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# Introduction to Statistics

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### Introduction to Statistics

1. 1. Meaning ,Scope and Importance of Statistics
2. 2. Meaning of Statistics Statistics STATISTICS Numerical Facts Statistical methods
3. 3. Statistics as numerical Facts It means numerical statements of facts in connection with any fields of knowledge or inquiry. Statistics as statistical methods It is a science which relate to the methods of collection ,classification, presentation, description ,analysis and interpretation of numerical facts or data.
4. 4. Plural Definition of Statistics • According to Horace Secrist “Aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed ,enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standards of accuracy , collected in a systematic manner for a pre-determined purpose and placed in relation to each other.”
5. 5. Plural Definition of Statistics • According to Yule and Kendall: “Quantitative data affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes.” • According to A. L. Bowley: “Numerical Statements of facts in any department of enquiry placed in relation to each other.”
6. 6. Characteristics of Statistics • Statistics are aggregate of facts. • Statistics has to be numerically expressed. • Statistics is data affected by multiplicity of causes. • Statistics must be enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standard of accuracy. • Statistics is collected in a systematic manner. • Statistics is collected for a pre-determined purpose. • Statistics is to be placed in relation to each other.
7. 7. Singular Definition of Statistics • According to Croxton and Cowden “Statistics may be defined as collection, presentation , analysis and interpretation of numerical data.”
8. 8. Importance of statistics in Economics • Understanding the performance of Economy. • Understand the importance of various Sectors of the Economy. • Studying the Regional Balances and Imbalances. • Studying the role of government in the Economy.
9. 9. Importance of statistics in Economics • Statistics for planned Development. • Better comprehension of the basic principals of Economics. • Statistics is helpful in research. • Statistics methods are used for functioning of an economy and the basic laws of Economics .
10. 10. Limitation of Statistics • Not Concerned with individual Observation. • Does not analyse Qualitative Phenomenon. • Statistics Generalization are true only on average. • Improper use of Statistics