What is a sexuallytransmitted infection (STI)Walt:-Describe the symptoms of commonSTI’s and to understand how toprotect against them
Sexual Intercourse• An act between two people who want tomake a commitment to each other.• It is something that both partners arehappy to take part in.
Issues to Consider• Reputation• Self respect• Relationship• Saying ‘No’• Unwanted pregnancy• Sexually transmitted diseases• Cervical cancer
Sexually Transmitted Infections• Who gets them?• How are they transmitted?• Signs and symptoms• Help• Used to be referred to as VD (venereal disease)named after the goddess of love - Venus
STIs – How Many Can You Name?• Genital warts• Chlamydia• Pubic Lice• Hepatitis• HIV/AIDS• Syphilis• Gonorrhoea• …and there are more…
Get your facts right• There are lots of stories about sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs), some true,some not. One things for sure, the risk ofpicking up or passing on a STI is noreason not to have sex, but its a verygood reason to be careful - and to alwaysuse a condom.
Did you know• As many as 70% of women and 50% of men who havean STI, dont show any symptoms.• If you have unprotected sex (sex without a condom), youhave a much greater chance of getting a STI likeChlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea and HIV.• There are an estimated 20,000 HIV positive people inthe UK who dont know theyve got HIV.• In the last 10 years, the number of people infected withChlamydia has increased by 206%. In some high-riskgroups, such as gay men, the number of people infectedwith syphilis has increased by 1,949%.
What does that mean to you• You dont need to sleep around to get an STI - anyonewho has sex without a condom is at risk.• HIV is the most dangerous STI simply because there isno cure. It weakens the immune system so that yourbody finds it harder to fight off other infections.• Green ooze dripping out of your penis or vagina can be asymptom of gonorrhea, but many STIs dont carry anysymptoms at all, though they can lead to infertility, heartdisease, brain and nervous system damage.• Chlamydia is now the most common (yet easily curable)STI in the UK - as many as one in ten young peopleunder 25 may be infected with it. Often people dontknow they have it as there arent always symptoms, butan infection could leave you unable to have children.
What can I do about it• Get yourself checked out. If you have itches, sores or blistersaround your genitals, you probably have an STI. No need to panic,but you should contact your local sexual health (GUM) clinicimmediately.• Sexual health check-ups are free and available to everyone in theUK. You can arrange a visit to a sexual health (GUM) clinic anytime.It is completely confidential.• Condoms are essential wear: Always use a condom every time youhave sex, as this is the best way of making sure you dont get a STI- Its not just a bloke thing either, women buy 4 out of every 10condoms sold.• Condoms come in a wide range of sizes, flavours, colours andshapes and are available for both men and women. There areallergy-free versions and even vegan varieties, which use no animalproducts including milk- so theres no excuse for not using one.
ThrushThrush is caused by a yeast that normally lives harmlessly on the skin, or in themouth, gut and vagina, without causing any problems. It is not necessarilytransmitted sexually, but having sex can cause an irritation that may result inthrush.How thrush developsYour chances of developing thrush are increased if you:• Are pregnant.• Wear lycra shorts or tight nylon clothes.• Take certain antibiotics.• Use a vaginal deodorant or perfumed bubble bath as this can cause an irritation.• Have sex with someone who has a thrush infection.• Are diabetic.Any man can develop thrush, but it is more likely in uncircumcised men, whoshould wash under their foreskins as part of their daily routine.
• Men may have a swab taken gently from under their foreskin, and womenmay have a swab inside the vagina. A sample of pee may be taken.• Treatment for thrush is easy. A cream is applied to the genitals and womenmay be given pessaries (almond shaped tablets) to insert into their vagina.Oral anti-thrush tablets are now available from some sexual health clinics,GPs or from the chemist.• You should get individual advice about having sex during treatment fromyour doctor, nurse or health adviser.How can it be treated?
Pubic licePubic lice are tiny insects that live in the pubic hair region or under the arms. Theyare often called crabs.Pubic lice are usually acquired through sexual contact but can occasionally betransferred by close physical contact or by sharing sheets or towels.The lice can be seen on physical examination and may be examined under amicroscope. Special shampoo or lotion can treat the lice. There is no need to shaveoff your pubic or other body hair.Anyone you have had recent sexual contact with should also be checked andtreated. Until treatment is completed, you can pass on pubic lice between you, soyou should avoid any sexual contact with anyone during treatment.
ChlamydiaChlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection (STI). Thereoften arent any symptoms, but if left untreated it can lead to infertility.Symptoms include:Girls Boysincreased vaginal discharge discharge from penisfrequent or painful burning pain/burning during urinationpain during sexirregular periodsYou can get Chlamydia in the following ways:• Penetrative sex (where the penis enters the vagina or anus).• Oral sex (from mouth to the genitals or genitals to the mouth).• Mother to baby during birth.• Occasionally by transferring the infection on fingers from the genitals tothe eyes.• Treatment will be a course of antibiotics.
GonorrhoeaGonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), also known as the clap.Gonorrhoea is passed on by:• Penetrative sex (when the penis enters the vagina or anus).• Oral sex (from mouth to the genitals or genitals to the mouth).And less often by:• Rimming (where a person uses their mouth and tongue to stimulate anotherpersons anus).• Inserting your fingers into an infected vagina, anus or mouth and then putting theminto your own without washing your hands in between.• Sharing vibrators or other sex toys.Can be treated with a course of antibiotics– tablet form or in an injection. You musttell anyone that you have had sexualcontact with in the last 6 months as they tomay have it.
HepatitisHepatitis is a virus that inflames the liver. There are several viruses that can causehepatitis, these include hepatitis A, B and C.The hepatitis A virus is found in faeces (poo) and can be passed on:• If the virus comes into contact with a persons mouth through such things as rimming(where a person uses their mouth and tongue to stimulate another persons anus).• Sexual contact.• Through eating or drinking contaminated food or water or swimming near sewage outlets.It is very important to wash your hands carefully after going to the toilet andbefore eating.The hepatitis B and C virus is very common worldwide. It is very infectious and can be passedon:• By unprotected penetrative sex (where the penis enters the vagina or anus) or sex whichdraws blood.• By oral sex (from mouth to the genitals or genitals to the mouth).• By sharing needles or other drug injecting equipment contaminated with blood.• By using equipment for tattooing, acupuncture or body piercing contaminated with blood.• From an infected mother to her baby.• Through a blood transfusion in a country where blood is not tested - all blood fortransfusion is tested in the UK.
Some people may have no symptoms at all but can still pass on the virus.Symptoms may include:• A short, flu-like illness.• Fatigue.• Nausea and vomiting.• Diarrhoea.• Loss of appetite.• Weight loss.• Jaundice (yellow tinge to eyes or skin).• Itchy skin.Hepatitis A cannot be treated but thebody can fight it off.If you are going abroad to a countrywhere hepatitis is common getimmunised.Hepatitis B has the same symptomsas A but thesecan lead to liver disease and cancer– no known cure!Hepatitis C has the same symptomsas A but these can lead to liverdisease, cancer and chronic hepatitis.There is no known cure.80% of people infected will remain withthe infection for life.
Genital herpesGenital herpes is caused by a virus - similar to the one that gives you cold soresaround your lips. The difference is that genital herpes causes painful sores on andaround your genitals. There is no known cure. However, if you think you have caughtgenital herpes you should go to your local sexual health (GUM) clinic straight away,as there are tablets you can take to help reduce the infection, but they must be takenwithin 72 hours of the start of any symptoms.You usually catch herpes by direct contact with sores during sex, though you canalso catch it even when there are no sores present. The virus affects the areaswhere it enters the body. This can be by:• Kissing (mouth to mouth).• Penetrative sex (when the penis enters the vagina or anus).• Oral sex (from mouth to the genitals or genitals to the mouth).
Herpes – blisters soresand scabs on penisHerpes on a femaleHerpes around the mouth
Genital wartsGenital warts is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Warts are caused by a virus and are spread through skin-to-skin contact. If you havesex or genital contact with someone who has genital warts, you may develop themtoo.They can be passed on during vaginal, anal or oral sex.Genital warts on penis andpubic hair, fingers and in themouth
SyphilisSyphilis is a bacterial infection and can be spread without either partner knowing. Ifleft untreated it can over time lead to heart disease and brain damage. It used to bemore commonly known as the pox.Syphilis can be passed on during the primary or secondary stages through:• Oral, vaginal or anal sex.• Skin contact with any sores or rashes.• From a mother to unborn child.It is not usually infectious when there are no symptoms.Can be treated with acourse of antibiotics –tablet form or in aninjection – if you havesyphilis you should nothave sexual contact withanyone until yourtreatment is complete.If left untreated, over time syphilis can lead to heartdisease and brain damage.
