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By Kamarudin Ambak, Ph.D
Road Safety is a Global Problem:
An Overview
 First death in a motor vehicle crashed was in
London 1896.
 Since then, it...
Population, road traffic deathsa, and registered motorized vehicles,
by income group
Source : WHO, 2008
Source : WHO,2004
 1.2 million person are killed annually in road
accidents worldwide
 20 to 50 million person injured annually in road
ac...
Huge loss in economy = 1.5% GDP in country
Statistical life of Malaysian Motorists
RM 1.2 million (Nor Ghani et al. 2011)
...
Fatalities Road in Some Countries
190.00
185.00
140.00
48.00
32.50
15.20
9.10 8.40 5.44 5.30 5.17 5.07 4.30 2.81 1.90 1.81...
Some Road Accidents Picture
Road Accidents
Road Accidents
Road Accidents
Road Accidents Statistic in Malaysia
Road Fatality Statistics in Malaysia
0
5000000
10000000
15000000
20000000
25000000
199119921993199419951996199719981999200...
1996 7,686,684 60,734 189,109 6,304 8.20 29.8 40.4
1997 8,550,469 63,382 215,632 6,302 7.37 29.1 36.3
1998 9,141,357 63,38...
Accident Record From 2002 to 2011
Source : (PDRM,2012)
Road Accident/Casualties in Malaysia
Year
Number of Registered
Vehi...
With average 6,000 Deaths (road
accidents) in Malaysia per year = 20
Jumbo Jet Crashed/year!!!!
Can We Imagine???
“Human Error is the main cause of Road Accident
in Malaysia”
 40% of the road accident were caused by the
following the c...
0.48
4.06 2.83
22.83
8.71
61.09
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Bus Driver Lorry Driver Cyclist Car Driver Pedestrian Motorcyclist
...
Road Accidents
feeling of sorrow
and grief to loved
ones
Physical pain and
disfigurement
Congestion, travel time
delay on ...
HUMAN FACTORS include:
 Perceptual Error
- driver or pedestrian looks but fail too see
- distraction or lack of attention...
 Impairement
- alcohol, drug
- fatigue, illness, emotional stress
 Adverse Road Design
- unsuitable layout and intersect...
 Inadequate Road Furniture or Marking
- insufficient and/or unclear road signs
- poor street lighting
 Unexpected Obstru...
There are some of the driver errors that lead to motor
vehicle accidents:
• Driving faster than the posted speed limits
• ...
Cont’d;
• Talking on a mobile phone when driving
• Punishing other drivers for their driving errors (e.g
immediately chang...
 Is a structured approach to accident prevention and casualty reduction
both in the urban and rural area.
Road Safety App...
The injury reduction approaches involve:
application of appropriate safety policies, vehicle and road engineering,
medica...
Road Safety Management & Strategy
There are at least four basic strategies for accident reduction through the
use of engi...
Road Safety Management & Strategy
 Single Site Technique
 Mass Action Schemes
Based on identification of sites with high...
Road Safety Management & Strategy
 Route Action Schemes
 Area-Wide Measure
The application of various treatments over a ...
 In 1990, The Cabinet Committee of Road Safety was formed to
formulate a national road safety target in reducing road acc...
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
19...
In 2006, the National Road Safety Plan 2006-2010 was launched by
the Prime Minister. This Plan encompasses a total of nine...
Fatality per 10,000 Vehicles - Estimated and Projected (Years 1986-2010)
Deaths per 100,000 population in Malaysia
Deaths per Billion Vehicle-Kilometer Travelled in Malaysia
In order to objectively address the national safety targets, 15 KPIs were drawn up for the
following sectors:
1. Managemen...
Event
Factors
Pre Crash Crash Post Crash
HUMAN Education
Campaign
Enforcement
Complaince to
Safety Devices
Skill of parame...
Strategic Road Safety Intervention Program 2007-2010
Program % Intervention coverage Potential
reduction
No. of
death
invo...
The “3E” Solution
 Education
 Enforcement
 Engineering
ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING
Road Accidents
 Education
• early childhood road training to initial
driver training.
• attitude ...
ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING
Road Accidents
 Enforcement
• Based on Road Transport Act 1987/1999.
• Imposing traffic summons (...
ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING
Road Accidents
 Engineering
• Technology changes to motor vehicles:
- automatic transmission
- vi...
ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING
Road Accidents
 Engineering (cont’d)
• Road and traffic developments:
- Access control
- improved...
Road Safety Signage
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON TRAFFIC SIGNS
Traffic signs are installed to relay messages about the road sys...
Road Safety Agency
PDRM, Traffic Branch
- To carry out enforcement activities regarding
Road Traffic Act 1987 & Road Traff...
HPU, Ministry of work
- Highway Planning Unit is under the Ministry of Work, Malaysia.
- The main functions & activity are...
JKR, Road Safety Unit
- Officially was established in 1997 as Road Safety Division,
then become Road Safety Unit under JKR...
Road Safety Agency
Road Safety Department, JKJR
- Established in 2007 under Ministry of Transport.
- JKJR is function as “...
Example of posters for campaign program
Example of Community Based Program
Road Safety Agency
Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research
- MIROS was established in 2007 under Ministry of
Transport...
Road Safety Agency
Function
 Conduct high impact research that will be translated into road safety
policies.
 Develop na...
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
Introduction to road safety
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Introduction to road safety

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Introduction to road safety

  1. 1. By Kamarudin Ambak, Ph.D
  2. 2. Road Safety is a Global Problem: An Overview  First death in a motor vehicle crashed was in London 1896.  Since then, it was estimated 30 millions lives.
  3. 3. Population, road traffic deathsa, and registered motorized vehicles, by income group Source : WHO, 2008
  4. 4. Source : WHO,2004
  5. 5.  1.2 million person are killed annually in road accidents worldwide  20 to 50 million person injured annually in road accident worldwide  Developing countries 20 – 200 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles  Developed countries 2 – 5 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles  Cost of accidents in developing countries is 1% - 2% of the Gross Domestic Product Source : World Bank & WHO
  6. 6. Huge loss in economy = 1.5% GDP in country Statistical life of Malaysian Motorists RM 1.2 million (Nor Ghani et al. 2011) 6,745 fatality x RM 1.2 million
  7. 7. Fatalities Road in Some Countries 190.00 185.00 140.00 48.00 32.50 15.20 9.10 8.40 5.44 5.30 5.17 5.07 4.30 2.81 1.90 1.81 1.80 1.441.80 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 180.00 200.00 Eutophia African Repulic India C hinaPakistan Turki IndonesiaThailand Sw izerlandBelgiumM alaysia Italy Singapore Japan U SAFinland G reatBritainG erm any N ew Zealand Fatalities/10,000vehs Data: 2001
  8. 8. Some Road Accidents Picture
  9. 9. Road Accidents
  10. 10. Road Accidents
  11. 11. Road Accidents
  12. 12. Road Accidents Statistic in Malaysia
  13. 13. Road Fatality Statistics in Malaysia 0 5000000 10000000 15000000 20000000 25000000 199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011 Year VehicleRegistration 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 RoadFatalities Source : (PDRM,2012)
  14. 14. 1996 7,686,684 60,734 189,109 6,304 8.20 29.8 40.4 1997 8,550,469 63,382 215,632 6,302 7.37 29.1 36.3 1998 9,141,357 63,382 211,037 5,740 6.28 25.3 30.9 1999 9,929,951 64,981 223,166 5,794 5.83 25.5 28.7 2000 10,589,804 64,981 250,417 6,035 5.70 26.0 28.0 2001 11,302,545 64,981 265,175 5,849 5.17 25.1 25.5 2002 12,068,144 64,981 279,237 5,887 4.88 25.3 24.0 2003 12,868,934 71,814 298,651 6,282 4.88 25.1 24.0 2004 13,801,297 71,814 326,815 6,228 4.51 24.3 22.2 2005 14,816,407 72,400 328,268 6,200 4.18 23.7 20.6 2006 15,790,732 72,400 341,252 6,287 3.98 23.6 19.6 General Road Accident Statistics and Fatality Index in Malaysia Year Vehicles Registered Road Length (Km) Number of Fatality Index Accidents Death Per 10,000 Vehicles Per 100,000 Population Per Billion VKT Radin Umar, 2007
  15. 15. Accident Record From 2002 to 2011 Source : (PDRM,2012) Road Accident/Casualties in Malaysia Year Number of Registered Vehicles Total Number of Road Accident Casualties Death Serious Minor 2002 12,068,144 279,711 5,891 8,425 35,236 2003 12,819,248 298,653 6,286 9,040 37,415 2004 13,764,837 326,815 6,228 9,218 38,645 2005 14,733,585 328,164 6,200 9,395 31,417 2006 15,790,73 341,252 6,287 9,253 19,885 2007 16,813,943 363,319 6,282 9,273 18,444 2008 17,733,084 373,071 6,527 8,868 16,879 2009 18,933,237 397,330 6,745 8,849 15,823 2010 20,006,953 414,421 6,872 7,781 13,616 2011 21,311,630 449,040 6,877 6,328 12,365
  16. 16. With average 6,000 Deaths (road accidents) in Malaysia per year = 20 Jumbo Jet Crashed/year!!!! Can We Imagine???
