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ESTAMFORMATION UNIVERSITY
SEME CAMPUS
EFERAYENA .O. RIGHTEOUS
HEALTH SCIENCE
NURSING
200 LEVEL
TOPIC: INFECTIOUS DISEASES
1. LIST 50 INFECTION DISEASES
2. DISCUSS THE NATURE AND CAUSES
3. PREVALNECE
4. SYMPTOMS
5. ASSOCIATED DISEASES
6. TREATMENT
7. SUGGESTED MEDICAMENT
8. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
WHAT IS INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Infectious diseases are disorders
caused by organisms — such as
bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.
Many organisms live in and on our
bodies. They're normally harmless or
even helpful. But under certain
conditions, some organisms may cause
disease. Some infectious diseases can
be passed from person to person.
SYPHILIS
Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually
spread by sexual contact. The disease
starts as a painless sore — typically on
the genitals, rectum or mouth.
Syphilis spreads from person to person
via skin or mucous membrane contact
with these sores.
SYMPTOMS
Syphilis develops in
stages, and symptoms
vary with each stage.
But the stages may
overlap, and
symptoms don't
always occur in the
same order. You may
be infected with
syphilis without
noticing any symptoms
for years.
PRIMARY SYPHILIS
The first sign of syphilis is a small
sore, called a chancre . The sore
appears at the spot where the
bacteria entered your body. While
most people infected with syphilis
develop only one chancre, some
people develop several of them.
The chancre usually develops
about three weeks after exposure.
Many people who have syphilis
don't notice the chancre because
it's usually painless, and it may be
hidden within the vagina or
rectum. The chancre will heal on
its own within three to six weeks.
SECONDARY SYPHILIS
Within a few weeks of the original chancre
healing, you may experience a rash that begins
on your trunk but eventually covers your entire
body — even the palms of your hands and the
soles of your feet.
This rash is usually not itchy and may be
accompanied by wartlike sores in your mouth or
genital area. Some people also experience hair
loss, muscle aches, a fever, a sore throat and
swollen lymph nodes. These signs and symptoms
may disappear within a few weeks or repeatedly
come and go for as long as a year.
LATENT SYPHILIS
If you aren't treated for syphilis, the
disease moves from the secondary
stage to the hidden (latent) stage,
when you have no symptoms. The
latent stage can last for years. Signs
and symptoms may never return, or
the disease may progress to the third
(tertiary) stage.
TERTIARY SYPHILIS
About 15% to 30% of people infected
with syphilis who don't get treatment
will develop complications known as
tertiary syphilis. In the late stage, the
disease may damage the brain, nerves,
eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones
and joints. These problems may occur
many years after the original,
untreated infection.
NEUROSYPHILIS
At any stage, syphilis can spread and,
among other damage, cause damage
to the brain and nervous system and
the eye.
CONGENITAL SYPHILIS
Babies born to women who have syphilis can become
infected through the placenta or during birth. Most
newborns with congenital syphilis have no symptoms,
although some experience a rash on the palms of
their hands and the soles of their feet.
Later signs and symptoms may include deafness,
teeth deformities and saddle nose — where the
bridge of the nose collapses.
However, babies born with syphilis can also be born
too early, may die in the womb before birth or can
die after birth.
CAUSES
The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called
Treponema pallidum. The most common
way syphilis is spread is through contact
with an infected person's sore during sexual
activity. The bacteria enter the body
through minor cuts or abrasions in the skin
or mucous membranes. Syphilis is
contagious during its primary and
secondary stages, and sometimes in the
early latent period.
Less commonly, syphilis may spread through
direct contact with an active lesion, such as
during kissing. It can also be passed from
mothers to their babies during pregnancy or
childbirth.
Syphilis can't be spread by using the same toilet,
bathtub, clothing or eating utensils, or from
doorknobs, swimming pools or hot tubs.
Once cured, syphilis doesn't return on its own.
However, you can become reinfected if you have
contact with someone's syphilis sore.
PREVENTION
There is no vaccine for syphilis. To help prevent the
spread of syphilis, follow these suggestions:
Abstain or be monogamous. The only certain way to
avoid syphilis is to avoid (abstain from) having sex. The
next-best option is to have mutually monogamous sex
in which both partners have sex only with each other
and neither partner is infected.
Use a latex condom. Condoms can reduce your risk of
contracting syphilis, but only if the condom covers the
syphilis sores.
Avoid recreational drugs. Misuse of alcohol or other
drugs can inhibit your judgment and lead to unsafe
sexual practices.
