Who is Using It? Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States (OAS, 2001b). According to the 2000 NHSDA, an estimated 14.0 million Americans were current (past month) marijuana users (OAS, 2001b). This represents 6.3 percent of people aged 12 or older and 76 percent of current illicit drug users. Of all current illicit drug users, approximately 59 percent used only marijuana, 17 percent used marijuana and another illicit drug, and the remaining 24 percent used only an illicit drug other than marijuana in the past month (OAS, 2001b). The NHSDA and the Monitoring the Future (MTF) have shown generally similar long-term trends in the prevalence of substance use among youths, regardless of substantial differences in methodology between the two primary surveys of youth substance use. Between 1999 and 2000, both the NHSDA and MTF found no significant changes in lifetime, past year, and current use of marijuana (Johnston, O'Malley, & Bachman, 2001; OAS, 2001b). The MTF found that marijuana use rose particularly sharply among 8th graders in the 1990s, with annual prevalence tripling between 1991 and 1996 (i.e., from 6 to 18 percent) (Johnston et al., 2001). Starting a year later, marijuana use also rose significantly among 10th and 12th graders. Following the recent peak in 1996-1997, annual marijuana use declined somewhat in recent years (Johnston et al., 2001). Prior Studies of Marijuana Initiation Although the prevalence of marijuana use has been studied widely, relatively few incidence (first use) data are available. In the first published analysis of national incidence trends, Gfroerer and Brodsky (1992) estimated the number of new users of marijuana and other drugs based on combined data of 1985 to 1991 NHSDAs. They found that fewer than half a million people per year began using marijuana before 1966 and that new use of marijuana began increasing after 1966, reaching a peak in 1973 and declining thereafter. Johnson, Gerstein, Ghadialy, Choi, and Gfroerer (1996) studied the incidence of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs using data from the 1991 to 1993 NHSDAs. Their investigation found declining trends of marijuana initiation at all ages since at least the late 1970s. However, the mean age of marijuana initiates declined throughout most of the measurement period, from older than 19 years in the mid-1960s to younger than 18 years in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In addition, the rates of marijuana initiation at ages 12 to 17 (youths) and 18 to 25 (young adults) in the early 1990s were still much higher than corresponding rates in the early 1960s. In recent years, youths aged 12 to 17 have constituted about two thirds of the new marijuana users, with young adults aged 18 to 25 constituting most of the remaining third (OAS, 2001b). Additionally, recent rates of new use among youths in 1996-1998 (averaging 86.4 initiates per 1,000 potential new users) were higher than they had ever been. Nonetheless, rates of new use for both youths and young adults decreased between 1998 and 1999. The average age of marijuana initiation has generally declined since 1965 and remained around 17 years after 1992 (OAS, 2001b).
http://www.bridgewater.edu/departments/psychology/psy225/chap3c Immediate physical effects of marijuana are elevated heart and pulse rates, bloodshot eyes, and a dry mouth and throat. Marijuana impairs or reduces short-term memory, alters one's sense of time, and reduces the ability to do things requiring concentration, swift reactions, and coordination. Experiments have shown that marijuana affects a wide range of skills needed for safe driving. These skills are impaired for at least four to six hours after smoking a single marijuana cigarette, long after the high is gone. Thinking and reflexes are slowed, making it hard for an impaired driver to respond to sudden, unexpected events. A driver's ability to steer properly, brake quickly and maintain speed and proper distance between cars is affected, according to research. Marijuana and its potent chemical THC cause cell abnormalities, alter normal cell division, affect genetic makeup of new cells and lower cell immunity, increasing the possibility of viral infections among users. THC causes enlargement of the area between nerve cells, resulting in poor transmission of nerve impulses between these cells, which can result in the following: Impaired speech, Difficulty in comprehending complex ideas, Loss of memory, Difficulty in concentrating or focusing on one subject, Irregular sleep habits; insomnia, Mood swings, Lack of body coordination, Decrease in muscle strength, Blurred vision and impaired visual perception. Marijuana smoke is more harmful than tobacco smoke, and users have a much higher incidence of respiratory disease than nonusers. Respiratory problems associated with marijuana use include: Sinusitis -- an inflammation of the lining of the sinuses, which is a result of smoke irritation to the nostrils. Bronchitis -- an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which take air from the windpipe to the lungs. Chronic marijuana users often cough up yellowish-green mucus, which may be tinged with blood. Lung cancer -- marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing chemicals than tobacco smoke. Smoking three to five marijuana joints a week is equivalent to smoking 16 cigarettes every day. Smoking one marijuana cigarette has the immediate effect of increasing heart rate and blood pressure as much as 50 percent. Marijuana increases the amount of toxic carbon monoxide in the blood, thereby reducing the amount of oxygen reaching the heart. The typical red or bloodshot eyes of the marijuana user reflect increased blood pressure and changes in the blood vessels. Chest pains have been attributed to marijuana use. People who suffer from angina, high blood pressure, diabetes, or other heart problems take an even greater risk smoking marijuana. Marijuana can have far-reaching