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www.janclaes.info
Jan Claes
Supervisors UGent : Geert Poels & Frederik Gailly
Supervisors TU/e : Paul Grefen & Irene Vanderfeesten
Investigating the process of process modeling
and its relation to modeling quality
The Role of Structure Serialization
2/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 1: visualization
Research Objective 1
Build knowledge about
how people create models
Overall objective
Curiosity-driven
Build knowledge about PPM
Research Objective 2
Build knowledge about
relation with quality
Research Objective 3
Build knowledge about
structured modeling
Study 3: theorizationStudy 2: exploration
Research Objectives
3/15
www.janclaes.info
CREATE_ACTIVITY
CREATE_START_EVENT
CREATE_END_EVENT
CREATE_AND
CREATE_XOR
CREATE_EDGE
Study 1 – Visualization
MOVE_ACTIVITY
MOVE_START_EVENT
MOVE_END_EVENT
MOVE_AND
MOVE_XOR
DELETE_ACTIVITY
DELETE_START_EVENT
DELETE-END_EVENT
DELETE_AND
DELETE_XOR
DELETE_EDGE
NAME_ACTIVITY
RENAME_ACTIVITY
NAME_EDGE
RENAME_EDGE





















4/15
www.janclaes.info
 CREATE_ACTIVITY
 CREATE_START_EVENT
 CREATE_END_EVENT
 CREATE_AND
 CREATE_XOR
 CREATE_EDGE
 MOVE_ACTIVITY
 MOVE_START_EVENT
 MOVE_END_EVENT
 MOVE_AND
 MOVE_XOR
 DELETE_ACTIVITY
 DELETE_START_EVENT
 DELETE-END_EVENT
 DELETE_AND
 DELETE_XOR
 DELETE_EDGE
 NAME_ACTIVITY
 RENAME_ACTIVITY
 NAME_EDGE
 RENAME_EDGE
Study 1 – Visualization
PPMChart
time
modelelements
5/15
www.janclaes.info
Fast
modelingSlow
modelingInitial
delayMany
pauzesFew
elementsMany
elements No
(separate)
lay-outing
Quick
lay-outingDedicated
lay-outing
phase
Continuous
lay-outingUnpaired
event
creation
Paired
event
creation
No pauzes
Serialization
Paired
gateway
creation
Delayed
edge
creation
Chunked
modeling
Study 1 – Visualization
Based on dataset of 357 unique modeling executions
6/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 1 – Visualization
Evaluation
 Sample of intended users (6 academic researchers)
 Five extreme examples in PPMChart or Dotted Chart
 Observe and measure amount, quality, and timing
of insights gained through the visualization
 Observe and ask about perceived usefulness
Results
 Perceived as useful
 More cognitive effective than Dotted Chart
7/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 2 – Exploration
Based on dataset of 40 unique modeling executions
Fast
modeling
Slow
modeling
Initial
delay
Many
pauzes
Few
elements
Many
elements
No
(separate)
lay-outing
Quick
lay-outing
Dedicated
lay-outing
phase
Continuous
lay-outing
Unpaired
event
creation
Paired
event
creation
No pauzesSerializationPaired
gateway
creation
Delayed
edge
creation
Chunked
modeling
8/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 2 – Exploration
Structuredness Movement Speed
Based on dataset of 40 unique modeling executions
Fast
modeling
Slow
modeling
Quick
lay-outing
Dedicated
lay-outing
phase
Continuous
lay-outing
Serialization
Chunked
modeling
CONJECTURE 1
CONJECTURE 2
CONJECTURE 3
9/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 2 – Exploration
Conjecture 1: Structured modeling
results in
more understandable models
Conjecture 2: A high number of move operations
results in
less understandable models
Conjecture 3: Slow modeling
results in
less understandable models
10/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 2 – Exploration
Based on dataset of 103 unique modeling executions
T-test
t=-2,231
(p=0,028)
T-test
t=2,199
(p=0,030)
CONJECTURE 1
structuredness
T-test
t=-1,984
(p=0,049)
T-test
t=0,457
(p=0,648)
T-test
t=-2,183
(p=0,031)
T-test
t=2,505
(p=0,014)
CONJECTURE 2
movement
CONJECTURE 3
speed
11/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 3 – Theorization
