynaitosaisangtradisyongtulang-pabigkas; angatingmgananatilingpinagkukunanngmgaGriyegongmitolohiya ay mgagawang pang-panitikanngtradisyonpagbigkas. Sumasalamin din angmitolohiyangGriyegosamgaartipakto, ilangmgagawangsining, lalonaiyongmgapintorngmgaplurera. TinutukoyngmgaGriyegomismoangmgamitolohiya at mgakaugnaynagawangsiningupangmagbigayliwanagsamgakultongpagsasanay at ritwalnamgatradisyonnanapakalumana at, minsan, hindinauunawangmabuti.<br />
  55. 55. Zeus -punongdiyos;panginoonnglangit<br />Hera - asawaniZeus;diyosanglangit<br />Phoebus - diyosngaraw;diyosngliwanag, musika, at propesiya<br />Poseidon - diyosngdagat<br />Hermes - diyosngkomersyo;sugongmgadiyos<br />Haphaestus - diyosngapoy;pandayngmgadiyos<br />Ares - diyosngdigmaan<br />Athena -diyosangkarunungan<br />Artemis - diyosangbuwan at pangangaso<br />Demeter - diyosangagrikultura at pertilidad<br />Hestia - diyosangapuyan at tahanan<br />Dionysius - diyosngalak<br />Aphrodite -diyosangkagandahan at pag-ibig<br />

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