Welcome to Psychology! <ul><li>Mrs. Parsons </li></ul><ul><li>Room ? </li></ul>
What is “Psychology”? <ul><li>Psychology is the  scientific study of behavior and mental processes of animals and humans. ...
Topics to be Discussed <ul><li>Memory and Stress </li></ul><ul><li>History and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Brain, Body, and...
Grading <ul><li>60% = MAJOR GRADES (tests and projects) </li></ul><ul><li>40% = DAILY GRADES (class assignments, quizzes, ...
Tardies <ul><li>Any student will be counted tardy by the instructor if they are not inside the classroom when the tardy be...
Make-Up Work <ul><li>For test, the student has 5 school days to makeup the test.  Projects are due  the day the student re...
Late Work <ul><li>Late work is not acceptable.  However, I will accept it at a penalty of 11 points off each day it is lat...
Notebooks and Supplies <ul><li>You must have the following supplies every day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen or pencil </li></...
Headphones/Electronics/Cell Phones <ul><li>Electronics are not allowed in the classroom, without the teacher’s permission....
Food/Drinks in the Classroom <ul><li>Only water in clear water bottles is allowed in my classroom. </li></ul>
Dress Code <ul><li>All dress code guidelines in the CFISD Student Handbook will be enforced. </li></ul>
Academic Dishonesty <ul><li>There is ZERO tolerance for academic dishonesty. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes cheating, cop...
Classroom Procedures <ul><li>Be Prepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come to class on time with homework completed, and supplies...
Now, let’s get to know each other!
Panther Pride, Live the Tradition Monday, August 24 th 2nd Period Polite in the Hallways/Stairwells
Being Polite in the Hallways is…
Tuesday, August 25 <ul><li>Objective: Discuss memory processes </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up collage handout </li></ul>
Memory and Forgetting -As you take notes, pay attention to the bottom of the slides. “ TRQ” indicates that the answer to a...
Information Processing Model <ul><li>Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Information Processing Model
Let’s test your memory <ul><li>Watch the following clip, and pay close attention to the details  </li></ul>
Questions <ul><li>What was the first layer mentioned in the clip? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the topping on the pizza? </l...
How difficult is it to memorize 30 random numbers? Using Short Term Memory
You have 30 seconds to memorize the following numbers
Now write them down, in sequential order <ul><li>4-9 Correct :  Average </li></ul><ul><li>10-19 Correct :  Extraordinary <...
Which task was easier?
Now watch a super-memorist demonstrate his abilities Super Memorist-#20
Deja Vu <ul><li>déjà vu is a feeling that what you are experiencing, you have experienced it before </li></ul><ul><li>Have...
Do you have Deja Vu?
Listen to the following words carefully... <ul><li>REST </li></ul>
<ul><li>TIRED </li></ul>
<ul><li>AWAKE </li></ul>
<ul><li>DREAM </li></ul>
<ul><li>SNORE </li></ul>
<ul><li>BED </li></ul>
<ul><li>EAT </li></ul>
<ul><li>SLUMBER </li></ul>
<ul><li>SOUND </li></ul>
<ul><li>COMFORT </li></ul>
<ul><li>WAKE </li></ul>
<ul><li>NIGHT </li></ul>
Now write as many of the words down as you can... <ul><li>Do you remember the word “Aardvark”? </li></ul><ul><li>How about...
Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Tuesday, August 25 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Proud in the H...
Being proud in the hallways is…
Wednesday, August 26 <ul><li>Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Signe...
Encoding: Serial Position Effect
How many US presidents can you name? <ul><li>On a sheet of paper, list the names of all the US presidents you can, in orde...
US Presidents <ul><li>Listen as I read the list of presidents. </li></ul><ul><li>How many of you put “Washington”? </li></...
Serial Position Effect <ul><li>Tendency to recall the first and last items in a list more easily </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy...
Primacy/Recency Effect
Encoding:  Automatic and Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing <ul><li>Unconscious process of encoding certain information without effort </li></ul><ul><li>Usually ...
Effortful Processing <ul><li>Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>The best processing i...