effects on the reproductive systems of both males and females. Effects on males : Decreased masculinity . Use of marijuana results in lowered levels of the male hormone testosterone. This hormone is essential for the development and support of male secondary sexual characteristics such as hair growth, voice tone, and muscle distribution. Impotency . Male users of marijuana may experience an inability to function sexually. Infertility . Moderate to heavy marijuana use, especially among 12 to 17 year-olds, can result in decreased or zero sperm production. Studies indicate increased production of abnormal sperm among users, which can result in birth defects in offspring. Effects on females : Decreased femininity . Marijuana use by females increases the amount of testosterone in the body, causing an increase in acne and such male characteristics as body and facial hair, and flattening of the breasts and buttocks. Infertility . Use of marijuana may interrupt the menstrual cycle and interfere with reproductive health and fertility. THC can cause irreversible damage to the supply of eggs from the ovaries. Pregnancy complications . Research suggests that using marijuana during pregnancy may result in premature births, low-birth weights, birth defects and an increased infant mortality rate. Nursing mothers can transfer THC to their babies through their breast milk.
Legal issues of cannabis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has a focus on the law and enforcement aspects of growing, transporting, selling and using cannabis . For other aspects, see cannabis . Many countries have laws regarding the cultivation, possession, supply or use of cannabis ( hemp ). Non-drug cannabis products (eg fibre and seed) are legal in many countries, and these countries may license cultivation for these purposes. The herb is a controlled substance in most, though its use is condoned in some locales for medicinal purposes. In some countries, such as Portugal , cannabis drug material is legal for personal use, though restrictions may apply to its sale, distribution or consumption. In Germany , the consumption of cannabis is legal, although it is illegal to possess, sell or distribute it. If the amount of cannabis a person possessed is considered as &quot;minor&quot;, a law suit may be dropped. In the U.S.A (nationwide, in 2004) a person is arrested on &quot;marijuana charges&quot; every 42 seconds. Contents [hide] 1 Criminalization 2 Decriminalization campaign in United States 3 Decriminalization campaign in the United Kingdom 4 Use of capital punishment against the drugs trade 5 Cannabis for non-drug purposes 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [ edit ] Criminalization Cannabis was criminalized across most of the world in the early parts of the 20th century. The reasons for and approaches to criminalization vary from country to country. At a 1925 conference to amend the International Opium Convention , Egypt and other nations complained of abuse problems with hashish and proposed requiring Parties to prohibit non-medical, non-scientific use of the drug. India and others, citing traditional uses of the drug and its prevalance as a wild-growing plant, successfully watered down the provision to only ban export of cannabis to countries whose domestic laws prohibited its use  . In the United Kingdom , cultivation and use of cannabis was generally outlawed in 1928 . In the United States , the significant legislation was the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act , a federal culmination of many separate state laws that had been enacted in the previous years. Some claim that the U.S. laws may have been in response to lobbying by makers of synthetic fibers that competed with hemp. While hemp was not their main competitor, it was a much easier target than e.g. cotton and wool. The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs finally did prohibit all non-medical, non-scientific cannabis use. However, tincture of cannabis remained available in the UK as a prescription only drug (POM) until it was banned in 1971 under the then new Misuse of Drugs Act . The international restrictions on recreational use of cannabis were further strengthened by the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances . Laws usually govern distribution, cultivation, and possession for personal use. Enforcement of the law varies from country to country. Large-scale domestic marijuana growing operations, or grow-ops , are frequently targeted by police in raids to discourage the spread and marketing of the drug. [ edit ] Decriminalization campaign in United States Main article: Cannabis rescheduling in the United States After 1969 , a time categorized by widespread use of cannabis as a recreational drug, a wave of legislation in America sought to reduce the penalties for the simple possession of marijuana, making it punishable by confiscation and/or a fine rather than imprisonment . Decriminalization is a drug supply-side control strategy that discourages users, but largely removes them from the criminal justice system, while imposing stiff penalties on those who traffic and sell the drug on the black market . Some of the first examples of this adjustment in drug policy were found in Alabama , when state judges decided to no longer impose five year mandatory minimum sentences for small possession (one marijuana cigarette); Missouri , when their legislature reformed statutes that made second possession offences no longer punishable by life in prison; and in Georgia , when that state revised second sale offences to minors no longer punishable by death. Soon after these developments, an official decriminalization movement was started in 1973 with Oregon prompting other states, like Colorado , Alaska , Ohio , and California , to follow suit in 1975 . By 1978 , Mississippi , North Carolina , New York , and Nebraska also had some form of marijuana decriminalization. In 2001 , Nevada reduced marijuana possession from a felony offence to a misdemeanor .  