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Understanding Passages

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A powerpoint presentation based on Chapter 5 of "Reading Comprehension Skills 1", an internal publication of Unindra

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Understanding Passages

  1. 1. The members: Dian Mentari Rini Pratiwi Fitriani 201212500716 201212500773 201212500791
  2. 2. What is a passage? Passage Subject Central thought Supporting ideas One thing it is about Key idea being expressed Proof, explanation, support Topic Main idea Details Paragraph
  3. 3. A. Four Important Elements of a Passage B. Identifying the Subject of a Passage C. Finding the Central Thought D. Recognizing Supporting Details
  4. 4. Identifying the Subject of a Passage Identifying the subject of a passage is the one thing the whole passage is about. Usually, the subject of a passage can be expressed in two or three words.
  5. 5. Example: To understand evolution, it is necessary to know something about genetics, the science of heredity. Although genetics is a very complicated subject, everyone understands the basic result of heredity. We know, for the example, that the result of mating between cats is kitten, not colts, or little fish. We know that children tend to resemble their parents in physical characteristics; we know that stockbreeders can produce cattle with certain desirable characteristics by carefully controlling the multiplying of animal that already possess those characteristics. Answer Genetics, the science of heredity
  6. 6. EXERCISE System of social inequality exist in all human societies and there are definite behavioral consequences for different positions in a stratified system. Lower status people view the social environment as hostile and best left alone. They tend to cluster together and informally control a small section of city ‘turf’, against social workers, police, and outsiders. Middle- and upper-status persons exhibit a cosmopolitan mobility. They choose friends throughout the metropolitan area, move across town from “mother” or even across the continent. They have been socialized to consider their social environment as fluid. The general subject of this passage is: a.Communication pattern in lower status adults b.City versus metropolitan living patterns c.Differences among lower-, middle-, and upper-class (status) d.Employment opportunities as affected by social status
  7. 7. Finding the Central Thought Like the main idea if a paragraph, the thesis is developed throughout the text. It is the single important idea that the writer us trying to express in the passage.
  8. 8. Example: Social change is also responsible for recent changes in the roles of the two sexes, particularly in the role of women. In the traditional authoritarian family, the father was the patriarch whose word was a law. The mother’s role was to keep house, raise the children, and please her husband. But when his work took him away from long periods of time and when she began to work outside the home, she began to demand a bigger share of decision-making. Today, we are seeing the latest developments of this trend in the goals of the women’s liberation movement. These goals include total equality of the sexes. Such equality has not yet been attained, certainly not among the majority of married couples. Answer: The general subject is the role of women in society The central thought or the thesis is that the women is changing to give women greater equality. Concerned with a single central thought-the women’s role is changing.
  9. 9. Exercise: A contest, or match, and game are not sharply distinguishable today in all circumstances, but they differ in ways significant enough to demand separate treatment. Contest and match may be used interchangeably. One may refer with equal validity to a boxing contest or a boxing match, a wrestling contest or a wrestling match, a chess contest or a chess match, a tennis contest or a tennis match. One may technically refer to these activities as games when the opposing participants are in fact representing larger collectivities, that is, boxing, tennis, wrestling, and chess are components of the Olympic Games. Answer: The central thought: a contest, or match and game are not sharply distinguishable today in all circumstances, but they differ in ways significant enough to demand separate treatment.
  10. 10. Recognizing Supporting Details Supporting ideas are those major facts and ideas that prove, explain, or support the central thought of the passage.
  11. 11. Example: Groups marriage in a communal setting is another alternative to the traditional monogamous marriage that has resulted from the new attitudes toward sex. In a group marriage, men and women, who are presumably attracted to one another, live together and consider themselves and their children to be one family unit. In theory, an open-ended group marriage sounds fine. It negates the very concept of adultery and diminishes jealousy and possessiveness; at least those are the intentions of its practitioners. Supporting details: In a group marriage, men and women, who are presumably attracted to one another, live together and consider themselves and their children to be one family unit
  12. 12. Exercise: The most recent development in data processing is the electronic computer, which has attracted great interest because of its fast superior capacity to perform computations and other functions at incredible speeds. This results from the fact that processing in a computer is accomplished by the movement of electrical impulses through the computer’s circuitry rather than by the movement of mechanical parts. Through instructions programmed into the computer by means of magnetic tapes, punched paper tapes, or punched cards, thousand of complex operations can be completed in a second. Answer: Programmed into the computer by means of magnetic tapes, punched paper tapes, or punched cards, thousand of complex operations can be completed in a second.
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