Automatic/Effortful Processing
Encoding: Encoding Meaning
Encoding Exercise <ul><li>Read the instructions at the top of the page silently. </li></ul><ul><li>This activity will demo...
Semantic Encoding <ul><li>Encoding of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding information that is meaningful enhances recall </...
Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Now get out a sheet of scratch paper and number to 18. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the adjec...
Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Now, flip your paper over, and number to 18. </li></ul><ul><li>List all the adjectives you c...
Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Maki...
Overlearning <ul><li>Continuing to rehearse even after it has been memorized </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsing  past the point ...
Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Wednesday, August 26 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared in ...
Being prepared in the hallways is…
Thursday, August 27 <ul><li>Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-...
Encoding: Spacing of Rehearsal
Spacing Effect <ul><li>The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed pra...
Distributed Practice <ul><li>Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Usu...
Massed Practice <ul><li>Putting all rehearsal together in one long session (cramming) </li></ul><ul><li>Not as effective a...
Rehearsal <ul><li>Conscious repetition of information </li></ul><ul><li>The more time spent on rehearsal, the more informa...
Rehearsal and Retention
Encoding:
Semantic Encoding
Acoustic Encoding <ul><li>Encoding information based on the sounds of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory informati...
Acoustic Encoding
Visual Encoding <ul><li>Encoding information based on the images of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic memory is a m...
Visual Encoding
Encoding: Encoding Imagery
Encoding Imagery <ul><li>Visual images easily encode </li></ul><ul><li>Especially extremely positive or negative images </...
Encoding: Organizing Information
Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
Chunking
Chunking <ul><li>Organizing information into meaningful units </li></ul><ul><li>More information can be encoded if organiz...
 
Storage
Three Storage Systems <ul><li>Three distinct storage systems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Storage: Sensory Memory
Sensory Memory <ul><li>Brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic stor...
Storage: Short-Term Memory
Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Part of your memory system that contains information you are conscious aware of before it is sto...
Short-Term Memory
Storage: Long-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>Holds memori...
Flashbulb Memory <ul><li>Vivid, clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event </li></ul><ul><li>Can be person...
Storage: Explicit and Implicit Memories
Explicit Memory <ul><li>Memory of facts and experiences  </li></ul><ul><li>Processed through the hippocampus </li></ul><ul...
Explicit Memories
Explicit Memories
Implicit Memory <ul><li>Memory of skills and procedures  </li></ul><ul><li>Processed through the cerebellum </li></ul><ul>...
Implicit Memories
Implicit Memories
Retrieval
Retrieval Exercise <ul><li>Remembering the Seven Dwarfs. </li></ul>
Step One <ul><li>On a sheet of paper, silently list the names of the seven dwarfs that appear in the Disney film,  Snow Wh...
Step Two <ul><li>Let’s Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How difficult was this task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you have...
Step Three <ul><li>Look at your list and examine the order that you recalled the names.  Is there any pattern? </li></ul><...
Silently, decide which are correct <ul><li>Grouchy </li></ul><ul><li>Gabby </li></ul><ul><li>Fearful </li></ul><ul><li>Sle...
The Correct List <ul><li>Sleepy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy </li></ul><ul><li>Bashful </li></ul><ul><li>Dopey </li></ul><ul><l...
Step 5 <ul><li>Now, flip your paper over and once again, list the seven dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>You have sixty seconds </...
Debrief <ul><li>When you were first asked to list the seven dwarves, you were using your long-term memory </li></ul><ul><l...
Retrieval <ul><li>The process of getting information out of memory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of retrieval </li><...
Recall <ul><li>Type of retrieval in which you must search for information that you previously stored </li></ul><ul><li>Ess...
Recognition <ul><li>Type of retrieval in which must identify items learned earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice and m...
Retrieval
Retrieval: Context
Context Effect <ul><li>Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which...
Context Effect
Retrieval: State Dependency
State Dependent Memory <ul><li>Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in the same physical and emotional st...
Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Thursday, August 27 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Positive in t...
Being positive in the hallways is…
Friday, August 28 <ul><li>Objective: Apply memory enhancement techniques to everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Credit C...
