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VEGETATION OF SIKKIM.pptx

Class 9 project on Sikkim PPT SCIENCE Project

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VEGETATION
OF SIKKIM
SUBMITTED BY:
ISHITA TANWAR
IX- A
INTRODUCTION
Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders the Tibet
Autonomous Region of China in the north and northeast,
Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, and West Bengal in
the south. Sikkim is also close to India's Siliguri Corridor
near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least populous and second
smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern
Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including
alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to
Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest
on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok.
Almost 35% of the state is covered by the
Khangchendzonga National Park – a UNESCO World
Heritage Site.
VEGETATION
Broadly Sikkim can be divided into
three distinct botanical zones these
are: Tropical, Temperate and Alpine,
depending on the elevation and
characteristics of the vegetation. The
foothills of Sikkim are covered with
forests consisting of the species of
Shorea, Adina, Terminalia etc. . In
the lower hill ranges (600-1500m) the
forests chiefly include the species of
Schima, Cynthia, Michelia, Saurauia,
and Phontinia etc.
TROPICAL VEGETATION
• Low Hill Forests From the base (244m) to 900m, the sub-mountainous tracts are
inhabited by dense broad-leaved semi-evergreen forests with trees attaining 24-
36m height. The rainfall is heavy, up to 500cm annually. Epiphytes like orchids,
aroids etc. are abundantly present. The undergrowth is flourishing and varied. Sal
is very common, covering large tracts especially along the Teesta and Rangit
rivers. Rubber Fig are often seen along banks of the river Teesta, along side
Pakyong road, and near Dickchu. Tree-ferns are not uncommon in the low-land
forests of Sikkim.
• Middle Hill Forests (750-1500 m) These are formed largely of evergreen species
which are dominant. The trees are usually 20-30 m in height. Epiphytes and
climbers occur in large numbers.
The undergrowth is not usually
dense and consists of
numerous herbaceous and
shrubby species. Sugi a is
being extensively cultivated as
it covers large areas and forms
dense forests between 1200
and 2400 m altitude. The
ground vegetation underneath
these forests is scanty due to
lack of sun light and unsuitable
substratum. Only a few ferns
grow on the fringes of such
forests.
A FOREST IN SIKKIM
TEMPERATE VEGETATION
• Upper Hill forests (Warm or wet temperate type 1500-2700 m). The forests are
evergreen with medium-sized trees, rarely over 24 m height. There are a number
of deciduous tree species but these form only a small proportion. Oaks and
laurels form large patches in mixed forests. The shelter of trees provided shade
and prevents rapid air movements to a considerable extent. This results in a
prolific growth of small herbs, shrubs and ferns on the forest floor.
• Rhododendron-Conifer Zone (cold temperate or subalpine, 2700m-3600m). The
forests of this zone are also evergreen, mainly composed of Rhododendrons and
conifers. Grasslands are frequent at 2700 m altitude and above. s. Various
species of Aconitum grow abundantly on the forest floor underneath
Rhododendrons at high altitudes especially around Thangu.

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VEGETATION OF SIKKIM.pptx

  • 2. INTRODUCTION Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, and West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is also close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least populous and second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. Almost 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park – a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • 3. VEGETATION Broadly Sikkim can be divided into three distinct botanical zones these are: Tropical, Temperate and Alpine, depending on the elevation and characteristics of the vegetation. The foothills of Sikkim are covered with forests consisting of the species of Shorea, Adina, Terminalia etc. . In the lower hill ranges (600-1500m) the forests chiefly include the species of Schima, Cynthia, Michelia, Saurauia, and Phontinia etc.
  • 4. TROPICAL VEGETATION • Low Hill Forests From the base (244m) to 900m, the sub-mountainous tracts are inhabited by dense broad-leaved semi-evergreen forests with trees attaining 24- 36m height. The rainfall is heavy, up to 500cm annually. Epiphytes like orchids, aroids etc. are abundantly present. The undergrowth is flourishing and varied. Sal is very common, covering large tracts especially along the Teesta and Rangit rivers. Rubber Fig are often seen along banks of the river Teesta, along side Pakyong road, and near Dickchu. Tree-ferns are not uncommon in the low-land forests of Sikkim. • Middle Hill Forests (750-1500 m) These are formed largely of evergreen species which are dominant. The trees are usually 20-30 m in height. Epiphytes and climbers occur in large numbers.
  • 5. The undergrowth is not usually dense and consists of numerous herbaceous and shrubby species. Sugi a is being extensively cultivated as it covers large areas and forms dense forests between 1200 and 2400 m altitude. The ground vegetation underneath these forests is scanty due to lack of sun light and unsuitable substratum. Only a few ferns grow on the fringes of such forests. A FOREST IN SIKKIM
  • 6. TEMPERATE VEGETATION • Upper Hill forests (Warm or wet temperate type 1500-2700 m). The forests are evergreen with medium-sized trees, rarely over 24 m height. There are a number of deciduous tree species but these form only a small proportion. Oaks and laurels form large patches in mixed forests. The shelter of trees provided shade and prevents rapid air movements to a considerable extent. This results in a prolific growth of small herbs, shrubs and ferns on the forest floor. • Rhododendron-Conifer Zone (cold temperate or subalpine, 2700m-3600m). The forests of this zone are also evergreen, mainly composed of Rhododendrons and conifers. Grasslands are frequent at 2700 m altitude and above. s. Various species of Aconitum grow abundantly on the forest floor underneath Rhododendrons at high altitudes especially around Thangu.
  • 7. ALPINE VEGETATION • Alpine Scrub and Grasslands (3600-4300 m and above). At the heights above 3600 m where the tree line ends. Ephedra gerardiana covers vast areas tops of hills around Thangu, the species has not been seen flourishing anywhere else. The beautiful yellow-flowered Rhododendron lepidotum is another plant of high altitudes and grows in exposed rock crevices. In the open meadows on gentle mountain slopes a few species of Buttercup, Anemone, Potentilla, Himalayan Heather and Chives are found.
  • 9. FOOD PLANTS There are over 350 species of flowering plants and Pteridophytes found wild in diverse localities of Sikkim which may serve as emergency life-saving food-products. A total of 190 species have been screened as edible species out of which nearly 47 species come to the market. Several plants, which grow especially in the high alpine meadows, survive extreme adverse ecological conditions by special adaptations; e.g. woolly species of Saussure (S. gassypiphora) or cushion like or bushy habit species of Arenaria, Festuca, Juniperus, Gaultheria, Saxifraga etc.
  • 10. SPECIES OF HORTICULTURAL IMPORTANCE • As the Flora of Sikkim includes plants of tropical, temperate and alpine characters in great diversity, a large number of plants found wild in this state (or the Eastern Himalayas as such), are of great horticultural importance. Many of them have been introduced into the European gardens. These include the species like Hedychium gardenerianum, Luculia gratissima, Allium wallichii and Acer oblongum.