Based on dataset of 103 unique modeling executions
T-test
t=-2,231
(p=0,028)
T-test
t=2,199
(p=0,030)
CONJECTURE 1
structuredness
T-test
t=-1,984
(p=0,049)
T-test
t=0,457
(p=0,648)
T-test
t=-2,183
(p=0,031)
T-test
t=2,505
(p=0,014)
CONJECTURE 2
movement
CONJECTURE 3
speed
12/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 3 – Theorization
Combined
Flow-oriented Aspect-oriented
Undirected
Based on dataset of 118 unique modeling executions
13/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 3 – Theorization
A B A determines BA B The more A, the more B+ A B The more A, the less B– A B A translates into B
learning style
degree of serialization
adopted serialization style
field-dependency need for structure
– +
course of intrinsic cognitive load
for process modeling phases
course of intrinsic cognitive load
for aggregation phases
course of cognitive overload
course of intrinsic cognitive load
for strategy building phases
+ + +
serialization style fitstructuredness of serialization
– –– –
1 2 3
14/15
www.janclaes.info
Study 3 – Theorization
Evaluation of utility
Novelty (uses existing theories in fundamental new way)
Parsimony (11 constructs, 15 associations)
Consistency (can explain additional observations)
Plausibility (accurate and profound explanation)
Credibility (building blocks are established theories)
Transferability (problem solving in general)
Consistency based on dataset of 143 unique modeling executions
15/15
www.janclaes.info
FUTURE
WORK
Knowledge gaps
Knowledge contribution Research instrument
Knowledge gap 4
How to change one’s
modeling strategy?
Knowledge gap 3
How should one model
in a specific context?
Study 1: visualization
Contributions
A – PPMChart
B – 22 patterns
C – 13 observations
Study 2: exploration
Contributions
D – 8 patterns
E – 3 conjectures
F – 1 metric
Knowledge gap 1
How do people
currently model?
Knowledge gap 2
Which strategy is
intrinsically better?
A B
C
D E F
H
HG
I
Study 3: theorization
Contributions
G – 5 styles
H1 – 6 observations
H2 – 3 impressions
I – SPMT
I

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PhD defense November 2015

  • 1. 1/15 www.janclaes.info Jan Claes Supervisors UGent : Geert Poels & Frederik Gailly Supervisors TU/e : Paul Grefen & Irene Vanderfeesten Investigating the process of process modeling and its relation to modeling quality The Role of Structure Serialization
  • 2. 2/15 www.janclaes.info Study 1: visualization Research Objective 1 Build knowledge about how people create models Overall objective Curiosity-driven Build knowledge about PPM Research Objective 2 Build knowledge about relation with quality Research Objective 3 Build knowledge about structured modeling Study 3: theorizationStudy 2: exploration Research Objectives
  • 3. 3/15 www.janclaes.info CREATE_ACTIVITY CREATE_START_EVENT CREATE_END_EVENT CREATE_AND CREATE_XOR CREATE_EDGE Study 1 – Visualization MOVE_ACTIVITY MOVE_START_EVENT MOVE_END_EVENT MOVE_AND MOVE_XOR DELETE_ACTIVITY DELETE_START_EVENT DELETE-END_EVENT DELETE_AND DELETE_XOR DELETE_EDGE NAME_ACTIVITY RENAME_ACTIVITY NAME_EDGE RENAME_EDGE                     
  • 4. 4/15 www.janclaes.info  CREATE_ACTIVITY  CREATE_START_EVENT  CREATE_END_EVENT  CREATE_AND  CREATE_XOR  CREATE_EDGE  MOVE_ACTIVITY  MOVE_START_EVENT  MOVE_END_EVENT  MOVE_AND  MOVE_XOR  DELETE_ACTIVITY  DELETE_START_EVENT  DELETE-END_EVENT  DELETE_AND  DELETE_XOR  DELETE_EDGE  NAME_ACTIVITY  RENAME_ACTIVITY  NAME_EDGE  RENAME_EDGE Study 1 – Visualization PPMChart time modelelements