Regardless of these states' rights , decriminalization was never adopted as a national affair, principally because U.S. Congress disagrees with passing a version of legislation on the federal level. However, several petitions for cannabis rescheduling in the United States have been filed to remove marijuana from the &quot;Schedule I&quot; category of tightly-restricted drugs that have no medical use. The Controlled Substance Act allows the executive branch to decriminalize medical and recreational use of marijuana without any action by Congress; however, such an initiative would depend on the findings of the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services on certain scientific and medical issues specified by the Act.  Issues regarding the Constitutional guarantee of the right to Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness have at times been raised in the debate, arguing that those imprisoned for cannabis use are de facto political prisoners .  In 2005 , libertarian economist Milton Friedman and more than 500 other economists, called for the legalization of marijuana in an open letter to the President, Congress, Governors, and State Legislatures of the United States. [ edit ] Decriminalization campaign in the United Kingdom Main article: Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom [ edit ] Use of capital punishment against the drugs trade Several countries have either carried out or legislated capital punishment for cannabis use or trafficking. CountryStatusNotes Malaysia Has been usedMustaffa Kamal Abdul Aziz, 38 years old, and Mohd Radi Abdul Majid, 53 years old, were executed at dawn on January 17 , 1996 , for the trafficking of 1.2 kilograms of cannabis.  Philippines AvailableThe Philippines introduced stronger anti-drug laws, including the death penalty , in 2002.  Thailand AvailableDeath penalty is possible for drug offences under Thai law Singapore AvailableDeath penalty is possible for drug offences under Singapore law People's Republic of China AvailableDeath penalty is possible for drug offences under Chinese law Taiwan AvailableDeath penalty is possible for drug offences under Taiwanese law United States Available Speaker Newt Gingrich in 1996 proposed to introduce a mandatory death penalty for a second offense of smuggling 50 grams of marijuana into the United States , in the proposed law H.R. 4170. The proposal failed. Under the 1994 Crime Act, the threshold for sentencing a death penalty in relation to marijuana is the involvement with the cultivation or distribution of 60,000 marijuana plants (or seedlings) or 60,000 kilograms of marijuana. The death penalty is also possible for running a continuing criminal enterprise that distributes marijuana and receives more than $20 million in proceeds in one year, regardless of the weight of marijuana involved.[ edit ] Cannabis for non-drug purposes Main articles: Hemp for use as fibres, and Cannabis sativa for use as herb Hemp is the common name for cannabis and the name most used (in English) when this annual herb is grown for non drug purposes . These include the industrial purposes for which cultivation licences may be issued in the European Union (EU). When grown for industrial purposes hemp is called, often, industrial hemp , and a common product is fibre for use in a variety of different ways. Fuel is often a by-product of hemp cultivation. Hemp may be grown also for food (the seed) but in the UK at least (and probably in other EU countries) cultivation licences are not available for this purpose. Within Defra (the UK's Department for the Environment, Food and the Rural Affairs) hemp is treated as purely a non-food crop , despite the fact that seed can and does appear on the UK market as a perfectly legal food product. In the UK, at least, the seed and fibre have been always perfectly legal products. Cultivation for non drug purposes was however completely prohibited from 1928 until circa 1998 , when Home Office industrial-purpose licences became available under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 . If industrial strains of the herb are intended for legal use within the EU then they are bred to be compliant with regulations which limit potential THC content to 0.3%. (THC content is a measure of the herb's drug potential and can reach 20% or more in drug strains). In Canada the THC limit is 1%. Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that look quite different. Also, breeding since circa 1930 has focussed quite specifically on producing strains which would perform very poorly as sources of drug material. Hemp grown for fibre is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. Ideally, according to Defra in 2004, the herb should be harvested before it flowers. This early cropping is because fibre quality begins to decline as flowering starts and, incidentally, this cropping also pre-empts the herb’s maturity as potentially a source of drug material. UK licence conditions actually oblige farmers, however, to allow some flowering so that flower material can be tested for its drug potential. [ edit ] See also Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party Cannabis: legalise and utilise Cannabis reform at the international level Drug policy of the Netherlands Grow-op Health issues and the effects of cannabis Jack Herer Legalise Cannabis Alliance Medical marijuana Promena Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Soap bar War on Drugs National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws Marijuana Policy Project
