Evolution of Power Electronics Engineering


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Paper Presented in PEES 2012 at Chitkara University.

Evolution of Power Electronics Engineering

  1. 1. Evolution of Power Electronics Engineering Presented By: Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya Department of Electrical Engineering National Institute of Technical Teacher’s Training & Research, Chandigarh Email: profmjv@yahoo.com11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 0
  2. 2. About… Power Electronics is the technology associated with the efficient solid- states conversion, control and conditioning of electrical power. Power electronics is the field of electronics which deals with conversion, control and switching of electrical energy for efficient utilization of power and playing a major role in revolutionizing the industrial processes. The fundamental of power electronics are well established and they do not change rapidly.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 1
  3. 3. About… However, the device characteristics are continuously being improved and new devices are added. With the emergence of the modern power devices, we have achieved saving in cost, space and energy, reduction in maintenance, improvement of reliability, high quality performance , complete controllability with maximum flexibility and clean environment. Power electronics occupies an indispensable position in the field of battery charging, UPS, electroplating, electrolysis, galvanization and welding.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 2
  4. 4. Cronology… 1891 - Ward - Leonard dc motor 1897 - Development of three diode rectifier (Graetz Circuit) 1902 - Mercury Arc Rectifier by Peter Cooper Hewitt (U.S.A) 1904 - Vacuum Diode by J. A. Fleming 1906 - Vacuum Triode by De-Forests 1909 - Steel Tank Mercury Arc Rectifier by B. Schaefer 1914 - Controlled Mercury Arc Rectifier by Langmuir 1926 - Hot Cathode Thyratron 1933 - Invention of Ignitron Rectifier 1948 - Invention of Transistor11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 3
  5. 5. Cronology… 1954 - Invention of Germanium Power Diode 1957 - Invention of SCR 1960 - Use of Mercury Arc Converter for HVDC 1971 - Vector Control of AC Motor is Introduced 1975 - Invention of Giant Power - BJT by TOSHIBA 1978 - Invention of Power – MOSFET 1980 - High Power GTO 1983 - IGBT Introduced 1987 - Fuzzy Logic Applied in Power Electronics 1991 - ANN applied to DC Motor Drive 1996 - Forward Blocking IGCT introduced by ABB11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 4
  6. 6. Power Electronic System…11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 5
  7. 7. Diversified Applications…Residential Air-conditioning; Cooking; Lighting; Space heating; Refrigerators; Electric Door Opening; Dryers; Fans; Personal Computer; Vacuum Cleaners; Washing and Sewing Machine; Light Dimmers; Food Mixture; Food Warmer Trays; Electronic Blankets.Commercial Advertising; Heating; Air-Conditioning; Central Refrigeration; Computer and Office Equipment; UPS; Elevator; Light Dimmer and Flashers.Aerospace Space Shuttle Power Supplier; Satellite Power Supplies; Air Craft Power System.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 6
  8. 8. Diversified Applications…Industrial Arc Furnace; Induction Furnace; Blowers and Fans; Pumps and Compressors; Industrial Lasers; Transformer Tap Changer; Rolling Mills; Textile Mills; Cement Mills; Sugar Mills; Coal Mining; Welding; Excavators.Transportation Traction Control of Electric Vehicle; Electric Locomotive and battery Charger; Street Cars, Trolley Buses, Subways.Tele-communication Battery Charger; DC Power Supplies; UPS.Utility System HVDC Transmission; HVAC Transmission; Excitation Systems; Static Circuit Breaker; Fans and boiler; Feed Pumps; Supplementary Energy System.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 7
  9. 9. Thyristor – Need of new era… The three terminal PNPN silicon based semiconductor device calledSilicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) having characteristics similar to thatof thyratron gas tube and structure wise it visualized as consisting ofthe two transistors (a p-n-p and an n-p-n, inter-connected to form aregenerative feedback pair). The name THYRISTOR is derived by a combination of the capitalletter from THYRatron and transISTOR. Thyristor is a general name given to a family of powersemiconductor switching devices, all of which are characterized by abistable switching action depending upon the PNPN regenerativefeedback.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 8
