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COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 1
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
One of the most crucial and important decisions a person has to make is in
choosing the perfect career. This can be one of the measures whether an individual
will be successful in the future or not. The tentative steps during this stage include
self-realization, role try-outs, occupational explorations in school, and finding the first
job are. During this stage, teenagers need guidance in the proper selection of their
desired career. Educational privilege and other resources that society makes
available allow students to be efficient and effective, thereby letting them to make
right decisions considering their innate capacities (Pablo et al., 2011).
The teaching profession requires prolonged preparation for navigating future
students, because individuals who have undergone preparation to teach can grow in
various ways. Future teachers can be specialists in a particular field such as dean of
the students, guidance counselor, school psychologist, and curriculum specialist
(Linden, 1990).
The students must be ready to enter the professional world. Thus, they
should have career plans and strategies to meet the demands of the real corporate
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 2
world. Essentially, making such career plan would help them to be ready in this
reality either in teaching or in performing office works (Bautista, 2003).
Background of the Study
The College of Education (COEd) is the oldest college of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines (PUP), a state university. COEd offers Bachelor’s
degrees in Secondary Education (BSE), elementary education (BEEd), Business
Teacher Education (BBTE), and post-baccalaureate in Teacher Education (PBTE).
BBTE is a four-year degree program which prepares students in two career
tracts: Business Technology and Livelihood Education (BTLE), and Information
Technology Education (ITE); both of which prepare students to teach specific
courses effectively across the learning areas in elementary, secondary, college, and
vocational-technical schools. This program is designed to equip students with office
skills, basic of personal finance, decision-making techniques needed to be wise
consumers, application of economic principles to an increasingly international
marketplace, and the skills in establishing a business. Students master the
applications of knowledge and acquire workplace skills particularly in the teaching of
technology and livelihood education, information technology, research and service.
Upon completion of the BBTE program, graduates may join the teaching
profession as teachers or as non-teaching office staff, either in private or
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 3
government entities. As a teacher, one needs to have the right attitude, the proper
disposition and teaching skills.
This study has been conducted to determine the career path of Bachelor in
Business Teacher Education students in teaching or non-teaching office work.
Participants BBTE students were asked to identify the factors or determinants for
them to know their preferred work or job after graduating from the programs. Further,
this study would aim to serve as guide in achieving the participants’ career choice as
educators or as office professionals.
Theoretical Framework
A theory is a well-founded statement or set of ideas that explains observed
facts or phenomena. Some theories helped the researchers in conducting this study
in a way that they explain essential ideas relating to the research. This study was
anchored on the concepts in career education, law of readiness, and Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs.
Based on the concepts in career education, the students should develop
understanding of their decision–making process and be equipped with strategies to
implement the decision relative to their personal and professional development.
Herr (1972) as cited by Magisos (1973) identified the variety of inputs to such
an approach as the following concepts: that choice occurs under conditions of
uncertainty or risk; that a choice between various possible courses of action can be
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 4
conceptualized as motivated by two interrelated set of factors – the individual’s
valuation of different alternatives, and his appraisal of his chances of being able to
realize each of the alternatives; that the process of making a decision between
uncertain outcomes requires reconciliation of several general factors; that the
decision-making includes identifying and defining one’s values; and what they are
and what they are not, where they appear and where they do not.
Thorndike’s laws of learning (1932) include: law of effect, law of exercise, and
law of readiness. Applied in choosing a career, the law of readiness states that
individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to
learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning.
Essentially, an individual seeks ways to fulfill his needs. Individual or human
motivation is guided by a hierarchy of or ladder of needs (Wayne, 2000). Maslow’s
theory of hierarchy of needs proposes that motivation is the result of a person’s
attempt at fulfilling five basic needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-
actualization – which needs create internal pressures that can influence a person’s
behavior (Jamali, 2015).