TREATMENT
 After the initial infection, the syphilis bacteria can
remain inactive in the body for decades before
becoming active again. Early syphilis can be cured,
sometimes with a single shot (injection) of penicillin.
Hepatitis a
Hepatitis” means
inflammation of
the liver. There
are types of
hepatitis. Those
caused by viruses
which include
hepatitis A, B
and hepatitis C.
Hepatitis A, also called hep A, is a
contagious liver infection caused by the
hepatitis A virus. Some people have only a
mild illness that lasts a few weeks. Others
have more severe problems that can last
months. You usually get the disease when
you eat or drink something contaminated
by poop from a person who has the virus.
The hepatitis A virus usually isn’t
dangerous. Almost everyone who has it
gets better. But because it can take a while
to go away, you’ll need to take care of
yourself in the meantime.
Hepatitis A Symptoms
If you have this infection, the virus is causing inflammation in your liver. Some people,
especially many children, don’t have symptoms. Others might have:
• Jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)
• Belly pain
• Dark urine
• Loss of appetite
• Upset stomach
• Vomiting
• Itching
• Pale-colored poop
• Joint pain
• Fever
• Diarrhea
• Fatigue
These problems tend to go away after about 2 months but might keep coming back for up
to 6 months.
You can spread the hepatitis A virus even if you feel fine. You can also spread it about 2
weeks before your symptoms appear and during the first week after they show up.
Hepatitis A Diagnosis
Your doctor will first ask about your symptoms and
check for high levels of liver enzymes in your blood.
Then, they’ll do more blood tests to look for:
• IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies. Your body makes
these when you’re first exposed to hepatitis A. They stay
in your blood for about 3 to 6 months.
• IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies. These show up
after the virus has been in your body for a while. You
may have them all your life. They protect you against
hepatitis A. If you test positive for them but not for IgM
antibodies, it means you had a hepatitis A infection in the
past or had vaccinations to protect against it.
Hepatitis A Treatment
No medication can get rid of the
hepatitis A virus once you have it.
Your doctor will treat your symptoms
-- they may call this supportive care -
- until it goes away. They’ll also do
tests that check how well your liver is
working to be sure your body is
healing like it should.
You can take these steps to make yourself more
comfortable:
• Get some rest. You’ll probably feel tired and
sick and have less energy than usual.
• Try to keep food down. The nausea that
sometimes comes with hepatitis A can make it
tough to eat. It may be easier to snack during the
day than to eat full meals. To make sure you get
enough nutrients, go for more high-calorie foods
and drink fruit juice or milk instead of water.
Fluids will also help keep you hydrated if you’re
throwing up.
• Avoid alcohol. It’s harder for your liver to
handle medications and alcohol when you have
the virus. Plus, drinking can lead to more liver
damage. Tell your doctor about any medications
you take, including over-the-counter drugs, as
these might also hurt your liver.
Hepatitis A Prevention
The vaccine is your best defense. If you come into
contact with someone who has hepatitis A, you can get
the vaccine or an IG shot within 2 weeks for some
protection.
Good hygiene is also important. Always wash your
hands with soap and water after using the bathroom,
before and after handling food, and after changing a
diaper.
When you travel to a place with poor sanitation, don’t
drink tap water or eat raw food.
Hepatitis B Symptoms
Short-term (acute) hepatitis B infection doesn’t always cause symptoms. For instance,
it’s uncommon for children younger than 5 to have symptoms if they’re infected.
If you do have symptoms, they may include:
• Jaundice (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown
or orange.)
• Light-colored poop
• Fever
• Fatigue that persists for weeks or months
• Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting
• Belly pain
• Joint pain
Symptoms may not show up until 1 to 6 months after you catch the virus. You might
not feel anything. About a third of the people who have this disease don’t. They find
out only through a blood test.
Symptoms of long-term (chronic) hepatitis B infection don’t always show up, either. If
they do, they may be like those of short-term (acute) infection.
Hepatitis B Causes and Risk Factors
It’s caused by the hepatitis B
virus, and it can spread from
person to person in certain
ways. You can spread the
hepatitis B virus even if you
don’t feel sick.
The most common ways to get hepatitis B include:
• Sex. You can get it if you have unprotected sex with someone
who has it and your partner’s blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal
secretions enter your body.
• Sharing needles. The virus spreads easily via needles and
syringes contaminated with infected blood.
• Accidental needle sticks. Health care workers and anyone else
who comes in contact with human blood can get it this way.
• Mother to child. Pregnant women with hepatitis B can pass it
to their babies during childbirth. But there’s a vaccine to
prevent newborns from becoming infected.
