Financial 2011 04

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Financial 2011 04

  1. 1. Put correct words in blanks: accounts data-entry errors. expense account keeping track likelihood owe record-keeping transaction transfer<br />Double-entry accounting is a method of _____ that lets you track just where your money comes from and where it goes. <br />Using double-entry means that money is never gained nor lost---it is always _____ from somewhere (a source account) to somewhere else (a destination account). This transfer is known as a _____, and each transaction requires at least two _____. <br />An account in GnuCash is a record for _____ of what you own, _____, spend or receive. For example, if you pay a phone bill with a check, money transfers from checking to the phone company. This is a transaction transferring money from a checking account to a phone _____. You probably already think of your checking account as a bank "account," but your expenses (such as phone bill) are also "accounts". <br />This double-entry concept has been around since the 13th century, and its purpose has always been to reduce the _____ of _____. <br />
  2. 2. Put correct words in blanks: accounts data-entry errors. expense account keeping track likelihood owe record-keeping transaction transfer<br />Double-entry accounting is a method of record-keeping that lets you track just where your money comes from and where it goes. <br />Using double-entry means that money is never gained nor lost---it is always transferred from somewhere (a source account) to somewhere else (a destination account). This transfer is known as a transaction, and each transaction requires at least two accounts. <br />An account in GnuCash is a record for keeping track of what you own, owe, spend or receive. For example, if you pay a phone bill with a check, money transfers from checking to the phone company. In GnuCash, this is a transaction transferring money from a checking account to a phone expense account. You probably already think of your checking account as a bank "account," but your expenses (such as phone bill) are also "accounts". <br />This double-entry concept has been around since the 13th century, and its purpose has always been to reduce the likelihood of data-entry errors. <br />
  3. 3. Abridged Elements of Style<br />(Taken from The Elements of Style by William Strunk Jr. and E.B. White)<br />
  4. 4. Part I : The Principles of Composition <br />
  5. 5. The Paragraph<br />Make the paragraph the unit of composition.<br />Each paragraph should address a single topic.<br />
  6. 6. The Paragraph<br />Opening sentences (typically)<br />Suggest or provide the topic of the paragraph.<br />and/or<br />Serve as a transition between this paragraph and the previous paragraph.<br />
  7. 7. Paragraph size<br />Enormous blocks of text can be intimidating and readers tend to skim, rather than read them carefully.<br />At the same time, writing several short paragraphs in a row can make your ideas appear underdeveloped.<br />
  8. 8. Use the active voice<br />More direct<br />More precise<br />
  9. 9. “I threw the ball.”<br />“The ball was thrown by me.”<br />“The ball was thrown.”<br />
  10. 10. Active vs. Passive Voice<br />Consider:<br />“There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground.”<br /> vs.<br />“Dead leaves covered the ground.”<br />“It was not long before she was very sorry that she had said what she had.”<br /> vs.<br />“She soon repented her words.”<br />
  11. 11. Put statements in positive form<br />Negative form: “The author’s evidence is not strong.”<br />Positive form: “The author’s evidence is weak.”<br />
  12. 12. Use definite, specific, concrete language.<br />Provide details: information, flavor, imagery.<br />Writing is about conveying specific information.<br />“A period of unfavorable weather set in.”<br />vs.<br />“It rained every day for a week.”<br />
  13. 13. Ecclesiastics - Quote #1: (George Orwell)<br />"Objective consideration of contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must inevitably be taken into account.”<br />
  14. 14. Ecclesiastics - Quote #2: (King James Version)<br />"I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all."<br />
  15. 15. Omit needless words <br />Rid your writing of clutter:<br />“in a hasty manner”<br /> vs.<br />“hastily”<br />“Who is…”, “Which was…”<br /> “My mother, who is a teacher…”<br /> vs.<br /> “My mother, a teacher,”<br />
  16. 16. “The fact that…”<br />“Owing to the fact that” = since<br />“In spite of the fact that” = although<br />“Call attention to the fact that” = remind<br />“The fact that he had not = his failure<br /> succeeded”<br />“I was unaware of the fact that” = I didn’t know<br />
  17. 17. Express coordinate ideas in similar form. <br />When relating two or more ideas, keep your form consistent.<br />Incorrect: “The French, the Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.”<br />Correct: “The French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.”<br />