March of Dimes Research Report Excerpt: http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1169.asp What are the risks with use of marijuana during pregnancy? Some studies suggest that use of marijuana during pregnancy may slow fetal growth and slightly decrease the length of pregnancy (possibly increasing the risk of premature delivery). Both of these factors can increase a woman’s chance of having a low-birthweight baby. These effects are seen mainly in women who use marijuana regularly (six or more times a week). After delivery, some babies who were regularly exposed to marijuana in the womb appear to undergo withdrawal-like symptoms including excessive crying and trembling. Couples who are planning pregnancy also should keep in mind that marijuana can reduce fertility in both men and women, making it more difficult to conceive. What is the long-term outlook for babies exposed to marijuana before birth? There have been a limited number of studies following marijuana-exposed babies through childhood. Some did not find any increased risk of learning or behavioral problems. However, others found that children who are exposed to marijuana before birth are more likely to have subtle problems that affect their ability to pay attention and to solve visual problems. Exposed children do not appear to have a decrease in IQ.
ESPN Article Marijuana: Text version Editor's note: This is the second of an eight-week series of articles examining the effects of commonly abused substances on athletic performance and overall health. Dr. Gary Wadler, a New York University School of Medicine professor and lead author of the book &quot;Drugs and the Athlete&quot;, has also won the International Olympic Committee President's Prize for his work in the area of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. He joined us to address the issue of marijuana and sports performance. What is marijuana and how does it affect the body? Marijuana is an illegal drug produced from the dried leaves, stems, seeds and/or flowers of the hemp plant, cannabis sativa, that is usually smoked by the user. There are many slang terms for marijuana, including, pot, grass, weed and Mary Jane. &quot;All forms of marijuana, including the stronger sensemilla and hashish varieties, are mind-altering (psychoactive) drugs,&quot; says Wadler. &quot;They all contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main active chemical in marijuana that effects changes in the brain of the user.&quot; Marijuana's effects depend on the strength or potency of the THC, which is only one of more than 400 chemicals present in marijuana. Highly fat-soluble, THC and other related chemicals rapidly enter the brain and fat stores of the body. DISTURBING TRENDS According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): Among high school seniors surveyed in 1998, marijuana use had increased by about 56% since 1991. The proportion of those seniors who believed regular use of marijuana was harmful in 1998 had dropped by about 26 percent since 1991. Within minutes of inhalation of marijuana smoke, blood levels are achieved, with peak physiologic and subjective effects occurring in 20 to 30 minutes and subjective effects lasting two to four hours. Increasing in potency over the years, marijuana is, by far, the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. What are the effects of marijuana on performance? Impairs skills requiring eye-hand coordination and a fast reaction time Reduces motor coordination, tracking ability and perceptual accuracy Impairs concentration, and time appears to move more slowly Skill impairment may last up to 24 to 36 hours after usage Reduces maximal exercise capacity resulting in increased fatiguability Marijuana has no performance-enhancing potential Because marijuana is stored in the body fat, its effects may be long-lasting. &quot;It has been shown that performance skills can be impaired for as long as 24 hours after marijuana usage,&quot; says Wadler, &quot;which casts doubt on the commonly held belief that the social use of marijuana the evening prior to an athletic event will not affect performance.&quot; What are the short-term adverse health effects of marijuana? Memory and learning problems Difficulty concentrating Perception distortions involving vision, sound, touch and time Thinking and problem-solving difficulties Increased heart rate and drop in blood pressure Sudden feelings of anxiety, including panic attacks, and paranoia Runny nose, sore throat, wheezing What are the long-term adverse health effects of marijuana? &quot;Because marijuana users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, chronic marijuana use may play a role in the development of chronic respiratory problems,&quot; says Wadler. Animal studies have suggested that THC may adversely affect the immune system. Additionally, long-term use has been associated with motivational problems including apathy, impaired judgment, loss of ambition and an inability to carry out long-term plans. Can marijuana be addictive? Chronic marijuana use has been associated with the development of tolerance in which the user may have a tendency to increase the amount of marijuana used. &quot;Physical and psychological dependence in frequent users is associated with signs and symptoms of withdrawal upon discontinuation,&quot; according to Wadler. &quot;These signs and symptoms begin about 10 hours after discontinuation and peak at 48 hours and include anxiety, insomnia, sweating, loss of appetite and craving for THC.&quot; According to a report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), almost 196,000 people entering drug treatment programs reported marijuana as their primary drug of abuse, indicating that they needed help to stop using the drug. Is marijuana included in drug testing in sports? There is not a uniform policy regarding drug testing in either professional or amateur sports. &quot;Though not explicitly banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC)&quot;, says Wadler, &quot;a working group of the IOC has been formed to review and make recommendations about the use of marijuana in Olympic sports.&quot; It is banned by the NCAA and various national governing bodies. Because of its high solubility in body fat, marijuana can be detected for as long as two to four weeks by current drug testing methods.