  17. 17. “Human Error is the main cause of Road Accident in Malaysia”  40% of the road accident were caused by the following the cars in front closely,  26% were due to dangerous cornering,  13% were due to dangerous overtaking,  12% were due to over speeding! Source : Road Tranport Department of Malaysia
  18. 18. 0.48 4.06 2.83 22.83 8.71 61.09 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Bus Driver Lorry Driver Cyclist Car Driver Pedestrian Motorcyclist Road Users Road Fatalities(%) (PDRM,2012) Casualties by Type of Road User
  19. 19. Road Accidents feeling of sorrow and grief to loved ones Physical pain and disfigurement Congestion, travel time delay on road and inefficiency of logistic services Physical disabilities Governments will have to bear the costs of accidents Financial problems ROAD ACCIDENTS: HOW THEY AFFECT US
  20. 20. HUMAN FACTORS include:  Perceptual Error - driver or pedestrian looks but fail too see - distraction or lack of attention - misjudgement of speed or distance  Lack of Skill - inexperience - lack of jugdement - wrong action and decision  Manner of execution - deficiency in actions (e.g too fast, closed following etc) - deficiency in behaviour (e.g reckless, aggressive, etc)
  21. 21.  Impairement - alcohol, drug - fatigue, illness, emotional stress  Adverse Road Design - unsuitable layout and intersections design - poor visibility due to layout  Adverse Environment - slippery road - flooded surface - lack of maintenance ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS include:
  22. 22.  Inadequate Road Furniture or Marking - insufficient and/or unclear road signs - poor street lighting  Unexpected Obstructions - roadworks - parking vehicles VEHICLE FACTORS include:  lack of regular maintenance - defective brakes - tyre blowouts
  23. 23. There are some of the driver errors that lead to motor vehicle accidents: • Driving faster than the posted speed limits • Failing to adjust driving for the road and weather conditions • Turning left from the far right lane in multi-lane traffic • Tailgating/ closed following behaviour • Ignoring Stop, Yield, and other traffic signs • Rushing through yellow and red traffic lights • Neglecting to signal before turning
  24. 24. Cont’d; • Talking on a mobile phone when driving • Punishing other drivers for their driving errors (e.g immediately changing lane) • Always using high-beam headlights when approaching oncoming traffic • Driving when tired or emotionallly upset • Avoiding routine car maintenance
  25. 25.  Is a structured approach to accident prevention and casualty reduction both in the urban and rural area. Road Safety Approach & Strategy  This may be achieved by the following two approaches: i) Accident reduction and prevention approaches ii) Injury reduction approaches  The accident reduction and prevention approaches involved; REDUCTION – The application of appropriate road engineering and traffic management schemes on hazardous location or “blackspot” PREVENTION – The application of safety principles through road safety auditing on existing road or new proposed road.