Exploratorium <ul><li>Explore this website for a few minutes to learn memory enhancement techniques, and to play memory ga...
Forgetting and Memory Construction
Information Processing Model <ul><li>Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Forgetting as Encoding Failure
Encoding Failures <ul><li>People fail to encode information because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is unimportant to them </li>...
Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
Forgetting as Storage Failure
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) <ul><li>German philosopher who did early memory studies with nonsense syllables </li></ul><...
The Forgetting Curve (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885)
Forgetting Exercise <ul><li>The rumor chain </li></ul>
Permastore Memory <ul><li>Long-term memories that are especially resistant to forgetting and are likely to last a lifetime...
Storage Failure <ul><li>Occurs when information in our memory decays, and is forgotten </li></ul><ul><li>For example, do y...
Memory Loss <ul><li>Most memory loss occurs within a few days of encoding </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to information yo...
Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Interference
Interference <ul><li>A retrieval problem when one memory gets in the way of remembering another </li></ul><ul><li>Two type...
Proactive Interference <ul><li>When an older memory disrupts the recall of a newer memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #22 <...
Proactive Interference
Retroactive Interference <ul><li>When a more recent memory disrupts the recall of an older memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TR...
Retroactive Interference
Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Motivated Forgetting
Repression <ul><li>Part of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Process of moving anxiety-producing memories to...
Memory Construction
Memory Jigsaw Analogy <ul><li>Memories, rather than being like a video tape, are formed as bits and pieces. </li></ul><ul>...
Misinformation Effect <ul><li>Incorporating misleading information into a memory of an event </li></ul><ul><li>Affects eye...
Elizabeth Loftus (1944-  ) <ul><li>Does research in memory construction </li></ul><ul><li>Has found that subjects’ memorie...
Misinformation Effect
Memory Construction: Children’s Recall
Children’s Testimony on Abuse <ul><li>Research has shown children’s testimony to be unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Children ...
Watch the following clip on children as witnesses in abuse cases <ul><li>Need to get Quicktime player, or see if Google Vi...
Accurate Interviewing Methods <ul><li>To promote accuracy with children’s testimony the interviewer should: </li></ul><ul>...
Memory Construction: Recovered Memories
Accuracy of Memories
Homework <ul><li>This will be due Monday, no exceptions! </li></ul>
Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Friday, August 28 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Hallway Expecta...
Hallway Expectations
The End
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Memory trq

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Memory trq

  1. 1. Welcome to Psychology! <ul><li>Mrs. Parsons </li></ul><ul><li>Room ? </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is “Psychology”? <ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes of animals and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>The goals of psychology are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Topics to be Discussed <ul><li>Memory and Stress </li></ul><ul><li>History and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Brain, Body, and Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation and Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders and Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Consciousness </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grading <ul><li>60% = MAJOR GRADES (tests and projects) </li></ul><ul><li>40% = DAILY GRADES (class assignments, quizzes, homework, participation, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are typically 10-12 daily grades, and three major grades a semester. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Tardies <ul><li>Any student will be counted tardy by the instructor if they are not inside the classroom when the tardy bell finishes ringing. </li></ul><ul><li>Five tardies equals a “U” in conduct. A “U” will mean that you may not exempt the final, and can make you ineligible for some extracurricular activities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Make-Up Work <ul><li>For test, the student has 5 school days to makeup the test. Projects are due the day the student returns . It is the student’s responsibility to obtain missed assignments from the instructor. </li></ul><ul><li>I will not remind you to make up your tests or projects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Late Work <ul><li>Late work is not acceptable. However, I will accept it at a penalty of 11 points off each day it is late. Once the assignment is given a grade of a “0”, it cannot be made up. </li></ul><ul><li>For major grades, I will only accept a project two days late. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Notebooks and Supplies <ul><li>You must have the following supplies every day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pen or pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper or notebook to take notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other project supplies as needed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Headphones/Electronics/Cell Phones <ul><li>Electronics are not allowed in the classroom, without the teacher’s permission. This includes music players, portable gaming devices, and personal computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones are to be off, not on silent, and they will be collected and turned into the office if they are seen in my classroom. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Food/Drinks in the Classroom <ul><li>Only water in clear water bottles is allowed in my classroom. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dress Code <ul><li>All dress code guidelines in the CFISD Student Handbook will be enforced. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Academic Dishonesty <ul><li>There is ZERO tolerance for academic dishonesty. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes cheating, copying, plagiarizing, fabrications, or falsification. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is academic dishonesty, the student will receive a “0” for the assignment, receive a phone call home, and an office referral, which could lead to suspension. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classroom Procedures <ul><li>Be Prepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come to class on time with homework completed, and supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect your classmates and instructor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Polite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait in your seat until the dismissal bell rings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Proud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up after yourselves…this is YOUR classroom too! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Now, let’s get to know each other!