Hepatitis B doesn’t spread through kissing, food or water,
shared utensils, coughing or sneezing, or through touch.
Hepatitis B Treatment
If the infection is active for longer than 6 months,
your doctor will tell you that you have chronic
active hepatitis B. They may prescribe some of
these medications to treat it:
Interferon alfa (Intron A, Roferon A, Sylatron).
This medicine boosts your immune system. You
take it as a shot for at least 6 months. It doesn’t
cure the disease. It treats liver inflammation
Hepatitis B Prevention
To help keep a hepatitis B infection from spreading:
• Get the hepatitis B vaccine (if you haven’t already been infected).
It’s key to prevention, and the CDC recommends it for all babies
born in the U.S., all kids and teens younger than 19 who haven’t
already gotten this vaccine, and at-risk people.
• Use condoms every time you have sex.
• Wear gloves when you clean up after others, especially if you
have to touch bandages, tampons, and linens.
• Cover all open cuts or wounds.
• Don’t share razors, toothbrushes, nail care tools, or pierced
earrings with anyone.
• Don’t share chewing gum, and don’t pre-chew food for a baby.
• Make certain that any needles for drugs, ear piercing, or tattoos --
or tools for manicures and pedicures -- are properly sterilized.
• Clean up blood with one part household bleach and 10 parts
water.
Hepatitis C
 Hepatitis C is a viral infection
that causes liver inflammation,
sometimes leading to serious
liver damage. The hepatitis C
virus (HCV) spreads through
contaminated blood.
Until recently, hepatitis C
treatment required weekly
injections and oral medications
that many HCV-infected people
couldn't take because of other
health problems or unacceptable
side effects
Symptoms
Long-term infection with the hepatitis C virus is known as chronic hepatitis C.
Chronic hepatitis C is usually a "silent" infection for many years, until the
virus damages the liver enough to cause the signs and symptoms of liver
disease.
Signs and symptoms include:
• Bleeding easily
• Bruising easily
• Fatigue
• Poor appetite
• Yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
• Dark-colored urine
• Itchy skin
• Fluid buildup in your abdomen (ascites)
• Swelling in your legs
• Weight loss
• Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy)
• Spiderlike blood vessels on your skin (spider angiomas)
CAUSES
Hepatitis C infection is caused by
the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The
infection spreads when blood
contaminated with the virus
enters the bloodstream of an
uninfected person.
Prevention
 Prevention
Protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by taking the
following precautions:
• Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you
use illicit drugs, seek help.
• Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose
to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask
questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned.
Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees
won't answer your questions, look for another shop.
• Practice safer sex. Don't engage in unprotected sex with
multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is
uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples
may occur, but the risk is low.
 TREATMENT
Hepatitis C can be treated and cured.
Almost everyone living with HCV can
now be cured with a one-pill-a-day
regimen in eight-to-twelve weeks. These
new medications are generally well-
tolerated. In order to access HCV
treatment, it is necessary to see your
doctor to discuss treatment options

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Infectious Diseases

  • 1. ESTAMFORMATION UNIVERSITY SEME CAMPUS EFERAYENA .O. RIGHTEOUS HEALTH SCIENCE NURSING 200 LEVEL
  • 2. TOPIC: INFECTIOUS DISEASES 1. LIST 50 INFECTION DISEASES 2. DISCUSS THE NATURE AND CAUSES 3. PREVALNECE 4. SYMPTOMS 5. ASSOCIATED DISEASES 6. TREATMENT 7. SUGGESTED MEDICAMENT 8. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • 3. WHAT IS INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person.
  • 4. SYPHILIS Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on the genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores.
  • 5.
  • 6. SYMPTOMS Syphilis develops in stages, and symptoms vary with each stage. But the stages may overlap, and symptoms don't always occur in the same order. You may be infected with syphilis without noticing any symptoms for years.
  • 7. PRIMARY SYPHILIS The first sign of syphilis is a small sore, called a chancre . The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered your body. While most people infected with syphilis develop only one chancre, some people develop several of them. The chancre usually develops about three weeks after exposure. Many people who have syphilis don't notice the chancre because it's usually painless, and it may be hidden within the vagina or rectum. The chancre will heal on its own within three to six weeks.
  • 8. SECONDARY SYPHILIS Within a few weeks of the original chancre healing, you may experience a rash that begins on your trunk but eventually covers your entire body — even the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet. This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wartlike sores in your mouth or genital area. Some people also experience hair loss, muscle aches, a fever, a sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. These signs and symptoms may disappear within a few weeks or repeatedly come and go for as long as a year.