  18. 18. Incorrect: “It was both a long lecture and very tedious.”<br />Correct: “It was a long, tedious lecture.”<br />Correct: “The lecture was both long and tedious.”<br />
  19. 19. Keep related words together. <br />Poor word placement can result in ambiguity.<br />
  20. 20. “She noticed a large bloodstain in the rug that was right in the center.”<br />
  21. 21. “She noticed a large bloodstain right in the center of the rug.”<br />
  22. 22. “A proposal to amend the ballot proposition, which has been widely criticized...”<br />
  23. 23. “A widely criticized proposal to amend the ballot proposition…”<br />OR<br />“A proposal to amend the widely criticized ballot proposition…”<br />(Depending on your meaning.)<br />
  24. 24. Part II : An Approach to Style<br />
  25. 25. Put yourself in the background <br />This is seldom an issue in technical writing, because of the explicit focus on a specific subject.<br />
  26. 26. Write in a way that comes naturally. <br />Use words that come to you readily.<br />Write using language obvious to you and your audience.<br />Write first, then edit for clarity.<br />
  27. 27. Write with nouns and verbs.<br />Construct your sentences with nouns and verbs.<br />Next, add those adjectives and adverbs that add content and flavor.<br />
  28. 28. Do not overwrite <br />Stay on target! Don’t let your subject get away from you.<br />Illustrating your ideas with examples and metaphors can be helpful, but use moderation.<br />Again, rewriting is key. Get ideas on paper, then edit.<br />
  29. 29. Avoid the use of qualifiers <br />"Rather, very, little pretty -- these are the leeches that infest the pond of prose, sucking the blood of words. The constant use of the adjective little (except to indicate size) is particularly debilitating; we should all try to do a little better; we should all be very watchful of this rule, for it is a rather important one, and we are pretty sure to violate it now and then."<br />
  30. 30. Don’t construct awkward adverbs.<br />Any adjective or participle, with an “-ly” added, can become an adverb.<br />Examples: tangledly, tiredly.<br />You should almost never do this!<br />
  31. 31. Finally: Be clear <br />Writing is communication.<br />If you must be obscure, be obscure clearly.<br />
  32. 32. Style<br />
  33. 33. Overview<br />Need for effect<br />Conversation style, rubber stamps, old language<br />You-viewpoint<br />Positive language<br />Courtesy<br />Emphasis<br />Flow, transitional devices<br />
  34. 34. Writing for Effect<br />Effective business writing sometimes must create the right effect.<br />The right effect can help to build goodwill.<br />And it can help in achieving message goals.<br />
  35. 35. Stiff and Dull<br />Conversational<br />Create the right effect by (1) using conversational style.<br />Reference is made to your March 16 letter, in which you describe the approved procedure for initiating a claim.<br />Enclosed herewith is the brochure about which you make inquiry.<br />I shall be most pleased to avail myself of your kind suggestion when and if prices decline.<br />Please refer to your March 16 letter, in which you tell how to file a claim.<br />Enclosed is the brochure you asked about.<br />I’ll gladly follow your suggestion if the price falls.<br />
  36. 36. Create the right effect by (2) avoiding rubber stamps.<br />At an early date<br />Attached please find<br />Complying with your favor of<br />Due to the fact<br />Hit the road<br />Bit the hand that feeds you<br />Take it with a grain of salt<br />Too many irons in the fire<br />As per<br />Neither here nor there<br />A good man is hard to find<br />You’d better believe<br />Let her hair down<br />Rat race<br />Thanking you in advance<br />Couldn’t care less<br />
  37. 37. Create the right effect by (3) avoiding the old language of business.<br />In Openings<br />we beg to advise<br />your esteemed favor<br />this is to inform you <br />In Contents<br />deem it advisable<br />attached hereto<br />please be advised<br />In Closings<br /><ul><li>Thanking you in advance
  38. 38. We beg to remain
  39. 39. Anticipating your favorable response</li></li></ul><li>Dear Mr. Canfield:<br />In re: Policy 437 H721 411<br />Agreeable to your favor of September 6, we have consulted our actuarial department to ascertain the status of subject policy.<br />Inasmuch as said policy was due on September 1 and this classification carries a 31-day grace clause, I am pleased to advise that your period of grace does not expire until October 1.<br />Therefore, permission is hereby granted to delay remittance until said date. Trusting to have your payment by that time, I am.<br />Yours very truly,<br />Letter filled with old-style, rubber stamp wording<br />