  15. 15. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition Monday, August 24 th 2nd Period Polite in the Hallways/Stairwells
  16. 16. Being Polite in the Hallways is…
  17. 17. Tuesday, August 25 <ul><li>Objective: Discuss memory processes </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up collage handout </li></ul>
  18. 18. Memory and Forgetting -As you take notes, pay attention to the bottom of the slides. “ TRQ” indicates that the answer to a test review question is on the slide. I will only do this for your first test
  19. 19. Information Processing Model <ul><li>Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – retention encoded information over time </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – process of getting information out of memory storage </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #1 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Information Processing Model
  21. 21. Let’s test your memory <ul><li>Watch the following clip, and pay close attention to the details </li></ul>
  22. 22. Questions <ul><li>What was the first layer mentioned in the clip? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the topping on the pizza? </li></ul><ul><li>Were any of the characters wearing a t-shirt? </li></ul>
  23. 23. How difficult is it to memorize 30 random numbers? Using Short Term Memory
  24. 24. You have 30 seconds to memorize the following numbers
  25. 25. Now write them down, in sequential order <ul><li>4-9 Correct : Average </li></ul><ul><li>10-19 Correct : Extraordinary </li></ul><ul><li>20-29 Correct : Brilliant </li></ul>
  26. 26. Which task was easier?
  27. 27. Now watch a super-memorist demonstrate his abilities Super Memorist-#20
  28. 28. Deja Vu <ul><li>déjà vu is a feeling that what you are experiencing, you have experienced it before </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever felt like you had déjà vu? </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists associate déjà vu with the information processing model </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see for ourselves. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Do you have Deja Vu?
  30. 30. Listen to the following words carefully... <ul><li>REST </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>TIRED </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>AWAKE </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>DREAM </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>SNORE </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>BED </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>EAT </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>SLUMBER </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>SOUND </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>COMFORT </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>WAKE </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>NIGHT </li></ul>
  42. 42. Now write as many of the words down as you can... <ul><li>Do you remember the word “Aardvark”? </li></ul><ul><li>How about the word “Sleep”? </li></ul><ul><li>Sure about that? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Tuesday, August 25 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Proud in the Hallways/Stairwells </li></ul>
  44. 44. Being proud in the hallways is…
  45. 45. Wednesday, August 26 <ul><li>Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Signed Syllabus is due </li></ul>
  46. 46. Encoding: Serial Position Effect
  47. 47. How many US presidents can you name? <ul><li>On a sheet of paper, list the names of all the US presidents you can, in order. </li></ul><ul><li>You have two minutes, and you must work by yourself. </li></ul>
  48. 48. US Presidents <ul><li>Listen as I read the list of presidents. </li></ul><ul><li>How many of you put “Washington”? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of you listed “Obama”? </li></ul><ul><li>What about “Lincoln”? </li></ul><ul><li>This exercise is a demonstration of the serial-position effect </li></ul>
  49. 49. Serial Position Effect <ul><li>Tendency to recall the first and last items in a list more easily </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy effect – the ability to recall information near the beginning of a list </li></ul><ul><li>Recency effect – the ability to recall information near the end of a list </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #2 </li></ul>
  50. 50. Primacy/Recency Effect
  51. 51. Encoding: Automatic and Effortful Processing
