Remembering Information


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Remembering Information

  2. 2. <ul><li>Do you think that reading your textbook and studying are the same thing? </li></ul><ul><li>Or… do you have trouble remembering what you have read? </li></ul>READING VS. STUDYING
  3. 3. <ul><li>Requires that you put the material into your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Making sense of what you have read </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul>REFLECTING: THINKING ABOUT INFORMATION
  4. 4. REHEARSING: GETTING INFO INTO YOUR MEMORY <ul><li>Acting on information in a way that it moves from STM to LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Two basic ways of rehearsing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Say it again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get it in writing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. REHEARSING: GETTING INFO INTO YOUR MEMORY <ul><li>Say it again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat the information to yourself over and over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get it in writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions and Answers </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CONCEPT CARDS <ul><li>On the front of the concept (flash) card, put the term you want to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Under the term, put the page in the text where more information can be found </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper-right-hand corner, put a word or phrase that helps you organize the information by providing the larger concept </li></ul><ul><li>On the back of the card, write all the important information you need to remember-definition, examples, etc </li></ul><ul><li>When you rehearse, look at the front of the card, say the term and all of the information you should know about it- Flip the card over to see how much information you remembered </li></ul><ul><li> Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Short-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>p. 322 </li></ul><ul><li>-brief-lasts only ~30 sec </li></ul><ul><li>-capacity = 7 +/- 2 items </li></ul><ul><li>-chunking helps keep add. Info in STM </li></ul><ul><li>Ex – 555-1085 (last 4 digits are my birthday month and year) </li></ul>
  7. 7. CONCEPT MAP <ul><li>Outlines that are constructed in such a way that you can see how information is related </li></ul>
  8. 8. CHARTS <ul><li>Charts are a good rehearsal strategy to use when you know you will have to compare and/or contrast information </li></ul>STM LTM Purpose Stores info for brief periods Store info for long periods Length ~30 sec Unlimited Capacity 7 +/- 2 items Unlimited, never fills up Role of rehearsal Maintenance reh. -“refreshes” info in STM Elaborative reh. -Necessary to get info to LTM
  9. 9. TIME LINES <ul><li>Time lines are used only when you have information you need to know in chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>Include more information- not just the event, but the event was important to know </li></ul>Date Events and Impacts 1971 Nixon installs secret tape recorder in White House. Wants to stop info leaks out of WH. Washington Post begins publishing the Pentagon Papers 1972 Fiver burglars arrested in Democrats national office at Watergate hotel trying to place “bugs.” GOP aide among those arrested. Nixon reelected with large majority vote. 1973 Former Nixon aides Liddy and McCord are convicted. Senate hearing on Watergate begin. VP Agnew resigns due to charges of tax evasion. Nixon ordered to turn over WH tapes---missing 18.5 minutes go unexplained
  10. 10. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS <ul><li>Begin with traditional question words/ If you know your test will focus mostly on memorizing info, concentrate on questions that begin with who, what, where, and when. </li></ul><ul><li>If the test questions will be more thinking and synthesis questions, write quite a few why and how questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right format. Put your questions on the left-hand side of your paper and the answers on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>When you study, cover up the answer to the question and talk through the info. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncover the answer to see how accurate and complete your talk through was. </li></ul><ul><li>Use highlighter to mark questions that you need to spend more time on. </li></ul>Questions Answers Define and give an example of chunking. Chunking is the grouping of items together so that you can increase the capacity of STM Ex. Telephone # Why would you have trouble remembering this sequence of letters in your STM: imagoodstudent? Because 14 pieces of info exceeds the capacity of STM. It only holds 7+/- 2 pieces of info
  11. 11. <ul><li>Reviewing helps you to hold onto the info you’ve learned </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk-Through Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study Group </li></ul></ul>REVIEWING: KEEPING INFO IN MEMORY
  12. 12. Talk-Through Cards <ul><li>Use an index card and list the key pieces of info you need to remember in an organized way. </li></ul><ul><li>How much info you will put on your cards depends on the topics-for a difficult concept, you might just talk through one or two pieces of info per card. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>3 Processes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Encoding 2. Storage 3. Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sensory Store 2. Short-term (STM) 3. Long-Term(LTM) </li></ul><ul><li>gatekeeper capacity capacity </li></ul><ul><li>role of senses length duration </li></ul><ul><li>processing role of chunking & ex </li></ul><ul><li>role of rehearsal- </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance and </li></ul><ul><li>elaborative </li></ul>
  13. 13. STUDY GROUPS <ul><li>They include classmates, but not necessarily your good friends. </li></ul><ul><li>They are relatively small. Five members is about the max any group should have. </li></ul><ul><li>All members pull their weight. </li></ul><ul><li>The groups don’t take place of reflecting and rehearsing on your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Study groups are best used for reviewing info, for troubleshooting difficult material, and for testing each other. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have regular study group, meet at the same time and place each week. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Professors expect you to be aware of any problems you are having understanding the material. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not understanding the material you can ask the professor, get a tutor, or get help from another student in class. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T wait till the last minute to read over the material for your test. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make notes on any concepts you do not understand. </li></ul>MONITORING YOUR LEARNING
  15. 15. <ul><li>Keep up with your reading and other assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about your understanding of the concepts as you complete each assignment and hear lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your learning at the end of each study period by quickly talking through or summarizing what you have learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest with yourself- if you don’t understand something, get help. </li></ul>MORE ON MONITORING YOUR LEARNING