  • 9. LATENT SYPHILIS If you aren't treated for syphilis, the disease moves from the secondary stage to the hidden (latent) stage, when you have no symptoms. The latent stage can last for years. Signs and symptoms may never return, or the disease may progress to the third (tertiary) stage.
  • 10. TERTIARY SYPHILIS About 15% to 30% of people infected with syphilis who don't get treatment will develop complications known as tertiary syphilis. In the late stage, the disease may damage the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints. These problems may occur many years after the original, untreated infection.
  • 11. NEUROSYPHILIS At any stage, syphilis can spread and, among other damage, cause damage to the brain and nervous system and the eye.
  • 12. CONGENITAL SYPHILIS Babies born to women who have syphilis can become infected through the placenta or during birth. Most newborns with congenital syphilis have no symptoms, although some experience a rash on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet. Later signs and symptoms may include deafness, teeth deformities and saddle nose — where the bridge of the nose collapses. However, babies born with syphilis can also be born too early, may die in the womb before birth or can die after birth.
  • 13. CAUSES The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The most common way syphilis is spread is through contact with an infected person's sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter the body through minor cuts or abrasions in the skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period.
  • 14. Less commonly, syphilis may spread through direct contact with an active lesion, such as during kissing. It can also be passed from mothers to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth. Syphilis can't be spread by using the same toilet, bathtub, clothing or eating utensils, or from doorknobs, swimming pools or hot tubs. Once cured, syphilis doesn't return on its own. However, you can become reinfected if you have contact with someone's syphilis sore.
  • 15. PREVENTION There is no vaccine for syphilis. To help prevent the spread of syphilis, follow these suggestions: Abstain or be monogamous. The only certain way to avoid syphilis is to avoid (abstain from) having sex. The next-best option is to have mutually monogamous sex in which both partners have sex only with each other and neither partner is infected. Use a latex condom. Condoms can reduce your risk of contracting syphilis, but only if the condom covers the syphilis sores. Avoid recreational drugs. Misuse of alcohol or other drugs can inhibit your judgment and lead to unsafe sexual practices.
  • 16. TREATMENT  After the initial infection, the syphilis bacteria can remain inactive in the body for decades before becoming active again. Early syphilis can be cured, sometimes with a single shot (injection) of penicillin.
  • 17. Hepatitis a Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver. There are types of hepatitis. Those caused by viruses which include hepatitis A, B and hepatitis C.
  • 18. Hepatitis A, also called hep A, is a contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. Some people have only a mild illness that lasts a few weeks. Others have more severe problems that can last months. You usually get the disease when you eat or drink something contaminated by poop from a person who has the virus. The hepatitis A virus usually isn’t dangerous. Almost everyone who has it gets better. But because it can take a while to go away, you’ll need to take care of yourself in the meantime.
  • 19. Hepatitis A Symptoms If you have this infection, the virus is causing inflammation in your liver. Some people, especially many children, don’t have symptoms. Others might have: • Jaundice (yellow eyes and skin) • Belly pain • Dark urine • Loss of appetite • Upset stomach • Vomiting • Itching • Pale-colored poop • Joint pain • Fever • Diarrhea • Fatigue These problems tend to go away after about 2 months but might keep coming back for up to 6 months. You can spread the hepatitis A virus even if you feel fine. You can also spread it about 2 weeks before your symptoms appear and during the first week after they show up.
  • 20. Hepatitis A Diagnosis Your doctor will first ask about your symptoms and check for high levels of liver enzymes in your blood. Then, they’ll do more blood tests to look for: • IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies. Your body makes these when you’re first exposed to hepatitis A. They stay in your blood for about 3 to 6 months. • IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies. These show up after the virus has been in your body for a while. You may have them all your life. They protect you against hepatitis A. If you test positive for them but not for IgM antibodies, it means you had a hepatitis A infection in the past or had vaccinations to protect against it.
  • 21. Hepatitis A Treatment No medication can get rid of the hepatitis A virus once you have it. Your doctor will treat your symptoms -- they may call this supportive care - - until it goes away. They’ll also do tests that check how well your liver is working to be sure your body is healing like it should.