  52. 52. Automatic Processing <ul><li>Unconscious process of encoding certain information without effort </li></ul><ul><li>Usually information on space, time and frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Reading a book for fun </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #3 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Effortful Processing <ul><li>Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>The best processing is through rehearsal or practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Reading an assigned textbook </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #3 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Automatic/Effortful Processing
  55. 55. Encoding: Encoding Meaning
  56. 56. Encoding Exercise <ul><li>Read the instructions at the top of the page silently. </li></ul><ul><li>This activity will demonstrate semantic encoding. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Semantic Encoding <ul><li>Encoding of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding information that is meaningful enhances recall </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #4 </li></ul>
  58. 58. Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Now get out a sheet of scratch paper and number to 18. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the adjectives as I read them one at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Circle the number if the adjective could describe you. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Now, flip your paper over, and number to 18. </li></ul><ul><li>List all the adjectives you can remember hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Then fill out the handout. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Self-Reference Effect <ul><li>Enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Making information meaningful to a person by making it relevant to one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #5 </li></ul>
  61. 61. Overlearning <ul><li>Continuing to rehearse even after it has been memorized </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsing past the point of mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Helps ensure information will be available even under stress </li></ul><ul><li>For example, athletes might use this technique during practice before a game </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #6 </li></ul>
  62. 62. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Wednesday, August 26 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared in the Hallways/Stairwells </li></ul>
  63. 63. Being prepared in the hallways is…
  64. 64. Thursday, August 27 <ul><li>Objective: Analyze how humans encode, store, and retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-credit collage is due tomorrow </li></ul>
  65. 65. Encoding: Spacing of Rehearsal
  66. 66. Spacing Effect <ul><li>The tendency for distributed practice to yield better retention than is achieved through massed practice </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #7 </li></ul>
  67. 67. Distributed Practice <ul><li>Spreading rehearsal out in several sessions separated by period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Usually enhances the recalling of the information </li></ul>
  68. 68. Massed Practice <ul><li>Putting all rehearsal together in one long session (cramming) </li></ul><ul><li>Not as effective as distributed practice </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #7 </li></ul>
  69. 69. Rehearsal <ul><li>Conscious repetition of information </li></ul><ul><li>The more time spent on rehearsal, the more information one tends to remember. </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #8 </li></ul>
  70. 70. Rehearsal and Retention
  71. 71. Encoding:
  72. 72. Semantic Encoding
  73. 73. Acoustic Encoding <ul><li>Encoding information based on the sounds of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory information is held in sensory memory for 3-4 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #9 </li></ul>
  74. 74. Acoustic Encoding
  75. 75. Visual Encoding <ul><li>Encoding information based on the images of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic memory is a momentary sensory memory of visual data </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: 10 </li></ul>
  76. 76. Visual Encoding
  77. 77. Encoding: Encoding Imagery
  78. 78. Encoding Imagery <ul><li>Visual images easily encode </li></ul><ul><li>Especially extremely positive or negative images </li></ul>
  79. 79. Encoding: Organizing Information
  80. 80. Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
  81. 81. Chunking Take ten seconds to memorize the above line of letters.
  82. 82. Chunking
  83. 83. Chunking <ul><li>Organizing information into meaningful units </li></ul><ul><li>More information can be encoded if organized into meaningful chunks. </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #13 </li></ul>
  84. 85. Storage
  85. 86. Three Storage Systems <ul><li>Three distinct storage systems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Term Memory (includes Working Memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul></ul>
  86. 87. Storage: Sensory Memory
  87. 88. Sensory Memory <ul><li>Brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic store – visual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoic store – sound information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information held just long enough to make a decision on its importance </li></ul>
  88. 89. Storage: Short-Term Memory
  89. 90. Short-Term Memory <ul><li>Part of your memory system that contains information you are conscious aware of before it is stored more permanently or forgotten </li></ul><ul><li>Holds approximately seven, plus or minus two, chunks of information </li></ul><ul><li>Can retain the information as long as it is rehearsed </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “working memory” </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #11 </li></ul>
  90. 91. Short-Term Memory
  91. 92. Storage: Long-Term Memory
  92. 93. Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>Holds memories without conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #12 </li></ul>
  93. 94. Flashbulb Memory <ul><li>Vivid, clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event </li></ul><ul><li>Can be personal memories or centered around a shared event </li></ul>
  94. 95. Storage: Explicit and Implicit Memories
  95. 96. Explicit Memory <ul><li>Memory of facts and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Processed through the hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #14 </li></ul>
  96. 97. Explicit Memories
  97. 98. Explicit Memories
  98. 99. Implicit Memory <ul><li>Memory of skills and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Processed through the cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #14 </li></ul>
  99. 100. Implicit Memories
  100. 101. Implicit Memories
  101. 102. Retrieval
  102. 103. Retrieval Exercise <ul><li>Remembering the Seven Dwarfs. </li></ul>
  103. 104. Step One <ul><li>On a sheet of paper, silently list the names of the seven dwarfs that appear in the Disney film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>You have ninety seconds to do this </li></ul><ul><li>When you are finished, turn your paper over, and wait silently </li></ul>
  104. 105. Step Two <ul><li>Let’s Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How difficult was this task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you have the feeling that you knew the name, but were unable to retrieve it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is called “Tip of the Tongue” (TOT) phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  105. 106. Step Three <ul><li>Look at your list and examine the order that you recalled the names. Is there any pattern? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you do better if you only had to recognize the names? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You would only have to decide if the information is correct or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called “Recognition” </li></ul></ul>
  106. 107. Silently, decide which are correct <ul><li>Grouchy </li></ul><ul><li>Gabby </li></ul><ul><li>Fearful </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy </li></ul><ul><li>Jumpy </li></ul><ul><li>Hopeful </li></ul><ul><li>Bashful </li></ul><ul><li>Droopy </li></ul><ul><li>Dopey </li></ul><ul><li>Sniffy </li></ul><ul><li>Wishful </li></ul><ul><li>Sneezy </li></ul><ul><li>Doc </li></ul><ul><li>Pop </li></ul><ul><li>Grumpy </li></ul>
  107. 108. The Correct List <ul><li>Sleepy </li></ul><ul><li>Happy </li></ul><ul><li>Bashful </li></ul><ul><li>Dopey </li></ul><ul><li>Sneezy </li></ul><ul><li>Doc </li></ul><ul><li>Grumpy </li></ul>
  108. 109. Step 5 <ul><li>Now, flip your paper over and once again, list the seven dwarfs </li></ul><ul><li>You have sixty seconds </li></ul>
  109. 110. Debrief <ul><li>When you were first asked to list the seven dwarves, you were using your long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>If you were able to successfully list the dwarves the second time, then you were using your short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Your short-term memory can hold seven pieces of information. Coincidence? </li></ul>
  110. 111. Retrieval <ul><li>The process of getting information out of memory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul>
  111. 112. Recall <ul><li>Type of retrieval in which you must search for information that you previously stored </li></ul><ul><li>Essay, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer test questions test recall </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #15 </li></ul>
  112. 113. Recognition <ul><li>Type of retrieval in which must identify items learned earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice and matching test questions test recognition </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #15 </li></ul>
  113. 114. Retrieval
  114. 115. Retrieval: Context
  115. 116. Context Effect <ul><li>Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information </li></ul>
  116. 117. Context Effect
  117. 118. Retrieval: State Dependency
  118. 119. State Dependent Memory <ul><li>Enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in the same physical and emotional state you were in when you encoded the information </li></ul><ul><li>The retrieval state is congruent with the encoding state </li></ul>
  119. 120. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Thursday, August 27 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Positive in the Hallways/Stairwells </li></ul>
  120. 121. Being positive in the hallways is…
  121. 122. Friday, August 28 <ul><li>Objective: Apply memory enhancement techniques to everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Credit Collage due </li></ul>
  122. 123. Exploratorium <ul><li>Explore this website for a few minutes to learn memory enhancement techniques, and to play memory games </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Games </li></ul>
  123. 124. Forgetting and Memory Construction
  124. 125. Information Processing Model <ul><li>Encoding – process of getting information into the memory system </li></ul><ul><li>Storage - retention of encoded information over time </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – process of getting encoded information out of memory storage </li></ul>
  125. 126. Forgetting as Encoding Failure
  126. 127. Encoding Failures <ul><li>People fail to encode information because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is unimportant to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not necessary to know the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A decrease in the brain’s ability to encode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #16 </li></ul></ul>
  127. 128. Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
  128. 129. Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979)
  129. 130. Forgetting as Storage Failure
  130. 131. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) <ul><li>German philosopher who did early memory studies with nonsense syllables </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the forgetting curve, also called the “retention curve” or “Ebbinghaus curve” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #18 </li></ul></ul>
  131. 132. The Forgetting Curve (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885)
  132. 133. Forgetting Exercise <ul><li>The rumor chain </li></ul>
  133. 134. Permastore Memory <ul><li>Long-term memories that are especially resistant to forgetting and are likely to last a lifetime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #19 </li></ul></ul>
  134. 135. Storage Failure <ul><li>Occurs when information in our memory decays, and is forgotten </li></ul><ul><li>For example, do you remember what you ate for lunch last Wednesday? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #20 </li></ul></ul>
  135. 136. Memory Loss <ul><li>Most memory loss occurs within a few days of encoding </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to information you study after you have been tested on it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #21 </li></ul></ul>
  136. 137. Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Interference
  137. 138. Interference <ul><li>A retrieval problem when one memory gets in the way of remembering another </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of interference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retroactive interference </li></ul></ul>
  138. 139. Proactive Interference <ul><li>When an older memory disrupts the recall of a newer memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #22 </li></ul></ul>
  139. 140. Proactive Interference
  140. 141. Retroactive Interference <ul><li>When a more recent memory disrupts the recall of an older memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #22 </li></ul></ul>
  141. 142. Retroactive Interference
  142. 143. Forgetting as Retrieval Failure: Motivated Forgetting
  143. 144. Repression <ul><li>Part of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Process of moving anxiety-producing memories to the unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Supposed means of protecting oneself from painful memories </li></ul><ul><li>Not well-supported by research; stressful incidents are actually more likely to be encoded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRQ: #23, 24 </li></ul></ul>
  144. 145. Memory Construction
  145. 146. Memory Jigsaw Analogy <ul><li>Memories, rather than being like a video tape, are formed as bits and pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>People may retrieve only some of the pieces of the memory </li></ul>
  146. 147. Misinformation Effect <ul><li>Incorporating misleading information into a memory of an event </li></ul><ul><li>Affects eyewitness testimony </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #25 </li></ul>
  147. 148. Elizabeth Loftus (1944- ) <ul><li>Does research in memory construction </li></ul><ul><li>Has found that subjects’ memories vary based on the wording of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated the misinformation effect </li></ul><ul><li>TRQ: #26 </li></ul>
  148. 149. Misinformation Effect
  149. 150. Memory Construction: Children’s Recall
  150. 151. Children’s Testimony on Abuse <ul><li>Research has shown children’s testimony to be unreliable </li></ul><ul><li>Children are very open to suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>As children mature their memories improve </li></ul>
  151. 152. Watch the following clip on children as witnesses in abuse cases <ul><li>Need to get Quicktime player, or see if Google Videos will work </li></ul>
  152. 153. Accurate Interviewing Methods <ul><li>To promote accuracy with children’s testimony the interviewer should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase questions in a way the child can understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no prior contact with the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use neutral language and do not lead or suggest answers </li></ul></ul>
  153. 154. Memory Construction: Recovered Memories
  154. 155. Accuracy of Memories
  155. 156. Homework <ul><li>This will be due Monday, no exceptions! </li></ul>
  156. 157. Panther Pride, Live the Tradition <ul><li>Friday, August 28 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Period </li></ul><ul><li>Hallway Expectations </li></ul>
  157. 158. Hallway Expectations
  158. 159. The End

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