  26. 26. The injury reduction approaches involve: application of appropriate safety policies, vehicle and road engineering, medical & trauma management.  These may be achieved by five strategies: i) exposure control ii) crash prevention iii) behavior modification iv) injury control v) post-injury management Road Safety Approach & Strategy
  27. 27. Road Safety Management & Strategy There are at least four basic strategies for accident reduction through the use of engineering countermeasures.  Four strategies are: i) Single site or blackspots treatment ii) Mass action schemes iii) Route action plans iv) Area-wide schemes Road Safety Approach & Strategy
  28. 28. Road Safety Management & Strategy  Single Site Technique  Mass Action Schemes Based on identification of sites with higher than average number of accidents. These approaches provide a technique for reducing accidents at high risks sites. The application of a remedy to locations or areas with a common accident problem. Some example of these problems with the worst accident records of wet skidding, on crest hills, pedestrians and motorcycles. Road Safety Approach & Strategy
  29. 29. Road Safety Management & Strategy  Route Action Schemes  Area-Wide Measure The application of various treatments over a wide area of town/city. Including traffic management and traffic calming in areas bounded by links on a network or housing areas having higher accidents. The application of remedies along a route with a high accident rate. An example of this initiative is the provision of an exclusive motorcycle lane along the Federal route F002 between Kuala Lumpur and Klang. Road Safety Approach & Strategy
  30. 30.  In 1990, The Cabinet Committee of Road Safety was formed to formulate a national road safety target in reducing road accident and fatalities. The earlier target was established to monitor the rates of fatalities due to traffic accident which is commonly defined as death within 30 days of following an accident per 10,000 vehicles. NATIONAL ROAD SAFETY TARGET  An earlier national road safety target was to reduce deaths rate to 4 traffic accident deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles by the year 2010. This target was based on the statistical model developed by Road Safety Research Centre of Universiti Putra Malaysia which predicted 9,127 deaths in year 2000 if the traffic continued to increase at the continuing linear growth with 1989 as its base year.
  31. 31. 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Ribu Tahun Kematian Forecast (9,127) Target (6,389)) Actual Deaths Death = 2289{exp0.00007.Vehicle. Population.Road } {exp0.2073 Data Collection System } Reduction 30% FATALITY MODEL AND SAFETY TARGET IN MALAYSIA Radin Umar, 1998
  32. 32. In 2006, the National Road Safety Plan 2006-2010 was launched by the Prime Minister. This Plan encompasses a total of nine strategies. Among the strategies are early childhood safety education, electronic enforcement, safety legislation, road engineering programs and community based programs. Strategic Plan for Road Safety 2006-2010 The objectives are to achieve the nation’s road safety goal, as follow: (i) To reduce 52.4 per cent of deaths per 10,000 vehicles from 4.2 in 2005 to 2.0 in 2010; (ii) To reduce deaths per 100,000 population from the existing 23 (2005) to 10 deaths; (iii) To reduce deaths per billion VKT from the current 18 (2005) to 10 deaths.
  33. 33. Fatality per 10,000 Vehicles - Estimated and Projected (Years 1986-2010)
  34. 34. Deaths per 100,000 population in Malaysia
  35. 35. Deaths per Billion Vehicle-Kilometer Travelled in Malaysia
  36. 36. In order to objectively address the national safety targets, 15 KPIs were drawn up for the following sectors: 1. Management of Road Safety 2. Road Accident and Injury Database 3. Road Safety Funding 4. Safe Planning and Design of Roads 5. Improvements to Hazardous Locations 6. Road Safety Education 7. Driver Training and Testing 8. Road Safety Campaigns Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of Road safety 9. Vehicle Safety and Standards 10. Traffic Legislation 11. Traffic Law Enforcement 12. Emergency Assistance to Road Accident Victims 13. Road Safety Research 14. Road Accident Costing 15. Partnership in Road Safety
  37. 37. Event Factors Pre Crash Crash Post Crash HUMAN Education Campaign Enforcement Complaince to Safety Devices Skill of paramedic and first respondents VEHICLE Type approval Roadworthiness Active Safety Devices Installation of Passive Safety Devices Rescue tools ENVIRONMENT Blackspot Program Road Safety Audit Forgiving Road Furniture Trauma centres and management
  38. 38. Strategic Road Safety Intervention Program 2007-2010 Program % Intervention coverage Potential reduction No. of death invovled/ year Expected no. In fatality reduction 2007 2008 2009 2010 AES-speed Cameras red light Lane discipline Helmet program Rear Seat belt Air bag Driver training RSE and CBP M/cycle lanes Black spot Others 20 20 0 30 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 60 20 65 40 20 30 20 20 20 20 100 90 60 100 60 40 50 50 30 30 30 100 90 80 100 80 60 60 80 40 40 40 30 40 40 50 20 30 10 20 80 30 20 1400 150 150 1500 450 400 300 400 500 500 350 420 54 72 750 84 72 18 64 160 60 28 Total 6300 1278 Note: AES- Automatic Enforcement System, RSE- Road Safety Education, CBP- Community Based Program
  39. 39. The “3E” Solution  Education  Enforcement  Engineering
  40. 40. ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING Road Accidents  Education • early childhood road training to initial driver training. • attitude changing programs • road safety education in school • exercises in pedestrian and cyclist safety • driver training courses • safety programmes for the eldery • campaigns (anti-speeding, seatbelt, helmet, drink driving etc)
  41. 41. ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING Road Accidents  Enforcement • Based on Road Transport Act 1987/1999. • Imposing traffic summons (drank drivers, non-wearing seatbelt, helmet, speeding etc) • enforcing speed traps • speed limits on all roads • Installation of automated speed cameras for AES • introduced public service as penalty
  42. 42. ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING Road Accidents  Engineering • Technology changes to motor vehicles: - automatic transmission - visibility systems - Anti-breaking systems - injury attenuation systems (seatbelt, air bag, etc.
