SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu - www.sheep...
 Seventy (70) percent             of fetal growth is             occurring.NEEDS             Most of the female’s      ...
   A more nutrient-dense diet     To compensate for        reduced feed intake.       To support fetal growth.       T...
 Energy is the nutrient most likely  to be deficient, but protein can  also be deficient in the diet, due  to reduced int...
UNDERFEEDING                      OVERFEEDING Pregnancy toxemia risk             Pregnancy toxemia risk Smaller, weaker...
   Calcium requirements    virtually double during    late pregnancy, but you    need to avoid excessive    calcium, too....
POOR SOURCES          GOOD SOURCESFeed stuff     % Ca   Feed stuff            % CaBarley         0.06   Limestone         ...
Image source: Informed Farmers (Can)   Our soils are deficient    in selenium.   During late gestation,    selenium cros...
 Free choice mineral mixes  usually provide adequate  selenium (but do not  guarantee adequate intake). Adding a seleniu...
 Make sure all ewes  and does can eat  at the same time. Separate pregnant  ewe lambs and  doelings from  mature females...
   Stress can predispose    pregnant ewes and does    to many problems.   Minimize stress during    late pregnancy     ...
   Lack of exercise may    increase the chances of    pregnancy toxemia and    other problems.   Daily exercise is    re...
   Vaccinate pregnant    females approximately 1    month (at least 2 weeks)    before they are due to    lamb/kid.     ...
   Ewes and does suffer a    temporary loss of    immunity to stomach    worms around the time    of parturition.   If l...
   Traditional approach     Deworm ewes and does      prior to parturition.      ▪ Use an anthelmintic that        has e...
   In feed or mineral                   Why?     Bovatec® - sheep                     To prevent coccidiosis     Rume...
   Why?     To prevent abortion.      ▪ If the flock has a history of        diagnosed abortions.      ▪ In the event of...
   Results in    cleaner, drier, healthier    environment for babies.   Shorn ewes are less likely to    lay on their la...
FACILITIES                       SUPPLIES   Clean, dry, draft-free          Frozen colostrum    building                ...
DO’S                                 DON’TS   Increase nutrition (gradually)    Overfeed   Feed pregnant ewe lambs     ...
Thank you for your       attention.      Any questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com
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Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)

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Presentation given at the 2011 Lambing & Kidding School in Wye Mills, MD, by Susan Schoenian, University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist.

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Getting ready for lambing and kidding (2011)

