Thousands of bills are introduced every year but only few hundreds are passed into law.The following is a summary of how the bill makes its way from draft to being signed into law by the president.
1-Writting the billThe person who writes the bill may be a senator a representative a constituent
2- Introducing the billThe bill is introduced in the senate or the house andit is assigned a number and its title and sponsors arepublished in the congressional records
3- Committees and Subcommittees• The parliamentarians of the house and the senate assigns the bill to the committee with appropriate jurisdiction. Bill
• The chair of the committee may then assign the bill to the most appropriate subcommittee. Committee Subcommittee
4- Subcommittee HearingsThe subcommittee hold hearings on the billand invite testimony from public and private witnessesWitnesses may be executive branchofficials, experts, interest groups, orindividuals.
5- Mark-up The BillOnce the hearings are completed, The subcommitteemay need to mark up the bill (the process ofproposing and considering amendments to the bill).It then votes on whether to report the bill favourablyto the full committee. If not favourably reported, thebill dies.
6- send it back to full committee The committee may repeat the subcommittee’s action: hearings, mark up, votes. if the committee voted favourably on the bill , it is ordered to be reported to either The full house of The full representat senate ivesNote: depending on which chamber is considering the bill.
7- debate• When the bill reach the floor of the house or the senate the membership of the entire body may debate it.• At this point the bill may be further amended, referred back to committee or voted on.
8- referring to other chamber• If the bill is passed by the house or senate, it is referred to the other chamber.A house passed bill may be placed directly on thesenate calendar, by passing the subcommittee andcommittee reviews
9- House VS SenateIf the senate and the house had different visionsof the bill, a conference committee is appointed by the president of the senate and the speaker of the house to resolve the differences. If they do reach an agreement, the bill is sentIf the conference are unable back to the both to reach agreement, the chambers, which must vote legislation dies. on the bill without further amendments.
10- president signatureIf both chambers approve the conference committeebill, it goes to the president for signature. The president has 3 options: 1-Sign the bill into law. 2- Take no action, in which case the bill become a law within ten days. 3-Veto the bill.
• In case of the presidential veto: The president vetoed the bill Congress may veto the presidential veto If the congress If the congress failed to achieve asucceeded to get Note: This requires a two third majority the two third two third majority in favour of the majority the bill votes by both the legislation, this bill will pass house and the is killed. senate.