  • 6. 6/15 www.janclaes.info Study 1 – Visualization Evaluation  Sample of intended users (6 academic researchers)  Five extreme examples in PPMChart or Dotted Chart  Observe and measure amount, quality, and timing of insights gained through the visualization  Observe and ask about perceived usefulness Results  Perceived as useful  More cognitive effective than Dotted Chart
  • 7. 7/15 www.janclaes.info Study 2 – Exploration Based on dataset of 40 unique modeling executions Fast modeling Slow modeling Initial delay Many pauzes Few elements Many elements No (separate) lay-outing Quick lay-outing Dedicated lay-outing phase Continuous lay-outing Unpaired event creation Paired event creation No pauzesSerializationPaired gateway creation Delayed edge creation Chunked modeling
  • 8. 8/15 www.janclaes.info Study 2 – Exploration Structuredness Movement Speed Based on dataset of 40 unique modeling executions Fast modeling Slow modeling Quick lay-outing Dedicated lay-outing phase Continuous lay-outing Serialization Chunked modeling CONJECTURE 1 CONJECTURE 2 CONJECTURE 3
  • 9. 9/15 www.janclaes.info Study 2 – Exploration Conjecture 1: Structured modeling results in more understandable models Conjecture 2: A high number of move operations results in less understandable models Conjecture 3: Slow modeling results in less understandable models
  • 10. 10/15 www.janclaes.info Study 2 – Exploration Based on dataset of 103 unique modeling executions T-test t=-2,231 (p=0,028) T-test t=2,199 (p=0,030) CONJECTURE 1 structuredness T-test t=-1,984 (p=0,049) T-test t=0,457 (p=0,648) T-test t=-2,183 (p=0,031) T-test t=2,505 (p=0,014) CONJECTURE 2 movement CONJECTURE 3 speed
  • 11. 11/15 www.janclaes.info Study 3 – Theorization Based on dataset of 103 unique modeling executions T-test t=-2,231 (p=0,028) T-test t=2,199 (p=0,030) CONJECTURE 1 structuredness T-test t=-1,984 (p=0,049) T-test t=0,457 (p=0,648) T-test t=-2,183 (p=0,031) T-test t=2,505 (p=0,014) CONJECTURE 2 movement CONJECTURE 3 speed
  • 12. 12/15 www.janclaes.info Study 3 – Theorization Combined Flow-oriented Aspect-oriented Undirected Based on dataset of 118 unique modeling executions
  • 13. 13/15 www.janclaes.info Study 3 – Theorization A B A determines BA B The more A, the more B+ A B The more A, the less B– A B A translates into B learning style degree of serialization adopted serialization style field-dependency need for structure – + course of intrinsic cognitive load for process modeling phases course of intrinsic cognitive load for aggregation phases course of cognitive overload course of intrinsic cognitive load for strategy building phases + + + serialization style fitstructuredness of serialization – –– – 1 2 3
  • 14. 14/15 www.janclaes.info Study 3 – Theorization Evaluation of utility Novelty (uses existing theories in fundamental new way) Parsimony (11 constructs, 15 associations) Consistency (can explain additional observations) Plausibility (accurate and profound explanation) Credibility (building blocks are established theories) Transferability (problem solving in general) Consistency based on dataset of 143 unique modeling executions
  • 15. 15/15 www.janclaes.info FUTURE WORK Knowledge gaps Knowledge contribution Research instrument Knowledge gap 4 How to change one’s modeling strategy? Knowledge gap 3 How should one model in a specific context? Study 1: visualization Contributions A – PPMChart B – 22 patterns C – 13 observations Study 2: exploration Contributions D – 8 patterns E – 3 conjectures F – 1 metric Knowledge gap 1 How do people currently model? Knowledge gap 2 Which strategy is intrinsically better? A B C D E F H HG I Study 3: theorization Contributions G – 5 styles H1 – 6 observations H2 – 3 impressions I – SPMT I