<ul><li>To provide information about marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding consequences of marijuana use </li></ul><ul><li>To assist students in understanding drug interactions </li></ul><ul><li>To educate students about the symptoms of toxicity, overdose and withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate students to make informed choices about marijuana use </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Marijuana Facts for Teens </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana Information at a Glance </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Information on Marijuana </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Bhang: slang for cannabis </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabinoids: The psychoactive chemical substances found in marijuana (Cannabis sativa). The presence of cannabinoids in urine or blood indicates recent marijuana use or close contact with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish: Hashish is slang for the resin from marijuana plants pressed into cakes or slabs </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Hemp/Cannabis sativa: any plant of the genus Cannabis </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana: also called weed, pot, reefer, grass, dope, ganja, mary jane, and hash -- is the drug most often used in this country. It is a mix of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). </li></ul><ul><li>Sinsemilla: High-grade flowering tops of marijuana </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Most widely used drug </li></ul><ul><li>14 million Americans are current users </li></ul><ul><li>76% of illicit drug users use marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Youths aged 12 to 17 have constituted about two thirds of the new marijuana users, with young adults aged 18 to 25 constituting most of the remaining third </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria, slowed thinking and reaction time, confusion, impaired balance and coordination /cough, frequent respiratory infections; impaired memory and learning; increased heart rate, anxiety; panic attacks; tolerance, addiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs and Driving (Click to Read) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A decrease in concentration </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Physical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor balance and coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowed Reaction Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A decreased in sex drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lowered sperm count in men </li></ul></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>When THC, is absorbed into the bloodstream by smoking or eating, it binds to specific receptors in the brain. This is often referred to as the "high" or being "stoned". </li></ul><ul><li>When eaten it will take anywhere from an hour up to two and half hours for the drug to get into the blood stream, as it must be absorbed by the stomach and small intestine. Marijuana is most commonly eaten in brownies and cakes. </li></ul><ul><li>This slow ingestion can increase users overdose risks, as it is hard to regulate the dose absorbed into the blood stream. </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Cannabis does not have notable detoxification symptoms, except for some heavy users reporting anxiety, insomnia, sweating, loss of appetite and craving </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Legal Issues “This article has a focus on the law and enforcement aspects of growing, transporting, selling and using cannabis . “ </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Using marijuana during pregnancy may result in premature births, low-birth weights, birth defects and an increased infant mortality rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing mothers can transfer THC to their babies through their breast milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Some babies who were regularly exposed to marijuana in the womb appear to undergo withdrawal-like symptoms including excessive crying and trembling </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana can reduce fertility in both sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Children exposed to marijuana before birth are more likely to have subtle problems that affect their ability to pay attention and to solve visual problems </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Marijuana, Cocaine and Alcohol all affect unborn babies </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol actually tends to produce the most severe and irreversible brain damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Would it be ethical to promote harm reduction in pregnant mothers and encourage them to choose marijuana over alcohol if they were determined to use something? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>ESPN Series Drugs and Sports </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>What are the pros and cons of using marijuana? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it worth the risk? </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year
<ul><li>Californians For Compassionate Use - medical marijuana web site </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Marijuana Research (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Patients by Dr. D. Abrams </li></ul><ul><li>On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication by C. T. Tart, Ph. D. (online book) </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the quality of the cannabis debate- defining the different domains by J. Strang, J. Witton, & W. Hall (BMJ 2000, 320:108-110) </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana Special Report by D. Mackenzie (New Scientist 2/21/98) </li></ul><ul><li>Monkeys seek repeated doses of marijuana ingredient in experiment (CNN.com 10-6-2000) </li></ul>Copyright AllCEUs 2011-2020 Unlimited CEUs $99/year