Francisco Franco 1936 1945

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Francisco Franco 1936 1945

  1. 1. Francisco Franco 1936-1945
  2. 2. Rise of Francisco Franco <ul><li>Franco as more than just Commander and Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Head of Government and the Spanish State ” </li></ul><ul><li>… assumes all powers of the New state </li></ul><ul><li>Wartime dictatorship-----to ------Postwar dictatorship </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ideological Fusion: <ul><li>Unification from above: </li></ul><ul><li>Decree of Unification </li></ul><ul><li>Carlistas / Monarchists </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative/traditionalists </li></ul><ul><li>Falange </li></ul><ul><li>Modern fascist movement </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ The absent one”: </li></ul><ul><li>Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera </li></ul><ul><li>Excecuted on Nov. 20 th 1936 in Alicante </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1938 <ul><li>1 st Cabinet is formed </li></ul><ul><li>3 Generals </li></ul><ul><li>1 Carlist </li></ul><ul><li>2 Falangists </li></ul><ul><li>2 technocrats </li></ul><ul><li>(From religious monarchical tradition) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Opus Dei’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pillars of Franco’s Regime: <ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchists </li></ul><ul><li>Fascists </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionalist and Modern </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fundamental Laws of Franco’s regime <ul><li>1: Labor Charter (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Social policy—Duty to work </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes are forbidden </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical syndicate </li></ul><ul><li>2. Law of the ‘Cortes’ (1942) </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory board </li></ul><ul><li>Franco ruled by decree </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>3. Charter of Rights 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial democratic façade </li></ul><ul><li>State centric rather than focused on the individual </li></ul><ul><li>4. Laws of Referenda 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Referendum for issues of national concern </li></ul><ul><li>5. Law of succession 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Spain is a Catholic, social and representative monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Franco becomes regent for life </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>6. Law on the principles of the National Movement 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>National movement: </li></ul><ul><li>Only recognized political organization </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition of right wing ‘families’ </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirms traditional nature of regime </li></ul><ul><li>7. Organic law of the State 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed existing practices </li></ul>
  9. 9. ‘ The Falange phase’ 1939-45 <ul><li>Economic Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction = War economy </li></ul><ul><li>Autarky and State interventionism </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Industry 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Los A ños de hambre- rationing through early 50´s </li></ul><ul><li>Political Policy </li></ul><ul><li>-Institutionalized Vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>-Law of Political responsibilities 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 executions 1939-45 </li></ul><ul><li>250,000 political prisoners </li></ul><ul><li>Forced labour </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Social Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Church receives control of Ministry of Education </li></ul><ul><li>¨National-Catholicism¨ is born </li></ul><ul><li>Falange controls student unions </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Franco and Nazi Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Myth of Franco’s Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>1941: Blue division 47,000 “volunteers” </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 industrial workers </li></ul>

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