  • 22. You can take these steps to make yourself more comfortable: • Get some rest. You’ll probably feel tired and sick and have less energy than usual. • Try to keep food down. The nausea that sometimes comes with hepatitis A can make it tough to eat. It may be easier to snack during the day than to eat full meals. To make sure you get enough nutrients, go for more high-calorie foods and drink fruit juice or milk instead of water. Fluids will also help keep you hydrated if you’re throwing up. • Avoid alcohol. It’s harder for your liver to handle medications and alcohol when you have the virus. Plus, drinking can lead to more liver damage. Tell your doctor about any medications you take, including over-the-counter drugs, as these might also hurt your liver.
  • 23. Hepatitis A Prevention The vaccine is your best defense. If you come into contact with someone who has hepatitis A, you can get the vaccine or an IG shot within 2 weeks for some protection. Good hygiene is also important. Always wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom, before and after handling food, and after changing a diaper. When you travel to a place with poor sanitation, don’t drink tap water or eat raw food.
  • 24. Hepatitis B Symptoms Short-term (acute) hepatitis B infection doesn’t always cause symptoms. For instance, it’s uncommon for children younger than 5 to have symptoms if they’re infected. If you do have symptoms, they may include: • Jaundice (Your skin or the whites of the eyes turn yellow, and your pee turns brown or orange.) • Light-colored poop • Fever • Fatigue that persists for weeks or months • Stomach trouble like loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting • Belly pain • Joint pain Symptoms may not show up until 1 to 6 months after you catch the virus. You might not feel anything. About a third of the people who have this disease don’t. They find out only through a blood test. Symptoms of long-term (chronic) hepatitis B infection don’t always show up, either. If they do, they may be like those of short-term (acute) infection.
  • 25. Hepatitis B Causes and Risk Factors It’s caused by the hepatitis B virus, and it can spread from person to person in certain ways. You can spread the hepatitis B virus even if you don’t feel sick.
  • 26. The most common ways to get hepatitis B include: • Sex. You can get it if you have unprotected sex with someone who has it and your partner’s blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal secretions enter your body. • Sharing needles. The virus spreads easily via needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. • Accidental needle sticks. Health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood can get it this way. • Mother to child. Pregnant women with hepatitis B can pass it to their babies during childbirth. But there’s a vaccine to prevent newborns from becoming infected. Hepatitis B doesn’t spread through kissing, food or water, shared utensils, coughing or sneezing, or through touch.
  • 27. Hepatitis B Treatment If the infection is active for longer than 6 months, your doctor will tell you that you have chronic active hepatitis B. They may prescribe some of these medications to treat it: Interferon alfa (Intron A, Roferon A, Sylatron). This medicine boosts your immune system. You take it as a shot for at least 6 months. It doesn’t cure the disease. It treats liver inflammation
  • 28. Hepatitis B Prevention To help keep a hepatitis B infection from spreading: • Get the hepatitis B vaccine (if you haven’t already been infected). It’s key to prevention, and the CDC recommends it for all babies born in the U.S., all kids and teens younger than 19 who haven’t already gotten this vaccine, and at-risk people. • Use condoms every time you have sex. • Wear gloves when you clean up after others, especially if you have to touch bandages, tampons, and linens. • Cover all open cuts or wounds. • Don’t share razors, toothbrushes, nail care tools, or pierced earrings with anyone. • Don’t share chewing gum, and don’t pre-chew food for a baby. • Make certain that any needles for drugs, ear piercing, or tattoos -- or tools for manicures and pedicures -- are properly sterilized. • Clean up blood with one part household bleach and 10 parts water.
  • 29. Hepatitis C  Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, hepatitis C treatment required weekly injections and oral medications that many HCV-infected people couldn't take because of other health problems or unacceptable side effects
  • 30. Symptoms Long-term infection with the hepatitis C virus is known as chronic hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C is usually a "silent" infection for many years, until the virus damages the liver enough to cause the signs and symptoms of liver disease. Signs and symptoms include: • Bleeding easily • Bruising easily • Fatigue • Poor appetite • Yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice) • Dark-colored urine • Itchy skin • Fluid buildup in your abdomen (ascites) • Swelling in your legs • Weight loss • Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy) • Spiderlike blood vessels on your skin (spider angiomas)
  • 31. CAUSES Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection spreads when blood contaminated with the virus enters the bloodstream of an uninfected person.
  • 32. Prevention  Prevention Protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by taking the following precautions: • Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you use illicit drugs, seek help. • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees won't answer your questions, look for another shop. • Practice safer sex. Don't engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.
  • 33.  TREATMENT Hepatitis C can be treated and cured. Almost everyone living with HCV can now be cured with a one-pill-a-day regimen in eight-to-twelve weeks. These new medications are generally well- tolerated. In order to access HCV treatment, it is necessary to see your doctor to discuss treatment options