Cities and Biodiversity Outlook - A Global Assessment of the Links Between Urbanisation, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - Elmqvist
CITIES AND BIODIVERSITY OUTLOOK- A global assessment of the links between urbanisation, biodiversity and ecosystem services
“…to prepare an assessment of the links and opportunitiesbetween urbanization and biodiversity (…) based on the third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook...” Conference of the Parties, 10th meeting Nagoya, Japan, October 2010
Mission:Serve as the first global synthesis on how urbanizationimpacts biodiversity and ecosystem changeWhat it will do:Provide an overview, analysis and response to knowledgegaps on effects of urbanization on social-ecologicalsystems and human well-beingFocus on solutions:Address how urban biodiversity and ecosystems can beused, restored and created and how cities can contribute togenerate multiple ecosystem services
Preview - Urban expansion - 2050Urban expansion during the next 40 years will consume land approx. three times the size ofFrance – often prime agricultural land - with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystemson a global scale NASA 2012
PreviewProtected areasToday 25% of the world’s protected areas are within 17 km of an urbanarea - in 10 years 15 kmCities can often be rich in biodiversityCities may be rich in biodiversity and a remarkable amount of nativespecies diversity is known to exist in and around large cities, such asSingapore, Rio de Janeiro, Chicago, Berlin and StockholmUrbanization and forest coverUrbanization in some areas results in reduced pressure on land andconsiderable regrowth of forest and increase in biodiversity CBO 2013
I. CBO-Action and Policy• Solution oriented, rich in examples - 60-70 pages• Organized around 10 key messages• Authors: experts at UN-organizations, scientists,• Reviewed by repr for local authorities• To be launched at COP11 in Hyderabad October 15, 2012. II. CBO-Scientific Assessment• 13 chapters written by more than 50 authors (scientists)• Covering biodiversity trends, ecosystem services, climate change, food and water, scenarios of urbanization, governance, learning• Extensive scientific peer-review• Published by Springer (open access e-book + print on demand) spring 2013
Urban Vertical Farming• Reduce use of fossil fuel (production and transport)• Crop production possible during most of the year, low losses due to wheather• Re-use of water - eliminates agricultural runoff (world’s greatest source of pollution)• Reduce pesticide use• Energy generated through methane production• Return farmland in some areas to generate multiple ecosystem services
Urban and peri-urban farmingDakar - 60% of Senegal’s total production of vegetables and65% of total production of chicken (Mbaye and Moustier 1999)
Key Message:Urban ecosystems can significantly contribute to improve human health
Green areas and health• Perceived health, mortality, green space (N = 250 782).• The percentage of green space inside a three km radius from home had a significant positive relation to perceived general health Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, et al. 2006. Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 60(7)
Green areas and healthAn observational population study of thepopulation of England younger than retirementage (N= 40 813 236). A significant association between residence inthe most green areas and decreased rates forall-cause and circulatory mortality in 2001-2005 (366 348 deaths) with control forpotential confounding factors. Mitchell R, Popham F 2008. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372(9650): 1655-1660.
Green areas and health• A type of gammaproteobacteria – Acinetobacter - strongly linked to the development of anti-inflammatory molecules• The more gammaproteobacteria on the skin the larger immunological responses which are known to suppress inflammatory responses• Gammaproteobacteria more prevalent in vegetation such as forests and grasslands, rare in built-up areas Hanski et al 2012. Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated. PNAS vol. 109 no. 21 8334-8339
Solutions• Establish urban parks and outdoor gyms, paths, trails, etc• Encourage planting of trees, urban reforestation and urban farming• Design and locate community facilities that use the benefits of nature as a setting for other activities, such as healing and wellness (hospitals, elderly, or disabled care) and learning (schools, childcare facilities) etc.
Tools - examples• Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (LBSAPS) - CBD• Cities Biodiversity Index (CBI) – CBD, IUCN, ICLEI• TEEB for cities• URBIS – Urban Biosphere Initiative, ICLEI-IUCN- UNESCO- CBD• Local Action for Biodiversity – ICLEI-IUCN-CBD