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Natural vegetation & wild life


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Natural vegetation & wild life

  2. 2. India is unique in the richness and diversity of its vegetation and wildlife. India's national parks and wild life sanctuaries (including bird sanctuaries) from Ladakh in Himalayas to Southern tip of Tamil Nadu, are outstanding and the country continues to "WOW" the tourists with its rich bio-diversity and heritage. Wildlife sanctuaries in India attracts people from all over the world as the rarest of rare species are found here.
  3. 3. With 96 national parks and over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, the range and diversity of India's wildlife heritage is matchless. Some of the important sanctuaries in India are The Jim Corbett Tiger Reserve – Uttaranchal, Kanha National Park and Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Ranthambhor National Park - Sawai Madhopur, Gir National Park - Sasangir (Gujarat) etc. Supporting a great variety of mammals and over 585 species of birds, India's first national park, the Corbett was established in the foothills of Himalayas.
  4. 4. Natural vegetation refers to the garment of plants and trees that exists in the area before it is modified by Man for activities such as farming, mining, lumbering and industrial, economic and urban development. The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region . The species of animals are referred to as fauna.
  5. 5. Ecosystem- An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight. It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.
  6. 6. Types of vegetations - Tropical evergreen forests  Tropical deciduous forests  tropical thorn forests and scrubs Montane forests Mangrove forests
  7. 7. Tropical evergreen forest- The tropical evergreen forests usually occur in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and having a temperature of 15 to 30 degrees Celsius. They occupy about seven per cent of the earth's land surface and habours more than half of the world’s plants and animals. They are found mostly near the equator.
  8. 8. These forests are dense and multi-layered. They harbour many types of plants and animals. The trees are evergreen as there is no period of drought. They are mostly tall and hardwood type. Leaves are broad and give out excess water through evapo -transpiration. In India, evergreen forests are found in the western slopes of the Western Ghats in States such as Kerala and Karnataka. They are also found in hills of Jaintia and Khasi. Some of the trees found in Indian Tropical Forests are rosewood, mahagony and ebony. Bamboos and reeds are also common.
  9. 9. Tropical deciduous forests - These are the most widespread forests of India. They are also called the monsoon forests and spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200cm and 70cm. Trees of this forest – type shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in dry summer. On the basis of water availability these forests are further classified into- 1) Moist deciduous forests 2) Dry deciduous forests
  10. 10. 1) Moist deciduous forests - These are found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 and 100cm. Teak, Bamboos, sal, shisam, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry are commercially important species. 2) Dry deciduous forests The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100cm & 70cm.There are open stretches in which teak, sal, peepal, neem grow. In these forests the common animals found are lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant.
  11. 11. The thorn forests and scrubs - In regions less than 70cm of rainfall ,the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture. The stems are succulent to conserve water .Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation. Acacias , palms, euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species. In these forests , the common animals are rats ,mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass , horses and camels.
  12. 12. MONTANE FORESTS - The broad class of tropical montane forests are found in the American, African and Asian continents. Plants are adapted to low temperature and high radiation levels. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 & 2000 m. Evergreen broad leaf trees such as oaks & chestnuts predominate. Between 1500 and 3000 m ,temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found. At higher altitudes , generally more than 3,600 m above sea-level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the alpine vegetation .Silver fir , junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
  13. 13. Mangrove forests - The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides . Mud and silt get accumulated on such coasts. Royal Bengal tiger is the famous animal in these forests . Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests .
  14. 14. Wildlife - Wildlife includes all non domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas including the most developed urban sites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.
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