Physiological needs are those needs required for human survival such as air,
food, water, shelter, clothing and sleep; safety needs include those needs that
provide a person with a sense of security and well-being. Social needs are important
to humans so that they do not feel alone, isolated and depressed; on the other hand,
esteem needs refer to the need for self-esteem and respect, with self-respect being
slightly more important than gaining respect and admiration from others. Self-
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 5
actualization needs describe a person’s need to reach his or her full potential.
Maslow believed that we naturally strive to climb this hierarchy (Jamali, 2015).
There is too much individual variation for the hierarchy of motives to apply to
everyone as the critics of Maslow’s theory argue (Rathus, 2012). However, each
person pictures the world in a very unique way. These perceptions make a person to
phenomenal field. Individuals react to the environment depending on how they
perceive it or how they perceive the world (Elliot et al., 2000).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 6
Conceptual Framework
This framework shows the overall outline of the study. It can be expressed by
using the input-process-output framework (IPO).
FEEDBACK
Figure 1
Conceptual Framework
OUTPUTPROCESSINPUT
1. Student Profile
a. Section
b. Gender
c. BTE Specialization
2. Chosen Career
2.1 Teaching Profession
2.2 Office Profession
3. Determinant Factors
in Career Choice Between
Teaching or Office Works
in Terms of:
3.1 Familial-related
factors
3.2 Individual-related
factors
3.3 Societal-related
factors
3.4 Psychosocial-
emotional factors
3.5 Competencies-
related factors
• Descriptive
Research
• Survey
Questionnaire
• Statistical
Treatment
• Analysis of Data
• Career
Orientation
• Seminar
• Job Fair
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 7
Input (I) comprises of the students’ profile such as section, gender, age, and
course specialization; the career the students wanted to pursue whether teaching or
office work; the determinant factors for choosing teaching career such as the type of
school they prefer to teach, place of work, licensure examination for teachers,
Master’s degree, plan opportunities abroad, level of education, and subject matter;
determinant factors for choosing office work such as the type of office environment
they prefer to work, place of work, plan opportunities abroad, and Master’s degree;
the determinant factors in career choice between teaching and office profession
including familial-related factors, individual-related factors, societal-related factors,
Psychosocial-emotional factors, and competencies-related factors.
Process (P) indicates the methodology used to meet the objectives of the
descriptive study through survey questionnaire, analysis of data, and statistical
treatment.
Output (O) pertains to factors that would help participants become successful
professionals including career orientation, seminar and job fair.
Statement of the Problem
The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of career path
between teaching and office works of fourth year students of Bachelor in Business
Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 8
Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
a. Section;
b. Gender;
c. BTE specialization?
2. What is the career the students would like to pursue in terms of:
2.1 Teaching Profession
2.1.1 Type of school they prefer to teach
2.1.2 Place of work
2.1.3 Licensure Examination for Teachers
2.1.4 Master’s degree
2.1.5 Plan Opportunities abroad
2.1.6 Level of education
2.1.7 Subject matter
2.2 Office Profession
2.2.1 Type of office environment they prefer to work
2.2.2 Place of work
2.2.3 Civil Service Examination
2.2.4 Master’s degree
2.2.5 Plan Opportunities abroad
3. What are the determinants of career path of BTE students in choosing a
career between teaching or office works in terms of;
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 9
3.1 Familial- related factors;
3.2 Individual-related factors;
3.3 Societal-related factors;
3.4 Psychosocial-emotional factors;
3.5 Competencies-related factors
4. Is there a significance relationship between factors;
4.1 Teaching
4.2 Office works
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and
office work.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study was mainly focused on the determinants of the career path of all
graduating fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education of the
College of Education of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Mabini
Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila, during the second semester of the S.Y 2016-2017.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 10
Significance of the Study
The researchers would intend to provide useful insights regarding the factors
that influence the preference of BBTE fourth year students whether in teaching or in
office work.
The useful and relevant information acquired from the study would benefit the
following sectors:
Administrators. This could motivate and challenge school authorities to
device guidelines to aid students in identifying better career choices.
Parents. This study would inform parents concerning the career choices of
their college-students’ children.
Teachers. The findings of this study would brief teachers of the effective
strategies and pedagogies to mold their students into skilled and competent teaching
and non-teaching professionals.