  10. 10. Members of Thyristor family… Diac , Triac SCS (Silicon Controlled Switch) LASCS (Light Activated SCS) LASCR (Light Activated SCR) PUT (Programmable Unijunction Transistor) LAPUT (Light Activated PUT) SUS (Silicon Unilateral Switch) SBS (Silicon Bilateral Switch) ASBS (Asymmetrical SBS) ASCR (Asymmetrical SCR) LAS (Light Activated Switch) RCT (Reverse Conducting Thyristor)11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 9
  11. 11. Thyristor Categories… The power electronic circuits which are also known as “ThyristorisedPower Controller” generally classified into the following five broadcategories 1. AC – DC Converter 2. DC – AC Converter 3. DC – DC Converter 4. AC – AC Converter 5. AC Voltage controllers11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 10
  12. 12. Application areas of Thyristor… CategoriesSr. of ApplicationsNo. thyristors1. AC – DC DC drives – rolling mills, , printing mills, textiles, Wire winders, , Converter electric traction; energy recovery scheme; power supplies-low (Rectifiers) power radio and electronic equipment, stabilized and uninterrupted supply, dc supply ac inverter systems; electrochemical and electrometallurgical process- electroplating, anodizing, galvanizing, aluminium reduction, metal refining, chemical gas production; battery charging; rectifier substation for traction system; HVDC systems; X-ray & welding equipment; reflectors and theatre dc lightning systems; adjustable reactive lightning systems; adjustable reactive load.2. DC – AC A.C. Drives – motoring and regenerative, electric traction; recovery; Converter supplies – purpose, uninterruptible emergency; HVDC transmission (Inverters) and transformers; High frequency melting furnace; surface heat treatment; Tempering; Dielectric drying; Medium frequency tools; Electronics of vehicles – shop and aircraft; ultra -centric fuses. 11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 11
  13. 13. Application areas of Thyristor… CategoriesSr. of ApplicationsNo. thyristors3. DC – DC D C Drives – Electric traction, battery operated vehicles, Converter regenerative drive; Slip ring induction motor rotor resistance (Choppers) control; Regulated dc power supplies; AC welding equipment; Electrostatic gas purifier; Temperature control in electric furnace; DC Static switch; Advertising Display and light dimming in theatres.4. AC – AC AC Drives – Induction and synchronous motor drives, Electric Converter traction, Gearless rotary kiln; rolling mills, Air craft generators; (Cyclo- Heating converters for furnaces; propulsion drive for electric Converters) locomotives.5. AC AC Drives – Large pump and fans; motor starters and fan regulators; Controllers Induction and resistance heating and control; static reactive power compensation; power supplies; Lamp dimmers. 11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 12
  14. 14. Modern Power Device Ratings… Maximum Maximum MaximumSr. Power Semiconductor Voltage in Current in Frequency inNo. Devices (volt) (Amp) (Hz) 1 Diode 3000 3500 1 2 Thyristor 6000 3500 1 3 SITH 4000 2200 20 4 GTO 4000 3000 10 5 Triac 1200 300 0.4 6 BJT 1200 400 10 7 MOSFET 1000 50 100 8 SIT 1200 300 100 9 IGBT 1200 400 20 10 MCT 1000 100 2011/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 13
  15. 15. Power Device Switching Conditions… Device Switching ConditionSCR, GTO, SITH, MCT Turn - ONBJT, Power-MOSFET Continuous in Turn-ONIGBT, SITSCR, GTO Withstand BipolarBJT, Power - MOSFET Withstand uni-polarIGBT, MCTTRIAC, RCT Bi-directional devicesDiode, Power-MOSFET, SCR, GTO Uni-directional devicesBJT, IGBT, SITH, SIT, MCT 11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 14
  16. 16. Modern Control of Power Electronics… The recent advent of microelectronic components and chips has reduces the size and cost to the controller and has improved the performance. 1. Microcontroller and Microcomputer Control 2. FPGA and VLSI Control 3. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Control 11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 15
  17. 17. Future Scope… Within the next 20 years, power electronics will shape and conditionthe electricity somewhere between its generation and all its users.Power electronics, therefore, should now be considered as a full-fledgedand independent technological discipline, and should be placed with fulldignity in all the university curricula. The on-going development of interconnection standards andregulations will present both market opportunities and technologychallenges for the power electronics industries. Future trends and development efforts will need of focus onimproving efficiency and reliability, communication and interface,thermal management, reduce parts and points of failure, packagingand bringing down the cost.11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya 16
  18. 18. THANK YOU11/24/2012 Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya