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Resilienza del patrimonio edilizio:
qualità intrinseche e strategie di intervento sostenibili
Prof. Fabio Fatiguso, Prof. ...
Global challenges in the built environment
Population increase
Total Global population in 2014 = 7 billion
Total Global po...
Global challenges in the built environment
Population increase
193,107 new people are being
added to world’s cities every ...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
Overhea...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, S. Haddad, F. Fiorito, ...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, Innovating to zero the ...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, Analyzing the heat isla...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, On the energy impact of...
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, On the energy impact of...
Economic impact
Global challenges in the built environment
Global and local climate change
Source: M. Santamouris, Innovat...
Impact on health
Source: M. Baccini, A. Biggeri, G. Accetta, T. Kosatsky, K. Katsouyanni, A. Analitis, H.R. Anderson, L. B...
future development has to follow the principle of
Resilience
“Capability of a system, a community or a society exposed to hazards to mitigate, resist,
change and recover from the effe...
THREE DIMENSIONS OF RESILIENCE
The case of the historic built environments
Inherent qualities and vulnerabilities of the h...
A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement
STRATEGIES TO ENSURE THE
BALANCE
PRESERVATION
ADAPTATION
EVERY D...
A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement
• Historical-geographical level
• Urban-architectural level
• Fu...
A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement
the assessment of weaknesses and
strengths in showing a resilien...
The case study: the Sassi of Matera
Due to its peculiar complexity, it is highly
representative of several aspects of the ...
URBAN -
ARCHITECTURAL
FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE
1. FOUNDATION NUCLEUS “CIVITA”
on the “Sperone Mediano” promontory, near valley...
• RUPESTRIAN CAVES excavated in the rock;
• MIXED DWELLINGS, with a single vaulted
room, the “lamione”, connected with
con...
THICK CAVITY MASONRIES
made out of local “tuff” limestone squared blocks
close the hypogea and border the structures built...
RESIDENTIAL USE (internal spaces) “NEIGHBORHOOD”
as relationships among people guaranteed mutual
protection, assistance an...
THE BIENNAL PLAN, 1988
THE SECOND BIENNAL PLAN, 1994
THE THIRD BIENNIAL PLAN, 2004
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
HISTORICA...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
QUALITIES AND VULNERABILITIES, TIME AND DIMENSIONS OF RESILIENCE
VULNERABILITIES  projectin...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
ENVIRONMENTAL
VULNERABILITIES
MORPHO-TYPOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT AND MECHANICAL
CHARACTERISTICS ...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
QUALITIES
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF RAINWATER
Self-sufficiency of rainwater with an efficient sy...
STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE COMPARTS
Abandoned open spaces and buildings, failing in protection and control
Vsc1
ANALYSIS...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
QUALITIES
LOCAL CONSTRUCTION TRADITION
Traditional techniques of construction as evidence of...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
VULNERABILITIES
CONNECTION WITH THE MODERN CITY
Limited fruition of “Sassi” with spaces of m...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
QUALITIES
TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT
Reuse and management of areas and buildings with balanced
fu...
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
FOCUS ON COMPART «A»
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF
RAINWATER
Self-sufficiency of rainwater with an
efficient system of canalization”
Qa1
BIOCLIMATIC BE...
STATE OF CONSERVATION
OF THE COMPARTS
Abandoned open spaces and
buildings, failing in protection and
control
Vsc1
ANALYSIS...
SOCIO-ECONOMIC
ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT
Reuse and management of areas
and buildings with balanc...
1) RESTORATION AND RETROFITTING OF THE BUILDING
- Reinforcement and dehumidification works (Va1, Va2, Va3)
- using traditi...
2) REUSE AND MAINTENANCE
- balancing residential and touristic uses (Vse2) and the high compatibility with the internal an...
3) RECONNECT PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL SPACES
- with the modern town (Vse1)
- guaranteeing higher accessibility levels (Vse3...
Conclusion
CASE STUDY TO SUPPORT THE VALIDATION OF THE
METHODOLOGY TOWARDS THE REPLICABILITY FOR SIMILAR
HISTORIC URBAN SI...
GRAZIE PER L’ATTENZIONE
fabio.fatiguso@poliba.it
francesco.fiorito@poliba.it
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Resilienza del patrimonio edilizio: qualità intrinseche e strategie di intervento sostenibili | Fabio Fatiguso, Francesco Fiorito (DICATECh, Politecnico di Bari)

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Living Buildings & Living Communities: la sfida della rigenerazione.
Matera, 06.02.2018.

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Resilienza del patrimonio edilizio: qualità intrinseche e strategie di intervento sostenibili | Fabio Fatiguso, Francesco Fiorito (DICATECh, Politecnico di Bari)

  1. 1. Resilienza del patrimonio edilizio: qualità intrinseche e strategie di intervento sostenibili Prof. Fabio Fatiguso, Prof. Francesco Fiorito Politecnico di Bari, Dipartimento DICATECh
  2. 2. Global challenges in the built environment Population increase Total Global population in 2014 = 7 billion Total Global population in 2050 = 9.5 billion
  3. 3. Global challenges in the built environment Population increase 193,107 new people are being added to world’s cities every day
  4. 4. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 OverheatingTrend(DegreesperDecade) Source : M. Santamouris, On The Energy Impact of Urban Heat Island and Global Warming on Buildings, Energy and Buildings, 82, 2014 (courtesy of Mattheos Santamouris)
  5. 5. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Urban_heat_island_%28Celsius%29.png
  6. 6. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, S. Haddad, F. Fiorito, P. Osmond, L. Ding, D. Prasad, X. Zhai, R. Wang, Urban heat island and overheating characteristics in Sydney, Australia. An analysis of multiyear measurements, Sustainability (Switzerland), 9 (5) (2017).
  7. 7. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, Innovating to zero the building sector in Europe: Minimising the energy consumption, eradication of the energy poverty and mitigating the local climate change, Solar Energy, 128 (2016) 61-94.
  8. 8. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, Analyzing the heat island magnitude and characteristics in one hundred Asian and Australian cities and regions, Science of the Total Environment, 512-513 (2015) 582-598.
  9. 9. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, On the energy impact of urban heat island and global warming on buildings, Energy and Buildings, 82 (2014) 100-113.
  10. 10. Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, On the energy impact of urban heat island and global warming on buildings, Energy and Buildings, 82 (2014) 100-113.
  11. 11. Economic impact Global challenges in the built environment Global and local climate change Source: M. Santamouris, Innovating to zero the building sector in Europe: Minimising the energy consumption, eradication of the energy poverty and mitigating the local climate change, Solar Energy, 128 (2016) 61-94.
  12. 12. Impact on health Source: M. Baccini, A. Biggeri, G. Accetta, T. Kosatsky, K. Katsouyanni, A. Analitis, H.R. Anderson, L. Bisanti, D. D'Iippoliti, J. Danova, B. Forsberg, S. Medina, A. Paldy, D. Rabczenko, C. Schindler, P. Michelozzi, Heat effects on mortality in 15 European cities, Epidemiology, 19 (5) (2008) 711-719. (Courtesy of Mattheos Santamouris) Athens 32,7 C -5,0 0,0 10 20 30 40 Barcelona 22,4 C Milan 31,8 C Rome 30,3 C Turin 27 C Valencia 28,2 C 0 1 2 3 -1 -2 -3 Apparent Temperature LogMortalityRate London 23,9 C Helsinki 23,6 C Praha 22,0 C Stockholm 21,7 C 27 32,721,7 23,9
  13. 13. future development has to follow the principle of Resilience
  14. 14. “Capability of a system, a community or a society exposed to hazards to mitigate, resist, change and recover from the effects in a timely and efficient manner, by keeping its functions and structures” City as a “resilient system” new perspectives for the planning and management models of towns Environ_ mental SocialEconomic Political The “resilient” experiences Resilient city dimensions
  15. 15. THREE DIMENSIONS OF RESILIENCE The case of the historic built environments Inherent qualities and vulnerabilities of the historic built environment SOCIO- CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIO- ECONOMIC EXPOSURE TO NATURAL HAZARDS (floods, earthquakes, temperature elevation) CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC AND ARCHITECTURAL VALUES vs PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE DEFICIENCIES IN SAFETY, WELL-BEING AND ACCESSIBILITY (functional, technological and normative obsolescence)
  16. 16. A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement STRATEGIES TO ENSURE THE BALANCE PRESERVATION ADAPTATION EVERY DIMENSIONS (socio-cultural, socio-economic and environmental) EVERY PHASES OF REFURBISHMENT (analysis, diagnosis, intervention) 1. RECOGNITION AND ENHANCEMENT OF THE ACTUAL QUALITIES 2. IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING THE VULNERABILITIES 3. SELECTION ENHANCEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT SOLUTIONS
  17. 17. A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement • Historical-geographical level • Urban-architectural level • Functional level • Normative level the historical evolution of the settlement and the processes of transformations over the time morphology of the territory, the mechanical and hygrometric characteristics of the soil, the urban arrangement, the building typologies, the construction materials and techniques, the mobility, the state of conservation and the residual performances the demographic trends and distribution of residential areas, productive, cultural and touristic activities, real estate market, touristic attractiveness and features of social spaces at national, regional and local levels 1. ANALYSIS PHASE
  18. 18. A new methodology for the whole historic urban settlement the assessment of weaknesses and strengths in showing a resilient behaviour in response to risk exposure. the selection of suitable strategies and solutions Vulnerabilities and qualities are referred to the three dimensions of resilience – environmental, socio-cultural and socio-economic. To exploit and enhance the inherent qualities, To learn from them principles and rules to overtake the vulnerabilities. 2. DIAGNOSIS PHASE OF VULNERABILITIES & QUALITIES 3. INTERVENTION PHASE
  19. 19. The case study: the Sassi of Matera Due to its peculiar complexity, it is highly representative of several aspects of the urban resilience: • the symbiosis with the topography of the area and the local climate • the efficient exploitation of resources • the transmission of traditional values of the rural culture • the construction practice, expression of an empirical and established wisdom
  20. 20. URBAN - ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE 1. FOUNDATION NUCLEUS “CIVITA” on the “Sperone Mediano” promontory, near valleys of fertile lands for agricultural activities, as a natural interaction among settlement, production and defence. 2. XIII-XIV centuries, “SASSI CAVEOSO and BARISANO” as villages for agricultural labourers in anthropic caves excavated in the limestone rock. 3. XV-XVI centuries, EXPANSION OF SASSI by structures built beside either/or above grottoes, exploiting the local “tuff” limestone. The “Sassi” became ghettos surrounded by customs borders 4. MIDDLE XIX century, HIGHEST DENSITY OF “SASSI” 5. BEGINNING XX century, the life quality and the sanitary conditions worsted, so the symbol of status of the rural class in South Italy. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES HISTORICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL
  21. 21. • RUPESTRIAN CAVES excavated in the rock; • MIXED DWELLINGS, with a single vaulted room, the “lamione”, connected with contiguous caves; • COURTYARD HOUSES; • PALACE HOUSES with hypogeal ground floor and built first and second floors; • MONUMENTAL PALACES, featured by several vaulted rooms and decorated facades ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES HISTORICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL URBAN - ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE TYPOLOGIES
  22. 22. THICK CAVITY MASONRIES made out of local “tuff” limestone squared blocks close the hypogea and border the structures built beside either/or above BARREL VAULTS with “tuff” limestone at the lowest levels and clay bricks at the highest levels, with deep extension toward the inside that provide the indoor space with natural cooling in summer due to the rock thermal inertia. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES HISTORICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL URBAN - ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE
  23. 23. RESIDENTIAL USE (internal spaces) “NEIGHBORHOOD” as relationships among people guaranteed mutual protection, assistance and sustenance (open spaces) ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES HISTORICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL URBAN - ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE ORIGINARY FUNCTION
  24. 24. THE BIENNAL PLAN, 1988 THE SECOND BIENNAL PLAN, 1994 THE THIRD BIENNIAL PLAN, 2004 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES HISTORICAL - GEOGRAPHICAL URBAN - ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONAL NORMATIVE
  25. 25. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES QUALITIES AND VULNERABILITIES, TIME AND DIMENSIONS OF RESILIENCE VULNERABILITIES  projecting in the future the effects of their evolution QUALITIES  assessing based on their role in the past, as conditions that helped the historic site overcome pressures over the centuries and persist as resistant, responsive and adaptive ecosystem in the present
  26. 26. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITIES MORPHO-TYPOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL Fracture of the karst plateau, along the Sassi side The limestone soil shows heterogeneous and poor mechanical properties Va1 PLANIMETRIC LAYOUT AND DISTRIBUTION OF UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE WATERS Poor air quality due to the rising dampness along the permeable tuff Low resistance and cohesion of the soil Potential floating of squares and roofs in case of severe rainfall Va2 PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE “TUFF” STONE AS BUILDING MATERIAL Chemical and physical vulnerability to the atmospheric agents and ground water Va3 LIVEABILITY OF INDOOR SPACES Inadequate thermal, visual and air conditions (standard) in hypogeal spaces Va4
  27. 27. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES QUALITIES MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF RAINWATER Self-sufficiency of rainwater with an efficient system of canalization “REDUNDANT” AND “RESOURCEFUL” Qa1 BIOCLIMATIC BEHAVIOUR Thermal comfort of indoor spaces for the massive tuff wall, especially in summer “RESISTANT” Qa2 STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE HYPOGEA Acceptable static condition for the grottoes, with limited failures of the rocks  “RESISTANT” Qa3 ENVIRONMENTAL
