Understanding Paragraphs Part 2


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A powerpoint presentation based on Chapter 4 of "Reading Comprehension Skills 1", an internal publication of Unindra

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Understanding Paragraphs Part 2

  2. 2. Henni Juliana 201212500823 (E. Recognizing Details) Wawan Kurniawan 201212500789 (D. Positions of the topic sentence) Soraya Annisa 201212500814 (F. Unstated Main Ideas)
  3. 3. The most common placement of the topic sentence is first in the paragraph. Concluding remarks of a paragraph do not always restate the topic sentence and, in fact, in some paragraphs may be missing altogether. However, a topic sentence is still needed. A second and also common placement for the topic sentence is in the lead position with no repetition in the last sentence. example: English is clearly the first international language. Pilots and airport control operators speak it on all the airways of the world. Almost 85 percent of the computer program in the world use English. Over 70 percent of the world’s mail is written in English, and more than 60 percent of the world’s radio programs are in English. Topic sentence Details
  4. 4. While it is most common for topic sentences to begin the paragraph, they do not always do so. Sometimes, you will see the position of topic sentence is in the last. Consider the following sign, seen in the window of a beauty salon for the example: Paragraphs written in this way can be diagrammed as an upright triangle, with the broad base representing the topic sentence: Please, No exception. Unless they are booked for service. Don’t bring your pet in this room and no children Details Topic sentence
  5. 5. Perhaps the least common placement for a topic sentence is in the medial position. Placed here, a topic sentence can provide a transition between two kinds of details. Example: It’s a number of sports that involve to varying degrees, kicking a ball with the foot to score a goal. Yeah, it is better known “football” or “soccer” game. This sport include an expensive sport, because you will need much money to rent a field and another appliances if you want to play this sport in the real field. Details Details Topic sentence
  6. 6. Sometimes an author use two sentences to state the main idea or state the main idea twice in one paragraph. For example: I need much money to buy the newest mobile phone. But, the problem is I don’t have enough money to buy it. I have to waiting for my company gives me the salary at the end of the month. I can not wait, I feel. I want it will be my own soon. So, I will try to lend money from my friend, because I need much money to buy it. Topic sentence Topic sentence Details
  7. 7. Read the following paragraph and tell where is the position of the topic sentence! Good morning all the train passengers . You have arrived at solo station. Check your belonging and state carefully. If you need help with your belonging, the porter can help you to bring belonging to the next transportation. Thank you for your attention. Position of the topic sentence: in the middle of paragraph. Topic sentence: Check your belonging and state carefully. . If you want to make your dreams come true, the first thing you have to do is “wake up”. Don’t you waiting for so long to make your dreams come true. You have to do something or you will never get your dream. Leave your negative thinking about yourself. Be yourself and always improve yourself. You can make your dream come true, if you want to “wake up” soon. Position of the topic sentence: in the first and last sentence. Topic sentences: 1. If you want to make your dreams come true, the first thing you have to do is “wake up”. 2. you can make your dream come true, if you want to “wake up soon"
  8. 8. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level The detail on the paragraph are those fact and ideas, which prove, explain, support , or give the example of the main paragraph. Once the topic and main idea have been identified, recognizing the supporting details is a relatively simple matter. The more difficult job involved is the selection of the few key, or most important, details which clearly support the main idea. For the example, let’s look at the following paragraph : (1) The people in U.S. speak the same language as the people in Great Britain.(2) However, American English is different from Britain English in many ways. (3) First, some sounds of American English are different from those British English. (4) For example, most American pronounce the “r” in the word “car” but most Britons do not. (5) Most Americans pronounce the word “dictionary” like this : “dik-shun-ary”, but the British pronounce it like this: “dik-shun-ry”. (6) Some spelling are also different. (7) People in Britain write “colour” and “centre”, but people in the United states use write “color” and “center”. (8) Finally, some word are different. (9) People in the United states use “gasoline” in their cars, but people in the Britain use “petrol”. (10) Gasoline and petrol are the same thing, but the American and the British use the different word for it.
  9. 9. • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level • Third level – Fourth level » Fifth level Main idea American English and British English are different in many ways Major support detail 1 Differences in sounds Major support detail 2 Differences in spelling Major support detail 3 Differences in words With or without /r/ in “car” Difference in pronouncing “dictionary” Color vs colour Center vs centre Gasoline vs petrol
  10. 10. First sentence in each group of sentences is a topic sentence. It is followed by four supporting sentences that should explain. Choose one sentence that does not fulfill this function. 1.Falling in love for the first time is an extraordinary experience. a.Suddenly it’s almost impossible to sleep at night. b.Hours spent daydreaming about the last conversation, date or embrace. c.Quite often, the first love affair is accompanied by a complete loss of appetite. d.Nobody should avoid falling in love even is painful. 2. Computers have many uses today. a.Computers are still very expensive to many people. b.Computers can solve difficult problem and control complex machines. c.Many people use small computers called calculators to add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers quickly. d.Some computers are designed to help you learn languages.
  11. 11. Occasionally, a writer does not directly state the main idea of a given paragraph in topic sentence. Instead , he or she leaves it up to the reader to infer, or reason out, what the main idea of the paragraph is. For example: Suppose a group of a plumber in a community decide to set standard prices for repair services and agree to quote the same price for the same job. Is this ethical? Suppose a group of automobile dealers agree to abide strictly by the used car blue book prices on trade-ins. Is this ethical? Two meat supply houses serving a large university submit identical bid each month for the meal contract. Is this ethical?
  12. 12. Traffic is directed by color. Pilot instrument panels, landing and strips, road and water crossing are regulated by many colored light and sign. Factories use color to distinguish between thoroughfares and work areas. Danger zones are painted by colors. Lubrication points and removable parts are accentuated by color. Pipers for transporting water, steam, oil, chemicals and compressed air, are designated by different colors. Electrical wires and resistances are color-coded. What are the topic and main idea of the paragraph? Topic: colors as the symbols. Main Idea: the color can be used to describe about something or condition.
  13. 13. “If you're doing your best, you won't have any time to worry about failure. ” ~Quoted in P.S. I Love You, compiled by H. Jackson Brown, Jr. Good night…………….