The lithium ion fire problem versus the lithium metal and graphene battery
Lithium- Ion, lithium
In the recent months a lot went on about
exploding lithium-ion batteries.
In this presentation have I added a link to a
recent analysis of the University of Michigan
of 14-10-2016, about what actually happens in
the battery. I have added also some extra
information of my own experience resulting
from my own research time in rare earths and
In this video is also indicated the new Lithium
–metal battery which is under development
now with a much larger capacity.
As an extra I have an added a link to an
evaluation of the new graphene battery.
Both new batteries can replace in my view
eventually the Li-Ion battery.
By Ing. Frans Feijen MBA
The Li-Ion principle:
A lithium-ion battery (Li-ion battery)
works because lithium ions flow
from the anode to cathode. When
charging currents the ions back
During this procedure are
consumed some of the materials.
As result has the Li-Ion battery a
Analysis of the the actual problem of
the Lithium-ion battery
Please follow below link or copy it into your browsers address bar. It is aboyut the
recent analysis of the Li-Ion problem by the University of Michigan (14-oct-2016). It
also contains information about the Lithium-metal battery.
Process evalaution with help of the Michigan dendrite
(By Ing. Frans Feijen MBA)
The video confirms myknowledge in rare earth’s and electro migration of material.
The explosion process starts with the formation of Lithium dendrites based on an electro migration
process which is initiated by the voltage difference over the battery electrolyte. This formation s clearly
shown in the video of the University of Michigan (very good analysis by the way). It is actually the same
process which happens if you use silver in an IC: the silver migrates slowly over none silver containing
area’s and eventually formats a shortage wire. This shortage wire releases the voltage differences
between the 2 connected areas. This is initially a small difference but during the shortage becomes this
shortly a very high voltage (typically 15.000 - 60.000 volts) which is released as and arc. One can
compare this with an electrical arc flash in a thunderstorm.
During the arc-flash is the electrolyte fluid of the battery transformed into a gas. The expansion of the
fluid into gas is shown by the fact that the battery is blown-up like a balloon. This goes on for some time
until the battery edge is overstressed and opens.
After this comes the lithium in motion: lithium is extremely corrosive and powder and materials need to be
handled in oxygen free environments. The battery environment is however compromised now and
oxygen pours in. We have now a corrosive material (lithium + electrolyte) with an ignition point (the arc)
which can get into and explosive fire as result of the pouring in oxygen. The fire triangel is complete:
A battery explosion occurs as is shown in the video.
I can indicate the following from my own research knowledge in rare earth’s and IC
How can a fire or expolosion be
This can only prevented if the dendrites can’t grow, the electrolyte can’t
evaporate or the oxygen can’t enter the battery.
A containment layer around the Lithium
An electrolyte which is less conducting, solid and can’t sublimate.
A battery material which is less corrosive
An electrical loading procedure which is less fast or at least does not
initiate the dendrite formation.
A combination of all 4 can create a battery in which dendrites do not grow
and no fire hazard can occur.
To my opinion (Frans Feijen) can I indicate the following now: if there isn’t
looked at all 4 simultaneously, then shall this problem not be solved.
What can be said further about at the
lattest battery developments?
There is looked at this moment at 2 new types of batteries. Knowing:
1) Lithium-metal batteries (Also mentioned in the video of the University of
2) Graphene batteries (Please look at the video at the next page.)
Both materials still can still ignite/oxidize if arc’s can be formed and oxygen is
added. Graphene is however certainly less oxidizing than Lithium.
The wish for fast loading of the batteries does fuel the possibility of dendrite
formation and shortages.
In my view we only can avoid Lithium dendrite formation if the loading can be
done via a sort of alternation current and a creation of a sophisticated loading
Some Information about The graphene battery
Please follow below link or copy it into your browsers address bar and look what is
avaliable about the new Graphene Batteries:
There can be found more video’s and information on youtube and the
internet about this type of batteries.