STI MisconceptionsIf I only engage in oral sex, I cant contract a sexually transmitted infectionThe TruthSTIs can be transmitted through oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex and in somecases, heavy petting. Penile penetration is not a prerequisite for diseasetransmission. In fact, the number of cases of gonorrhea of the throat areincreasing!If I have an STI, I will recognize the symptoms immediatelyThe TruthIn most women (and some men), there are often virtually NO symptoms of STIs.Not only can a partner not tell if a woman or man has an STI, the person with theSTI often does not know.I am not promiscuous and neither are the people I hang out with…its unlikelythat the people I would sleep with would be carrying somethingThe TruthFemales are more susceptible to acquiring STIs than males because theiranatomy is more prone to infection in general. In addition, contracting STIs hasnothing to do with cleanliness or grooming. Contracting an STI has everything todo with being intimate with someone who is already infected. The more partnersyou have or have had, the greater your chances of having an STI. The morepartners your partner has or has had, the greater your partners chances ofhaving a STI.
For more information• http://www.condomessentialwear.co.uk/protection• http://www.smartersex.org• STI Quiz
Question 1: TrueSome of the most common symptoms of an STI infection include: Abnormal discharge, painful urination,burning, itching or tingling in the genital area, but it is important to remember that many women and menwhohave an STI often do not experience any symptoms at all. Chlamydia, for example, often has no symptoms.Question 2: TrueNormal vaginal discharge has several purposes: cleaning and moistening the vagina and helping to preventand fight infections. Although its normal for the colour, texture, and amount of vaginal fluids to varythroughout a womans menstrual cycle, some changes in discharge may indicate a problem.Question 3: FalseHaving an STI and being cured from it does not mean that your body now has a built in immunity to thebacteria that causes the infection. You must protect yourself from becoming infected again by using acondom. Remember, it is your body!Question 4: TrueAlthough small traces of HIV can be found in tears, saliva, urine and perspiration, extensive studies haveshown that there is not enough of the virus or the virus is not strong enough to be transmitted. Only blood,semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been proven to transmit the HIV virus and Hepatitis B. HIVcannot be passed on by casual contact.Question 5: TrueMany different organisms can cause PID, but most cases are associated with gonorrhoea and genitalChlamydia infections, two very common STIs. Scientists have found that bacteria normally present in smallnumbers in the vagina and cervix also may play a role.Question 6: TrueSTIs can be passed from a pregnant woman to the baby before, during, or after the babys birth. Some STDs(like syphilis) cross the placenta and infect the baby while it is in the uterus (womb). Other STDs (likegonorrhoea, Chlamydia, hepatitis B, genital herpes) can be transmitted from the mother to the baby duringdelivery as the baby passes through the birth canal. HIV can cross the placenta during pregnancy, infect the
Question 7: FalseEven if symptoms appear to go away, the infected person will still have the infection and is able to pass theinfection on to others until he/she gets treatment. STIs that arent cured early can cause sterility.Question 8: TrueIf the fallopian tubes are blocked at one or both ends, the eggcant travel through the tubes into the uterus. Blocked tubes mayresult from pelvic inflammatory disease, which is often caused byuntreated STIs.Question 9: FalseThe birth control pill does not protect against sexually transmitted Infections. For those having sex, condomsmustalways be used along with birth control pills to protect against STDs. Abstinence (the decision to not have sex) isthe only method that always prevents pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.Question 10: TrueMost condoms are made of latex. Those made of lambskin may offer less protection against some sexuallytransmitted infections, including HIV, so use of latex condoms is recommended. For people who may have anallergic skin reaction to latex, both male and female condoms made of polyurethane are available.When properly used, latex and plastic condoms are effective against most STIs. Condoms do not protect againstinfections spread from sores on the skin not covered by a condom (such as the base of the penis or scrotum).
Question 11: FalseAs stated in question number 1, a person can have and STI and not know it. If they cant tell, howcan you?Question 12: TrueThe U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 4 million new casesof Chlamydia occur each year. The highest rates of Chlamydia infection are in 15- to 19-year-oldadolescents regardless of demographics or location.Question 13: TrueThe Pap test is a way to find cell changes on the cervix. Abnormal cells may lead to cancer, so having a pap testcan find and treat them early, before they have time to progress to cancer.Although Pap tests do not test for STIs, some STIs such as HPV (Human papillomavirus infection) can causeabnormal Pap test results. Certain types of HPV are linked to cancer in both women and men.If you suspect you or someone may have an STD, go to your school Health Centre or physicians officefora check-up. Tell them you suspect you may have an STD. They will not automatically test you. You havetoask for a test. There is no need to be embarrassed. They are not there to judge you; they are there to help.How can you avoid getting an STI?Abstain from sexual intercourse.Engage in lower risk sexual activities.Use condoms every time you have sexual intercourse.Get a hepatitis B vaccination.Refuse to share needles