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.com
  2. 2.  Seventy (70) percent of fetal growth is occurring.NEEDS   Most of the female’s udder development is occurring.  Her rumen capacity is decreasing.  She’s eating less.INTAKE 
  3. 3.  A more nutrient-dense diet  To compensate for reduced feed intake.  To support fetal growth.  To support udder development.  To prevent pregnancy toxemia and milk fever. Remember: animals need amounts  To ensure birth of (lb, g) of nutrients -- not percentages. strong, healthy babies of moderate size (weight). Poor nutrition can cause Angora does to abort (90- 110 d).
  4. 4.  Energy is the nutrient most likely to be deficient, but protein can also be deficient in the diet, due to reduced intake. Nutrient requirements vary by species, breed, size, age, and number of fetuses. Grain is often necessary to meet increase energy needs of pregnant females. If a low quality forage is fed, it may also be necessary to provide supplemental Ca and/or protein. Remember: animals need amounts (lb, g) of nutrients -- not percentages.
  5. 5. UNDERFEEDING OVERFEEDING Pregnancy toxemia risk  Pregnancy toxemia risk Smaller, weaker babies  More likely to prolapse Reduced colostrum their vaginas. quality and quantity  Greater risk of dystocia Higher neonatal mortality (difficult birthing). Reduced milk yield  Too much internal fat Reduced wool production  Oversized fetuses via fewer secondary  Expensive! follicles (in the offspring).
  6. 6.  Calcium requirements virtually double during late pregnancy, but you need to avoid excessive calcium, too. Milk fever is caused by low blood calcium  Pre-partum ▪ Inadequate intake of Ca  Post-partum (dairy does) ▪ Failure to mobilize Ca reserves
  7. 7. POOR SOURCES GOOD SOURCESFeed stuff % Ca Feed stuff % CaBarley 0.06 Limestone 34.0Corn 0.02 Dicalcium phosphate 22.0Oats , wheat 0.05 Trace minerals 14-18 Dry kelp 2.72 Legumes 1.3-1.5 INTERMEDIATE SOURCES Feed stuff % Ca Grasses 0.30-0.50 Soybean meal 0.28-0.38
  8. 8. Image source: Informed Farmers (Can) Our soils are deficient in selenium. During late gestation, selenium crosses the placenta to the fetuses. Low levels of selenium can result in . . .  Poor reproductive performance  Retain placentas  White muscle disease in lambs and kids
  9. 9.  Free choice mineral mixes usually provide adequate selenium (but do not guarantee adequate intake). Adding a selenium-fortified mineral mix to the grain ration will ensure adequate intake of selenium and other minerals. Selenium and vitamin E can be supplemented orally (gels). On farms with a history of white muscle disease, selenium injections (Rx) may be advisable.
  10. 10.  Make sure all ewes and does can eat at the same time. Separate pregnant ewe lambs and doelings from mature females. Remove males after breeding season. Do not feed on the ground.
  11. 11.  Stress can predispose pregnant ewes and does to many problems. Minimize stress during late pregnancy  Missed feedings  Shearing, crutching  Moving, handling  Mixing groups  Dogs
  12. 12.  Lack of exercise may increase the chances of pregnancy toxemia and other problems. Daily exercise is recommended throughout pregnancy. Exercise can be encouraged by separating feed, water, and minerals.
  13. 13.  Vaccinate pregnant females approximately 1 month (at least 2 weeks) before they are due to lamb/kid.  Lambs and kids will acquire temporary, passive immunity via the colostrum. Females never vaccinated before require two injections, 4 weeks apart.
  14. 14.  Ewes and does suffer a temporary loss of immunity to stomach worms around the time of parturition. If lambing or kidding occurs in the spring, the egg rise coincides with the hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycle.
  15. 15.  Traditional approach  Deworm ewes and does prior to parturition. ▪ Use an anthelmintic that has efficacy against hypobiotic larvae (e.g. ivermectin, SafeGuard) Novel approaches  Increase level of protein in late gestation ration.  Use the FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine which ewes and does require deworming.
  16. 16.  In feed or mineral  Why?  Bovatec® - sheep  To prevent coccidiosis  Rumensin® - goats in lambs and kids. ▪ Reduce shedding of  Deccox® - both coccidia organism into environment.  As an aid to prevent abortions caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin® can be toxic to equines and dogs.
  17. 17.  Why?  To prevent abortion. ▪ If the flock has a history of diagnosed abortions. ▪ In the event of an abortion storm. How?  Feed chlorotetracycline (aureomycin) at a rate of 80 mg/head/day during the last 6 weeks of gestation.  Inject oxytetracycline (LA- 200) at two week intervals during late gestation [Rx].
  18. 18.  Results in cleaner, drier, healthier environment for babies. Shorn ewes are less likely to lay on their lambs. Shorn ewes are more likely to seek shelter for lambing. Shorn animals take up less space in the barn and around feeders. Results in cleaner fleeces. But . . . shorn animals require shelter and more feed.
  19. 19. FACILITIES SUPPLIES Clean, dry, draft-free  Frozen colostrum building  Esophageal feeding tube  OB sleeves and lubricant  Drop area  Disinfectant for dipping navels  Small pens (jugs)  Prolapse harness or spoon  Mixing pens  Needles and syringes  Propylene glycol Clean, well-rested pasture  Calcium borogluconate  Shelter  Antibiotics  Emergency pens  Bo-Se  Thermometer  More…
  20. 20. DO’S DON’TS Increase nutrition (gradually)  Overfeed Feed pregnant ewe lambs  Underfeed and doelings separately Encourage daily exercise  Stress females Minimize stress  Introduce new animals Vaccinate for CD-T  Change groupings Manage periparturient  Leave males in egg rise  Worry Feed a coccidiostat Shear or crutch females Prepare facilities Gather/inventory supplies
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention. Any questions?Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com

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