  28. 28. STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE COMPARTS Abandoned open spaces and buildings, failing in protection and control Vsc1 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES VULNERABILITIES USE OF URBAN CHAMBERS Limited accessibility in urban public chamber due to the presence of fences, orchards, gardens and gates by private users Vsc2 ACCESSIBILITY Inaccessibility and insecurity during events of emergency of the site due to the lack of accessible roads Vsc3 Qsc1. Local construction tradition. Traditional techniques of construction as the reveal of the local identity  “resourcefulness” and “flexibility” Qsc2. Social value of places. The concept of “neighbourhood” as a social cohesion reflection during the crisis and a solid reaction during the post-crisis  “reflective” SOCIO-CULTURAL
  29. 29. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES QUALITIES LOCAL CONSTRUCTION TRADITION Traditional techniques of construction as evidence of the local identity  “RESOURCEFULNESS” AND “FLEXIBILITY” Qsc1 SOCIAL VALUE OF THE PLACES The concept of “neighbourhood” as a social cohesion reflection during the crisis and a solid reaction during the post-crisis  “REFLECTIVE” Qsc2 SOCIO-CULTURAL
  30. 30. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES VULNERABILITIES CONNECTION WITH THE MODERN CITY Limited fruition of “Sassi” with spaces of modern city Vse1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERTIARY SECTOR Critical perspectives linked at touristic flows: “Sassi” as a “museum town” or an abandoned one Vse2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC
  31. 31. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES QUALITIES TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT Reuse and management of areas and buildings with balanced functional distribution (residential, cultural, artistic, commercial and social uses) that guarantee activities and facilities for both residents and tourists Qse1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC
  32. 32. ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES FOCUS ON COMPART «A»
  33. 33. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF RAINWATER Self-sufficiency of rainwater with an efficient system of canalization” Qa1 BIOCLIMATIC BEHAVIOUR Control of building exposure Thermal comfort of indoor spaces for the massive tuff wall Qa2 PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF “TUFF” STONE Chemical and physical vulnerability of tuff Va3 DISTRIBUTION OF UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE WATERS Poor air quality, rising dampness along the tuff Va2 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL FOCUS ON COMPART «A»
  34. 34. STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE COMPARTS Abandoned open spaces and buildings, failing in protection and control Vsc1 ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES SOCIO-CULTURAL LOCAL CONSTRUCTION TRADITION Traditional techniques of construction as the reveal of the local identity Qsc1 FOCUS ON COMPART «A»
  35. 35. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT Reuse and management of areas and buildings with balanced functional uses activities and facilities for both residents and tourists Qse1 CONNECTION WITH THE MODERN CITY Limited fruition of “Sassi” with spaces of modern city Vse1 DEVELOPMENT OF TERTIARY SECTOR Critical perspectives linked at touristic flows Vse2 FOCUS ON COMPART «A»
  36. 36. 1) RESTORATION AND RETROFITTING OF THE BUILDING - Reinforcement and dehumidification works (Va1, Va2, Va3) - using traditional techniques to ensure cultural and technical continuity to the local construction practice (Qsc1) - preserving the architectural identity (Qa3) - preserving the bioclimatic performances of the structures (Qa2) ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
  37. 37. 2) REUSE AND MAINTENANCE - balancing residential and touristic uses (Vse2) and the high compatibility with the internal and external “spaces” (Va4) - understanding the territory needs and requirements (Qse1) - recovery of the public nature of the urban chambers (Vsc2), requalification of abandoned and decayed areas (Vsc1), enhancement of the relationship with the water resource, by exploitation of available collection and drainage structure at the compart scale (Qa1) and improvement of urban water management systems (Va2). ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
  38. 38. 3) RECONNECT PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL SPACES - with the modern town (Vse1) - guaranteeing higher accessibility levels (Vse3), through the installation of compatible, non-invasive and reversible systems for fruition and mobility of the site ANALYSIS DIAGNOSIS STRATEGIES
  39. 39. Conclusion CASE STUDY TO SUPPORT THE VALIDATION OF THE METHODOLOGY TOWARDS THE REPLICABILITY FOR SIMILAR HISTORIC URBAN SITES ANALYSIS AND DIAGNOSIS TOWARDS COMPATIBLE STRATEGIES AND DEVELOPMENT SCENARIOS, FOR DIFFERENT THEMATIC AREAS SUITABLE SOLUTIONS FOR ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITIES AND IMPROVEMENT OF VULNERABILITIES, WITHIN THE SAFEGUARD OF THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL VALUE OF THE BUILT HERITAGE «We should avoid leaving our children a smaller treasure than the one left to us by our fathers» William Morris
  40. 40. GRAZIE PER L’ATTENZIONE fabio.fatiguso@poliba.it francesco.fiorito@poliba.it

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