  40. 40. Dear Mr. Canfield:<br />Subject: Your September 7 inquiry about Policy 437 H721 411<br />You are still covered by your policy. As it has a 31-day grace period, you have until October 1 to pay. So that you may be assured of continued coverage, you should mail your payment a few days before this date.<br />If I can help you further, please contact me again.<br />Sincerely,<br />Letter revised with contemporary wording.<br />
  41. 41. Create the right effect by (4) emphasizing the you viewpoint. (1 of 2)<br />We: Our policy requires that you pay by the 10th of the month in order to earn the discount.<br />You: You can earn the discount by paying by the 10th of the month.<br />We: We are offering a special discount to all our loyal customers.<br />You: As a loyal customer, you will receive a special discount.<br />We: Send us your check for $741 today so that our books will show you as current.<br />You: Will you please keep your account current by sending your check for $741 today.<br />
  42. 42. We: Our research engineers have worked forty-four years to make Deere a safe mower.<br />You: You can use the Deere with the comfort of knowing that it is a product of forty-four years of intensive safety research.<br />We: On February 7 we will deliver the Bush desk and chair set your ordered.<br />You: You will receive your Bush desk and chair set on our February 7 delivery.<br />We: I look forward to receiving additional orders from you.<br />You: I look forward to serving you again.<br />You: Serving you again will be a pleasure.<br />Create the right effect by (4) emphasizing the you viewpoint. (2 of 2)<br />
  43. 43. Create the right effect by (5) accenting positive language.<br />Negative: Your misunderstanding of your policy prompts your accusation that we are at fault.<br />Positive: Section 3 of your policy makes us responsible only when we service the equipment.<br />Negative: I regret the inconvenience caused you by the breakdown of the equipment.<br />Positive: The repaired equipment should give you years of good service.<br />Negative: We must refuse your request to use our equipment.<br />Positive: As we are a state office, our equipment can be used for government purposes only.<br />
  44. 44. Common Negative Words<br />Afraid<br />Allege<br />Beware<br />Careless<br />Decline<br />Disappoint<br />Fail<br />Inconvenience<br />Unfortunate<br />Waste<br />Worry<br />Alibi<br />Apology<br />Blame<br />Complaint<br />Difficult<br />Fault<br />Impossible<br />Misunderstanding<br />Ruin<br />Unfair<br />Wrong<br />
  45. 45. Create the right effect by (6) showing courtesy. (1 of 5)<br />Show courtesy by singling out the reader.<br />not this: Your training report for the third quarter has been received and has been judged to be satisfactory.<br />but this: Congratulations, Jane, on the good teaching indicated by the third quarter training report you submitted.<br />not this: A prompt reply will be appreciated.<br />but this: As the report is due on the 7th, Mr. Adami, will you please reply by that date.<br />
  46. 46. Create the right effect by (6) showing courtesy. (2 of 5)<br />Show courtesy by refraining from preaching.<br />not this: Pay this invoice by the 12th and earn the 2 percent discount.<br />but this: You can earn a 2 percent discount by paying by the 12th.<br />not this: You must realize that we can be held responsible only when we install the equipment.<br />but this: You will agree, I feel certain, that we are responsible only when we install the equipment.<br />not this: You want to hire a person who can get along with the office staff.<br />but this: My three years of experience working with people will help me to fit in well with your office staff.<br />
  47. 47. Create the right effect by (6) showing courtesy. (3 of 5)<br />Show courtesy by doing more than expected.<br />Little extras like:<br />giving more than the minimum information requested<br />making helpful suggestions<br />wishing good luck<br />making encouraging remarks<br />
  48. 48. Create the right effect by (6) showing courtesy. (4 of 5)<br />Show courtesy by avoiding anger.<br />not this: You failed to state whether you intend to use the equipment inside or outside.<br />but this: So that I can meet your needs exactly, please tell me whether you will use the equipment inside or outside.<br />not this: We have been very patient with your failure to reply to our letters.<br />but this: Probably there is a good reason why you have not answered our letters.<br />not this: Your negligence in this matter has caused us a loss in sales.<br />but this: Because corrective action was not taken, our sales declined.<br />
  49. 49. Show courtesy by being sincere.<br />Honestly want to be courteous and friendly.<br />Create the right effect by (6) showing courtesy. (5 of 5)<br />
