N2010/3010 Lecture I <ul><li>The Life-Span Perspective </li></ul>Many of the slides used in this presentation are power-po...
Objectives <ul><li>After completing this section, the student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the eight char...
<ul><li>Development:  the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life spa...
Why study development? <ul><li>To describe changes in physical growth, thinking, personality </li></ul><ul><li>To compare ...
<ul><li>Life Span:  based on oldest age documented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 122 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life E...
<ul><li>Life-Span Perspective views development as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensi...
Three Types of  Contextual Influences: <ul><li>Normative age-graded influences : similar for individuals in a particular a...
<ul><li>Development involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss </li></ul><ul><li>Development is a co-constructio...
<ul><li>Some Contemporary Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and Well-Being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting and Ed...
<ul><ul><li>Biological:  changes in an individual’s physical nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive:  changes in thou...
©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes Are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, an...
<ul><li>Periods of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal period: conception to birth (9 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
<ul><ul><ul><li>First Age: Childhood and adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second Age: Prime adulthood (20’s...
Conceptions of Age <ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological age </li></ul></ul></u...
<ul><li>Five Theoretical Orientations to Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cogni...
Theorists/Theories <ul><ul><li>Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory : Focus of sexual impulses changes throughout development </l...
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories <ul><ul><li>Skinner’s Operant Conditioning :  Consequences of a behavior produce ...
Ecological Theory <ul><ul><li>Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory : Development reflects the influence of five environmenta...
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation: <ul><ul><li>No single theory can explain all of development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Methods for Collecting Data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation  – must be systematic and controlled </li></ul></ul...
Research Designs <ul><li>Descriptive : aims to observe and record behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational : describes the...
Time Span Research <ul><ul><li>Cross-Sectional: simultaneously compares individuals of different ages </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Conducting Ethical Research <ul><li>Informed Consent : all participants must know what their research participation will i...
<ul><ul><li>Media only publishes parts of research when  of public interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All information fo...
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N2010 life span perspective ppt 20120

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N2010 life span perspective ppt 20120

  1. 1. N2010/3010 Lecture I <ul><li>The Life-Span Perspective </li></ul>Many of the slides used in this presentation are power-points are from: ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>After completing this section, the student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the eight characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the most important processes, periods and issues in development. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between Biological, Cognitive and Socioemotional Processes. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Describe at least 5 theories of life-span development. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Explain how research on life-span development is conducted. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Examine the role of research in the promotion of health across the life- </li></ul><ul><li>span. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Development: the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Approach: emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little to no change in adulthood, and decline in old age </li></ul><ul><li>Life-Span Approach: emphasizes developmental change throughout childhood and adulthood </li></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Why study development? <ul><li>To describe changes in physical growth, thinking, personality </li></ul><ul><li>To compare people from diverse backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>To explain developmental changes and sequences </li></ul><ul><li>To predict patterns of development </li></ul><ul><li>To relate findings to work of other disciplines </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Life Span: based on oldest age documented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 122 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy: average number of years that a person can expect to live </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 78 years </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Life-Span Perspective views development as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Three Types of Contextual Influences: <ul><li>Normative age-graded influences : similar for individuals in a particular age group </li></ul><ul><li>Normative history-graded influences : common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Non-normative life events : unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual’s life </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Development involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss </li></ul><ul><li>Development is a co-construction of biology, culture, and the individual </li></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Some Contemporary Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and Well-Being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting and Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Policy </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Biological: changes in an individual’s physical nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive: changes in thought, intelligence, and language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioemotional: changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmental Changes Are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
  12. 12. <ul><li>Periods of Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal period: conception to birth (9 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy: birth to 18-24 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early childhood: 2 to 5-6 years; play years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle and late childhood: 6-11 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence: from 10-12 to 18-21 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early adulthood: early 20’s through the 30’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle adulthood: 40-60 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late adulthood: 60’s-70’s to death </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>First Age: Childhood and adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second Age: Prime adulthood (20’s through 50’s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third Age: Approximately 60 to 79 years of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Age: Approximately 80 years and older </li></ul></ul></ul>Four “Ages” of Development ©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Conceptions of Age <ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social age </li></ul></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Five Theoretical Orientations to Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral and Social Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>☼ Review these theories in the textbook. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Theorists/Theories <ul><ul><li>Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory : Focus of sexual impulses changes throughout development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory : Focused on our desire to affiliate with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory : Emphasizes the processes of organization and adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: Emphasizes how social interaction and culture guide cognitive development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information-Processing Theory : Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Konrad Lorenz’ Ethnology Theory : Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology and is tied to evolution and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowlby stressed the importance of human attachment during the first year of life </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories <ul><ul><li>Skinner’s Operant Conditioning : Consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory : Behavior, environment, and cognition are key factors in development </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Ecological Theory <ul><ul><li>Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory : Development reflects the influence of five environmental systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronosystem </li></ul></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation: <ul><ul><li>No single theory can explain all of development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclectic orientation selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. <ul><li>Methods for Collecting Data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation – must be systematic and controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey and Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard sets of questions are used to obtain people’s attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological Measures -Examples: hormone levels and neuroimaging such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Research Designs <ul><li>Descriptive : aims to observe and record behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational : describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics using a Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment: one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant </li></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Time Span Research <ul><ul><li>Cross-Sectional: simultaneously compares individuals of different ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Approach: studies the same individuals over a period of time, usually several years or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohort Effects: Differences due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation, but not to actual age </li></ul></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Conducting Ethical Research <ul><li>Informed Consent : all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality : researchers are responsible for keeping the data completely confidential and, if possible, anonymous. </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing : after the study, participants should be informed of the study’s purpose and methods that were used </li></ul><ul><li>Deception : researchers must ensure that deception will not harm participants, and that participants are fully debriefed. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize Bias </li></ul><ul><li>- Gender Bias </li></ul><ul><li>-Cultural and Ethnic Bias </li></ul>©2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Media only publishes parts of research when of public interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All information for public consumption may be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oversimplified, condensed with few details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted or exaggerated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People must consider information carefully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate group from individual outcomes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overgeneralize from small sample. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for additional information on a study. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not attribute causes when none exist. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the source of information. </li></ul></ul></ul>Being a Wise Consumer of Information

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