  43. 43. ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING Road Accidents  Engineering (cont’d) • Road and traffic developments: - Access control - improved geometric design - improved lighting and carriageway delineation - improved road signing - separation of vulnerable road user - identify and treatment for a blackspots
  44. 44. Road Safety Signage GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON TRAFFIC SIGNS Traffic signs are installed to relay messages about the road system to all road users. They comprise instructions for the road users to obey, warnings of hazards which are not self evident, information about highway route, directions, destinations and points of interest.
  45. 45. Road Safety Agency PDRM, Traffic Branch - To carry out enforcement activities regarding Road Traffic Act 1987 & Road Traffic Ordinance 1958. - To conduct road traffic accident investigation i.e record, collection & reporting accident data. - To implement road safety discipline among road users through Ops Sikap, Ops Pacak.
  46. 46. HPU, Ministry of work - Highway Planning Unit is under the Ministry of Work, Malaysia. - The main functions & activity are:  To outline the policies for National roads / expressway network that is efficient, economical and safe.  To conduct traffic census and studies to collect information about route operation characteristics .  To collect and analyse accident data to identify accident-prone areas and propose repairment measure concepts.  To conduct Enviromental Impact Studies for the planned road projects.  To stipulate the direction of the Intelligent Transport System in the country. Road Safety Agency
  47. 47. JKR, Road Safety Unit - Officially was established in 1997 as Road Safety Division, then become Road Safety Unit under JKR Road Branch. - The main functions are:  to carry out and coordinates Road Safety Audit to all road projects.  to reviews and study on TIA report in term of safety concern and the development.  to implement road safety programs i. improve hazardous location ii. Mass Action Plan program iii. construction of motorcycle lane  to conduct accident forensic study at accident prone areas. Road Safety Agency
  48. 48. Road Safety Agency Road Safety Department, JKJR - Established in 2007 under Ministry of Transport. - JKJR is function as “One Stop Agency” with responsible: to plans, research, developments, implementations and coordination in all activities road safety involves education, enforcement, environmental & engineering. - To increase the awareness and understanding among road users through inculcate and educate approach by: i. media campaign (TV, radio, billboard etc) ii. Road Safety Education in school iii. Community Based Program, etc. Road Safety Agency
  49. 49. Example of posters for campaign program
  50. 50. Example of Community Based Program
  51. 51. Road Safety Agency Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research - MIROS was established in 2007 under Ministry of Transport. - MIROS has three main Centre namely: i. Road Engineering and Environment Research Centre, ii. Road User Behavioural Change Research Centre, iii. Vehicle Safety and Biomechanics Research Centre. - Also support by two other division; the Administration and Finance Division and Publications & Knowledge Management Division. Road Safety Agency
  52. 52. Road Safety Agency Function  Conduct high impact research that will be translated into road safety policies.  Develop national objectives, policies, and priorities for the orderly development and administration of road safety research.  Enhance and increase knowledge based on new developments issues related to road safety.  Serve as an audit and accreditation agency in curriculum design and standards on road safety.  Propose evidenced based cost-effective interventions/ programmes.  Serve as a repository of knowledge and linkage on road safety.  Serve as a centre providing consultation and advice on road safety issues. Road Safety Agency

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