Motivation and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Why is this important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you tired of unmotivated, uninter...
Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Content Theories: Focus on the importance of the work (e.g., challenges and responsibilitie...
Content Theories  <ul><li>Achievement Motivation Theory:  David McClelland.  Emphasizes need to accomplish something.  Lin...
Need Hierarchy Theory  <ul><li>Abraham Maslow: proposed that we have a hierarchy of needs.  Once one is fulfilled we can m...
ERG Theory <ul><li>Alderfer </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Maslow.  We have needs, but in this case they are not hierarchica...
Motivator-Hygiene (Two Factor) Theory <ul><li>Motivator Needs: internal to work itself.  If conditions are met, job satisf...
Job Characteristics Theory <ul><li>If employees have a high need for growth, specific job characteristics lead to psycholo...
Process Theories  <ul><li>Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory:  people will work hard if they expect their eff...
Equity Theory  <ul><li>Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benevol...
Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a par...
High Performance Cycle <ul><li>Expands on Goal Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, attainable goals influenced by  ...
Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Overall measures of satisfaction may be too broad: current measures address different  facets  of...
Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Age: in general, increases with age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcontent...
Personal Characteristics, Cont. <ul><li>Use of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job Congruence </li></ul><ul><li>Personality: less...
Low Satisfaction and Job Behavior <ul><li>Absenteeism: any given day 16-20% of workers miss work.  Costs businesses $30 bi...
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Motivation and job satisfaction

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motivation and job satisfaction

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Motivation and job satisfaction

  1. 1. Motivation and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Why is this important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you tired of unmotivated, uninterested, and inept workers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-third to one-half your life is spent at work!! </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Content Theories: Focus on the importance of the work (e.g., challenges and responsibilities) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific needs that motivate human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Theories: Deal with the cognitive processes used in making decisions about our work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Content Theories <ul><li>Achievement Motivation Theory: David McClelland. Emphasizes need to accomplish something. Linked to successful managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favor environment where they can assume responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take calculated risks and set attainable goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need continuing recognition and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers high in achievement motivation show more respect for subordinates and use more participatory systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Need Hierarchy Theory <ul><li>Abraham Maslow: proposed that we have a hierarchy of needs. Once one is fulfilled we can move on to the next </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonging and Love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ERG Theory <ul><li>Alderfer </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Maslow. We have needs, but in this case they are not hierarchically arranged </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying a need may increase its strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatedness Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Needs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Motivator-Hygiene (Two Factor) Theory <ul><li>Motivator Needs: internal to work itself. If conditions are met, job satisfaction occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job enrichment: expand a job to give employee a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Needs: Features of work environment. If not met, job dissatisfaction occurs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Job Characteristics Theory <ul><li>If employees have a high need for growth, specific job characteristics lead to psychological conditions that lead to increased motivation, performance, and satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Process Theories <ul><li>Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory: people will work hard if they expect their effort to lead to reward </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of outcome determines its strength as a motivator – supported by research </li></ul>
  9. 9. Equity Theory <ul><li>Motivation is influenced by how fairly we feel we are treated at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benevolent Workers: martyrs. Feel guilt when rewarded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity Workers: Sensitive to fairness. Normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entitled Workers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows that having goals leads to better performance than not having goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals are more motivating than general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately difficult goals are most motivating </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. High Performance Cycle <ul><li>Expands on Goal Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, attainable goals influenced by </li></ul><ul><li>Moderators (commitment to goal, self-efficacy, task difficulty, feedback) and </li></ul><ul><li>Mediating Mechanisms (universal task strategies such as direction of attention, effort and persistence) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Overall measures of satisfaction may be too broad: current measures address different facets of job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Overall job satisfaction rate has remained the same for over 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Rates are much lower for government workers </li></ul><ul><li>When people say they are satisfied, they often mean they are not dissatisfied!! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Age: in general, increases with age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcontents have stopped working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older workers have greater chance of fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender: inconclusive results </li></ul><ul><li>Race: whites are happier </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Ability: slight negative relationship between level of education and satisfaction </li></ul>
  14. 14. Personal Characteristics, Cont. <ul><li>Use of Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Job Congruence </li></ul><ul><li>Personality: less alienation and internal locus of control lead to higher satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Level: the higher the status level the greater the satisfaction </li></ul>
  15. 15. Low Satisfaction and Job Behavior <ul><li>Absenteeism: any given day 16-20% of workers miss work. Costs businesses $30 billion dollars a year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger have higher absence rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates are influenced by economic conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turnover: Not always a bad thing! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Turnover: when bad workers leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional Turnover </li></ul></ul>

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