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01 Presentation1 - Copy (2).pptx

  1. FIRST M.PHIL SEMINAR Introduction • Algae are plan like organisms which occupy a wide range in Maine and fresh water habitat. • Basically algae are photosynthetic, non embryo producing organisms and are subdivided into several divisions refer to colors and presence or absence of pigments in the cell. • The fresh water algae are usually belongs to the division of volvocophyta, chlorophyta and charophyata (shameel………… al----2001). • There is luxuriant growth of algal species found in fresh water contain major amount of nutrients and elements (chazala et al……….) • The class chlorphyceae of fresh water green algae includes chlamydomonos, chlorella, oedogonium, volorx, chara, spirogyra, cladophora,s stone wort, and other genuses are reported for the rich elemental for the rich level in many parts of the world.
  2. • In Pakistan, Sindh province is witnessed of high elemental level in the species of fresh water green algae (Laghari et al………) • From time to time several studies have repeatedly been carried out on the habitat and general occurrence of fresh water algae (Prevaiz & Ahmed,1981; shameel and butt, 1984; Aisha and zahid, 1991), taxonomy Aizaz and Farooqui, 1972, Farzana and Nizam 1979; Ahmed et al ……….1983, Laghari and Arboni ,1983) Palaeontology Laghari and Nizamani ,1984; sahito et al ……..1986, 1988) Ecology (Nazneen 1974; Laghari and Arbani , 1984) physiology and biochemistry (hasni, 1991). Ghazala etal…….2004. • The present work is about to search elemental level of some species of fresh water algae from the districts of central and southern parts of Sindh. • The chlorophyta and charophyta divisions were select for studies in which three species of cladophora genus and species of spiroghyra genus was used for observation.
  3. Objectives of Study • The aims and objectives o this research is to determine the different metals of fresh water algae. • Protect the stored fruits from food spoiling fungi with the treatment of fresh water algae extract, it will be tried to explore up fresh water algae extract based sources for fruits prevention from spoilage by fungi. • In this research it has been tried to analysis the concentration essential elements form fresh water algae that are necessary for the metabolism of all living organisim. • To survey the different areas of Sindh (Central and southern areas) Hyderabad, Shaheed Benzirabad, Matiari, Jamshoro and Thatta.
  4. Scientific Classification • Kingdom ______________________________ Plantae • Division ______________________________ Chlorophyta • Class_________________________________ Ulvophyceae • Order _______________________________ cladophorales • Family _______________________________ cladophoraceae • Species ______________________________ cladophora glomerata • Species ______________________________ cladophora prolifera • Species _____________________________ Clodophora rupestris
  5. Scientific Classification • Kingdom ____________________________ planate • Division ______________________________ charophyta • Class ______________________________ zygnematophyceae • Order ______________________________ zygnematales • Family ______________________________ zygnemataceae • Genus ______________________________ spirogyra • Species ______________________________ spirogyra alpina • Species______________________________ spirogyra megaspora • Species ______________________________ spirogyara indica
  6. Area of Collection (Study Area) • The Sindh province of Pakistan is witnessed of algae growth in its fresh water reservoirs • Apart from the great Indus along with its branches, channels, several large and small lakes ponds streams rice fields and other fresh water wetlands are the major source of algae • The algal material was collected in the month of February 2016 from five districts namely Shaheed Benazirabad, Matiari, Mirpurkhas, Jamshoro and Thatta. • The purpose of collection of algal material was to analyze the elemental level found in districts of central and southern part of Sindh.
  7. Climate for Growth of Plants • Water occupy about 71% of Earth in the form of marine, fresh and brackish water. • The fresh water habitat of biosphere covers a small area approximately 1% of earth with huge flora and fauna. • All the fresh water bodies are rich in nutrient and elements like hydrogen (H2) Oxygen (O2) Potassium (K2) Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and many others.
  8. • The Indus valley lies in between latitudes 23.5 to 28.5 and Longitudes 66.75 to 71.25 and arid zone of the globe, having dry and very hot summer and cold and dry winter. • The average rainfall is about 3 to 6 mm. • The maximum temperature is about 48oC and humidity is about 41%. • This climatic condition of the region promotes elemental level in fresh water algae contains multiple elements for the building up of protoplasm of algal species.
  9. Elements • An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into anything simpler by physical or chemical means. • Elements combine together to form compounds. • The word elements come from the word element which means basic or fundamental. • Elements are building blocks of all matters.