congestion is a condition on road networks that
occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower
speeds, longer trip times.
is a situation in which demand for road
space exceeds supply.
traffic demand is great enough that the
interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the
traffic stream, this results in some congestion.
It is understandable that many people consider
congestion a significant problem.
Typical urban residents spend more than ten hours a
week driving of which 10-30% (one to three hours)
occurs in congested conditions.
Traffic congestion reduces travel speeds, creates
uncertainly and requires more driver effort. It is a
major source of frustration for busy, productive people.
Motorists often feel that reducing congestion would
make their lives more efficient and satisfied.
As a result, conventional planning considers congestion
a major problem and congestion reduction a dominant
It is said that the high volume of vehicles, the
inadequate infrastructure and the irrational distribution
of the development are main reasons for increasing
The major cause leading to traffic congestion is the
high number of vehicle which was caused by the
population and the development of economy.
If you live in an urban area, traffic congestion can be a
major daily headache. It's bad enough that there isn't
enough road capacity for the increasing numbers of
vehicles travelling on them, and rude and aggressive
drivers make a bad situation even worse.
Problem in Pakistan is getting worse with
every coming day specially in big cities like Karachi ,
Lahore, Rawalpindi , Islamabad, Quetta, Peshawar
Government is doing very little efforts to avoid
traffic jams and other traffic problems in Pakistan.
Following the major causes of traffic problems and
roads for the number of cars and motor
Rapid growth of the population. As a result of this,
the number of cars is increasing annually.
There are more women drivers and younger drivers
today than in the past.
The increase in the number of trucks and
commercial vehicles also causes traffic congestion,
These vehicles move very slowly, sometimes
stopping to unload goods, and blocking traffic.
Broken roads – as people don’t like to move from
the broken part so traffic increases on rest of the
cars and trucks. Government don’t have a clear
policy about old cars and trucks. Even 50 years old cars
are still running on roads.
One of the most important is parking problems. People
find it difficult to park their cars especially in the city
More cars due to bank financing . Now everyone can
afford a car so more cars are there on the road.
Lack of traffic sense among the people. People don't
have traffic sense. Traffic police and media should play
their role in creating traffic sense amongst the people.
Corruption among the traffic police in Pakistan. People
know that if they will break the law they will easily be
released by giving few rupees to the police man.
Reduction in transport speeds
Reduced travel speeds
The impact of exhaust emissions on human health
Depletion of ozone layer
Time losses cause direct economic losses
When we request a police officer, an ambulance or a
fire truck and the emergency vehicle is unable to
respond in an appropriate amount of time because of
traffic congestion it can be a danger to you and your
The first thing many people think of when it comes to
congested roadways is the delay. During the morning
there is additional stress because delays caused by
traffic can make people late for work. And at the end of
the day, the afternoon rush hour is again a frustrating
time because the workday is done and people want to
get home to relax, and traffic is preventing it.
• One beneficial effect of traffic congestion is its ability to
encourage drivers to consider other transportation options. In
cities with frequent traffic congestion, individuals often choose a
subway, light rail or bus service. These options reduce traffic on
the roads, have less of an environmental impact and reduce the
stress associated with driving in heavy traffic.
Uncertainty and unreliability in every services
Wasting time of motorists and passengers
As a non-productive activity for most people,
congestion reduces regional economic health.
Wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in
traffic and frequent acceleration and braking,
leading to more frequent repairs and
Aggressive or angry behavior by a driver of an
automobile or other motor vehicle. Such behavior
might include rude gestures, verbal insults, deliberately
driving in an unsafe or threatening manner, or making
threats. Road rage can lead to altercations, assaults, and
collisions which result in injuries and even deaths.
One of the most harmful effects of traffic congestion is its
impact on the environment. Despite the growing number
of hybrid vehicles on the road, cars stopped in traffic still
produce a large volume of harmful carbon emissions.
Besides contributing to global warming, these emissions
can cause more short-term and localized problems, such
as smog and increased respiratory problems in a
community due to poor air quality.
The stopping and starting in traffic jams burns fuel at a
higher rate than the smooth rate of travel on the open
highway. This increase in fuel consumption costs
commuters additional money for fuel and it also
contributes to the amount of emissions released by the
vehicles. These emissions create air pollution and are
related to global warming.
Urban Planning and Design
Supply and Demand
Grade separation :- using bridges or tunnel freeing
movement from having to stop for other crossing movement.
Ramp signaling:- ‘drip-feeding’ merging traffic via traffic
signal onto a congested motorway-type roadway.
Reversible lanes:-where certain section of highway operates
by reducing junction of road.
in opposite direction on different times of day to match the
Separate lane for specific user group.
City planning and urban design practices can have a huge impact
on levels of future traffic congestion, though they are of limited
relevance for short-term change.
Grid plans including fused grid road network geometry, rather than
tree-like network topology which reduce local traffic, but increase
total distances driven and discourage walking by reducing
Transit-oriented development are residential and commercial areas
designed to maximize access to public transport by providing a
transit station or stop (train station ,metro station , tram stop,
or bus stop).
Congestion can be reduced by either increasing
road capacity (supply), or by reducing traffic
Increased supply can include:
Adding more capacity at bottlenecks (such as by
adding more lanes at the expense of hard
shoulder or safety zones, or by removing local
obstacles like bridge supports and widening
Adding more capacity over the whole of a route
(generally by adding more lanes)
Reduction of demand can include: Parking restriction :- making motor vehicle use less
attractive by increasing the monetary and non-monetary costs of
parking. introducing greater competition for limited city or road
Telecommuting:- encouraged through legislation and
charging money for access onto a
road/specific area at certain times, congestion levels or for certain
Online shopping promotion:additional shopping trip.
it reduces the
Traffic reporting:-via radio, GPS and mobile apps,
to advise road users.
Traffic counter:- to provide real-time traffic counts.
Parking guideline and information:- systems
providing dynamic advice to motorists about free
Identify “pedestrian only” zones.
Building new infrastructure.
One way streets to speed traffic flow.
School opening time.