Francisco Franco 1945-75
Post WWII Setting… <ul><li>Spain is excluded from UN 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>International Isolation: </li></ul><ul><li>-FR...
1950’s Winds of change… <ul><li>‘ Pact of Madrid’ 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>10 year military assistance program </li></ul><ul...
Social policy ‘National Catholicism’  <ul><li>Young Front (FJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Nazi and Italian models </li></u...
Economic Policy until 1957 <ul><li>Continuation of autarky </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficiency and Protectionism </li></ul>...
Economic Liberalization  <ul><li>Luis Carrero Blanco (Minister to Presidency 1951-Prime minister 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Stabilization plan-1959 <ul><li>Two main objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Restore financial stability by controlling inflatio...
Spain’s Economic Miracle <ul><li>GDP growth of 7.5% from 1961-73  </li></ul><ul><li>From Agriculture to Modern industriali...
Transformation of Society 1960-75 <ul><li>Growth of Urban classes (1970: 25% of population) </li></ul><ul><li>1970: 90% of...
<ul><li>“ University problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for rejection of Francoist values </li></ul><ul><li>Violent reacti...
Franco’s dwindling health & divisions <ul><li>Parkinson´s disease  </li></ul><ul><li>@ged 76 he declares successor 1969: D...
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Francisco Franco 1945 75

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Francisco Franco 1945 75

  1. 1. Francisco Franco 1945-75
  2. 2. Post WWII Setting… <ul><li>Spain is excluded from UN 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>International Isolation: </li></ul><ul><li>-FR, UK, and USA call for substitution of regime </li></ul><ul><li>-Withdrawal of ambassadors </li></ul><ul><li>-Exclusion of Marshal Plan </li></ul><ul><li>-Exclusion from NATO </li></ul><ul><li>Search for respectability in early Cold-War setting </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1950’s Winds of change… <ul><li>‘ Pact of Madrid’ 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>10 year military assistance program </li></ul><ul><li>USA receives space for military bases </li></ul><ul><li>Economic aid: $625 million 1953-57 </li></ul><ul><li>Concordat with Vatican 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>1955: UN allows Spain as member </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social policy ‘National Catholicism’ <ul><li>Young Front (FJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Nazi and Italian models </li></ul><ul><li>1943-56: 30% of eligible youths joined </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Action (AC) </li></ul><ul><li>1951: 500,000 members </li></ul><ul><li>Real Rivalry: 1956 open clashes between students </li></ul><ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><li>-Purging of teachers: Ideological contamination </li></ul><ul><li>-No money spent on education until 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>-Early 50’s lack of schools </li></ul><ul><li>-Elementary schooling 76% </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic Policy until 1957 <ul><li>Continuation of autarky </li></ul><ul><li>Self-sufficiency and Protectionism </li></ul><ul><li>-Trade neglected and industry uncompetitive </li></ul><ul><li>-Industrial production rises after 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture: </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-reform policies </li></ul><ul><li>Sluggish production </li></ul>
  6. 6. Economic Liberalization <ul><li>Luis Carrero Blanco (Minister to Presidency 1951-Prime minister 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Reshuffling of ministers: </li></ul><ul><li>-Falange and Catholic Action replaced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Opus Dei Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>- economically liberal </li></ul><ul><li>-politically authoritarian </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stabilization plan-1959 <ul><li>Two main objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Restore financial stability by controlling inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalization of external trade & Encourage foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Other reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce public expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of Govt. Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Devaluation of peseta (60 pesetas to $) </li></ul><ul><li>1958: </li></ul><ul><li>OECD and IMF </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spain’s Economic Miracle <ul><li>GDP growth of 7.5% from 1961-73 </li></ul><ul><li>From Agriculture to Modern industrialized nation </li></ul><ul><li>(represented only 15% of GDP in 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth without debt: </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrant remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>1960: $40 million 1970: $697 million </li></ul>
  9. 9. Transformation of Society 1960-75 <ul><li>Growth of Urban classes (1970: 25% of population) </li></ul><ul><li>1970: 90% of schooling population </li></ul><ul><li>Women enter work force (1971: 28% of workforce) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased standard of living and consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicisms evolution & working class movement (CCOO) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Tourism and Rapid Economic growth </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ University problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for rejection of Francoist values </li></ul><ul><li>Violent reaction by government forces </li></ul><ul><li>Regional nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Catalu ña </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly of Catalu ña 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Basque Region </li></ul><ul><li>ETA (Basque homeland and Freedom) 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Death of Carrero Blanco </li></ul>
  11. 11. Franco’s dwindling health & divisions <ul><li>Parkinson´s disease </li></ul><ul><li>@ged 76 he declares successor 1969: Don Juan Carlos </li></ul><ul><li>“ todo esta atado y bien atado” </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions in govt: </li></ul><ul><li>Aperturistas vs immobilistas </li></ul><ul><li>November 20 th 1975 Franco Dies </li></ul>

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