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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), general laboratory

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Content structure:
1. Hazards in general laboratory
2. Chemical hazards classification
3. Sources to look for the hazard information
4. Safety regulation standards by OSHA
5. Standards for handling chemicals by OSHA
6. Standards for PPE by OSHA
7. PPE Recommendations by NIOSH
8. Standard Tests and Certifications
9. 5 Things to consider when choosing a PPE

Published in: Science
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), general laboratory

  1. 1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) General Laboratory
  2. 2. Content structure 1. Hazards in general laboratory 2. Chemical hazards classification 3. Sources to look for the hazard information 4. Safety regulations standards by OSHA 5. Standards for handling chemicals by OSHA 6. Standards for PPE by OSHA 7. PPE Recommendations by NIOSH 8. Standard Tests and Certifications 9. Things to consider when choosing a PPE
  3. 3. Hazards in General Laboratory Mutagenicity Reproductive Toxicity Respiratory Sensitizer Target Organ Toxicity Aspiration Toxicity Flammables Self-Heating Self-Reactives Skin Sensitizer Acute Toxicity Respiratory Tract Irritant Skin Corrosion/Burns Etc Chemical Explosives Lasers Radiation Gases under pressure Needle prick Glass cut Lifting injury Open flames Vacuum Unit Etc Physical Biological Human or animal blood and body fluids Bloodborne pathogens including: Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Etc
  4. 4. Chemical hazards classification Globally Harmonized System (GHS) Hazard Classes The Hazard Communication Standard (29CFR 1910.1200) The identified hazards have to be communicated on the container label and in documents called Safety Data Sheets (SDS). Manufacturers and distributors are required to provide safety data sheets to their clients that describe the results of the classification and all known hazards of a chemical, but they often provide very limited information on safe handling procedures.
  5. 5. • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • eEROS • Sigma-Aldrich webpage • Fisher Scientific webpage • Prudent Practices in Laboratory • Other textbooks Sources to look for the hazard information
  6. 6. ▪ 1910.94, Ventilation ▪ 1910.95, Occupational noise exposure ▪ 1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response ▪ 1910 Subpart Z, Toxic and hazardous substances ▪ 1910.132, General requirements (Personal protective equipment) ▪ 1910.133, Eye and face protection ▪ 1910.134, Respiratory protection ▪ 1910.135, Head protection ▪ 1910.136, Foot protection ▪ 1910.137, Electrical protective equipment ▪ 1910.138, Hand protection ▪ 1910.140, Personal fall protection systems ▪ 1910 Subpart I - Appendix A, References for further information (Non-mandatory) ▪ 1910 Subpart I - Appendix B, Non-mandatory compliance guidelines for hazard assessment and PPE selection ▪ 1910.146, Permit-required confined spaces ▪ 1910.252, General requirements (Welding, cutting, and brazing) In the general industry standards (29 CFR 1910) OSHA covers the responsibilities of employer to provide proper: Safety regulation standards by OSHA
  7. 7. Minimizing exposure to chemicals by establishing standard operating procedures, requirements for personal protective equipment, engineering controls (e.g., chemical fume hoods, air handlers, etc.) and waste disposal procedures All the manipulations with chemicals have to be carried out on a "laboratory scale” - to be easily handled by one person The employer is required to develop and carry out the provisions of a written CHP (Chemical Hygiene Plan) Responsible persons must be designated for procurement and handling of Material Safety Data Sheets, organizing training sessions, monitoring employee work practices, and annual revision of the CHP The OSHA laboratory standards provide the general recommendations, and require the employer to develop more detailed instructions. Standards for handling chemicals
  8. 8. OSHA requires employers to pay for personal protective equipment These typically include: hard hats, gloves, goggles, safety shoes, safety glasses, welding helmets and goggles, face shields, chemical protective equipment and fall protection equipment. With the exception of • Safety-toe protective footwear and prescription safety glasses were excepted from the employer payment requirement, in large part because these items were considered to be very personal in nature and were often worn off the jobsite. • Everyday clothing, such as long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes, and normal work boots. • Ordinary clothing, skin creams, or other items, used solely for protection from weather, such as winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots, hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen • Items such as hair nets and gloves worn by food workers for consumer safety. • Lifting belts because their value in protecting the back is questionable. • When the employee has lost or intentionally damaged the PPE and it must be replaced. 
 Standards for PPE by OSHA OSHA recommends using the data, provided by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for choosing the right PPE.
  9. 9. Hazard Example PPE Recommendation Examples Small volumes of potentially hazardous aqueous solutions or infectious material VWR Basic Protection SPP, and SMS materials DenLine DL3460, DL3660 and DL3630 Bloodborne pathogens including: Hepatitis B and C HIV Kimberly Clark Kleenguard A60, A80 Liquid & Particle Protection Apparel Life Science Products PolyPropylene/Polyethylene coated DenLife FluidGuard material Coated-polypropylene isolation gowns Chemicals VWR Advanced Protection (70% Sulfuric Acid, 85% Phosphoric Acid), Maximum Protection (70% Sulfuric Acid, 85% Phosphoric Acid) TyChem Flammable or pyrophoric liquids DuPont Nomex® Kimberly Clark Kleenguard A65 Lab Coat Nylon, polyester, or polypropylene will melt at relatively low temperatures and should not be used Cotton will not deflect flammable or pyrophoric liquids and should not be used when working with these hazards Material Used Example Spunbonded polypropylene Saranex 23-P film Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) resin Spunbonded Polypropylene fabric coated with breathable Polyethylene film Nomex® Unresistant to Acetic Anhydride, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Benzene, Bromine, etc Melts at low temp Unresistant to Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ketones, etc Melts at low temp Unresistant to Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Bromine, nonpolar solvents etc Melts at low temp Unresistant to Strong Corrosive Liquids. Nonpolar organic solvents easily penetrate through the fabric.
  10. 10. Chemical Physical Biological Standard Tests and Certifications ASTM F1670 (penetration by synthetic blood) ASTM F1671 (bloodborne pathogen exposure) AATCC Method 42 (resistance to the penetration of water by impact) NFPA 701 or 2112 (flame propagation tests) NFPA 1992 (liquid - splash test) ASTM D5034 (Break Tensile Properties) FZ/T 01085 - 1999 (Trapezoid tearing strength) ASTM F903 (liquid chemical barrier) AATCC 193 (Aqueous Liquid Repellency: Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test)
  11. 11. 5 Things to consider when choosing a PPE 1. The main hazard by the frequency of interaction, volume or possible outcomes; 2. The fabric/film type and content; 3. Tests passed by the fabric/film or the garment itself; 4. Customized Fit. Bulky excess fabric can hardly be controlled and can cause splashes and burns; 5. Closure type - should be easy to put on and take off. A PPE cannot guarantee protection from all the possible hazards, but it significantly decreases the possibility of injury or harm. In most cases, the level of protection depends on professional attitude and self- care.

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