  50. 50. Create the right effect by (7) giving proper emphasis to contents. (1 of 5)<br />beginning and ending of the paragraph<br />beginning and ending of the message<br />beginning and ending of the sentence<br />Emphasis by Position<br />
  51. 51. Emphasis by Volume<br />Topic A receives more space than Topic B -- thus more emphasis.<br />Topic A<br />Topic B<br />Create the right effect by (7) giving proper emphasis to contents.(2 of 5)<br />
  52. 52. Emphasis by Sentence Structure<br />These short sentences give equal emphasis to all items.<br />The Cc field is for courtesy copies. Courtesy copies are for the recipient’s information. To send courtesy copies, put the recipients’ addresses in the Cc field. They won’t be expected to answer. They can answer if they choose. You can send yourself a courtesy copy for your file. Do this by placing your address in this field.<br />Create the right effect by (7) giving proper emphasis to contents. (3 of 5)<br />
  53. 53. Emphasis by Sentence Structure<br />Here some items get more emphasis than others.<br />Put the addresses of those to whom you want to send courtesy copies in the Cc field. Courtesy copies are for the recipients’ information. The recipients have a choice whether or not to respond. By placing your address in this file, you can receive a copy for your file.<br />Create the right effect by (7) giving proper emphasis to contents. (4 of 5)<br />
  54. 54. Emphasis by Sentence Structure<br />This one emphasizes different items.<br />If you want others to have the information in your message, send them courtesy copies. Do this by placing their addresses in the Cc field. They have a choice whether or not to respond. Place your address in this field if you want a copy for your file.<br />Create the right effect by (7) giving proper emphasis to contents. (5 of 5)<br />
  55. 55. Create the proper effect by (8) making the message coherent. (1 of 6)<br />Show coherence through tie-in sentences.<br />Initial Sentence<br />As always, we are willing to do as much as we reasonably can to make things right.<br />Abrupt Shift:<br />Smooth Tie-in:<br />The facts in every case are different. <br />What we can do in each instance is determined by the facts of the case.<br />
  56. 56. Initial Sentence<br />We sincerely hope that this progress will continue.<br />Create the proper effect by(8) making the message coherent.(2 of 6)<br />Show coherence through tie-in sentences.<br />There are many new regulators which you can use.<br />To assure yourself of continued progress, you will want to use one of the various new electronic regulators.<br />Abrupt Shift:<br />Smooth Tie-in:<br />
  57. 57. Initial Sentence<br />We are eager to serve you whenever we can.<br />Create the proper effect by (8) making the message coherent. (3 of 6)<br />Show coherence through tie-in sentences.<br />Abrupt Shift:<br />Smooth Tie-in:<br />The checks you authorized us to make were made. <br />In determining what we can do for you in this case, we made all the checks you authorized.<br />
  58. 58. Create the proper effect by (8) making the message coherent. (4 of 6)<br />Show coherence through repetition of key words.<br />Before buying plants you should know which varieties are adapted to your area. Adapted varieties usually are sold by local nurseries.<br />Preferably you should state the problem in writing. Stating the problem in writing is good for many reasons.<br />The state of order of your findings depends on much on the plan you followed in your research. This research plan probably was the product of the preliminary analysis you made of your problem.<br />Nouns are the doers of action. As doers of action, they attract the reader’s attention.<br />
  59. 59. Create the proper effect by (8) making the message coherent. (5 of6)<br />Show coherence through the use of pronouns.<br />Transitional sentences are essential to good writing. They are the mortar that holds bricks of thought together.<br />If you think Mr. James is most interested in the conclusion, begin with the conclusion. A direct beginning will permit him to make his decision without delay. If he has confidence in your work, he may not choose to read beyond this point.<br />
  60. 60. Create the proper effect by (8) making the message coherent. (6 of 6)<br />Show coherence through the use of transition words.<br />The promotion failed for two reasons. First, we had very little preparation time. Second, we were extremely short of experienced salespeople.<br />For three years we had no funds for maintaining the equipment. As a result, we have suffered a succession of breakdowns.<br />After the incident, we installed two additional video cameras. Nevertheless, theft losses continued to increase.<br />They built the building on the site that had been filled. Consequently, the foundation cracked.<br />Flights attendants at US Airways went on strike. Similarly, pilots and mechanics refused to cross the picket line.<br />

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