What is Globalization? Process of interdependenceA) PeopleB) StatesC) EconomicsD) EcologiesE) CulturesGreater Cooperation but also Greater Fragmentation
Historical background Buzz word first used in the 80’s Early forms of Globalization: Colonialism and Mercantilism Spread of Religion Industrial Revolution International Laws and Organizations16th century Westphalia treaty1900 International Court of Arbitration- Peace Palace1919 League of Nations1945 United NationsPost WWII- WTO, IMF, EU, UN
Patterns of GlobalizationI. Political State sovereignty-crisis of nation-state-domestic-foreign frontier Problem Solving-”Think globally” Degree of International Organization-many exist but relatively powerless-dominated by western states State of International Relation-still in cold war paradigm
II. Economic Trade & Production-Supply has surpassed demand-International trade has decreased dramaticallyInvestment-large stakes owned by foreign nationsFinancial markets-In a situation of extreme debt and lack of liquidityLabor Market-workers compete globally
Contradictions: Absolute freedom of goods and trade do not exist. International org. regulate trade Both EU and USA advocate protectionism Technical division of labor has replaced social aspect-”Digital Divide” Trans-national corp. being replaced by Foreign direct investment (FDI)
III. Cultural -ReligionCreates increased fragmentation -EthnicityEthno-nationalism & SupranationalismInward looking mono-cultural view (not pluralistic) -Consumer Preferences Developed /underdeveloped MediaGlobal distribution of images and info.CNN & Al Jazeera
III. Ecological Environmental protection-Global concern growing-Global action is distant and insufficient Use of resources-Exhaustive patterns of use of resources.