Students. The results of this study would provide students with useful and
reflective insights on the different factors that could influence them in pursuing a
career path.
Researchers. This study would help future researchers consider tackling
other factors that might affect graduating students’ preferences for certain careers.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 11
Definition of Terms
For better understanding and interpretation of this study, the following terms are
operationally defined.
Bachelor of Business Teacher Education (BBTE) pertains to a four-year
degree course offered by the Polytechnic University of the Philippines that focuses
on preparing and training students as skilled and competent teaching and non-
teaching office professionals.
Career refers to a swift course or a progress extending through the life or a
portion of it.
Career choice means the preferred type of occupation or profession by
college students according to familial-related, individual-related, societal-related,
psychosocial-emotional, and competencies-related factors.
Career path pertains to both teaching and office professions that a student
ought to pursue.
Competencies-related factors means skills acquired or mastered.
Determinants refer to the effects that change the individual student’s
choices.
Familial-related factors are direct bearing of parental role in education and
career aspirations.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 12
Individual-related factors pertain to personalities of persons that make
impact on the career choices.
Office skills refer to the skills in accounting, computer software skills,
keyboarding, filing, business communications, and other clerical functions that a
non-teaching office personnel must possess.
Office work refers to the general clerical functions that a non-teaching
personnel performs in an office.
Psychosocial-emotional factors pertain to emotional, personal and social
barriers that prevent an individual from making adequate career choice.
Societal-related factors include values, attitudes, and practices of a society
that relate to appropriate career choice.
Teaching refers to the noble profession that facilitates learning and
knowledge processing of students in schools.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 13
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents and discusses foreign and local literature and studies
that are closely related to the present research. The information in this chapter was
sought to support this study and lead the researchers in determining the factors that
influence the pursuit of teaching or office work of fourth year Bachelor in Business
Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta.
Mesa, Manila.
Foreign Literature
Students are influenced by different academic portions of the class such as
the value of the content, the structure, and the workload. Students also looked upon
their interest, academic goals, and schedules. Students do not decide alone; and
students erratically ask for their family, friends, and or faculties’ advice. Not all
courses are as prominent as others, but it is important to know what students want
from their classes, and their expectations of themselves (Waugh, 2006).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 14
Holland as cited by Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to a
given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute
their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of
personality into the world of work followed by the subsequent identification with
specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy
preferred modal personal orientation, which is a developmental process established
through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental
demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction
is probable in a corresponding occupational environment; if the orientation is one of
indecision, however, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.
Career is viewed as a sequence of work history and reflects a chosen work-
related life theme. It demands individual choices in reference to a cognitive map,
about the dynamic interaction among work, self, family, and external social forces.
This is so even if the person decides to do nothing (Derr, 1982).
Education Life states that career planning is an ongoing career development
process through which learners attempt to understand their personal, family, school,
work, and community experiences and the importance they may have in making
career and lifestyle choices. Knowing the right path, making the wise decision and
having a good attitude to career planning are keys to success. The choice in their
career lies in the steps one takes; for this reason, planning ahead is important.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 15
Keasley in the article A career planning course for parents reports that the
senior year is the time for organizing and conducting a job search or graduate school
search, when students are heavily involved in more advanced courses in their
majors and often have more responsible roles in campus and/or volunteer activities.
Balancing these important pursuits and setting priorities is a constant challenge for
seniors insofar as they are given chances to show what they learned from school by
performing in the job training. Such program prepares the students on for the real
job; the training and seminars give senior students clear views on setting their
priorities.
Tahan (2001) states that one of the biggest key benefits that senior students
can obtain from accounting is the experience one can gain from working in the
accounting field. This is an important experience that one can gain. It will not only
help in the field of accounting, but also help organizing and running a business.
Nead in the article A capstone seminar course for Community College pointed
out that seminars offer opportunities to help students develop skills and
understanding that will prepare them for successful careers. Moreover, not only
those paper qualifications such as degree are important in applying for a job. For
certain positions, either in teaching profession or in office and other fields, work
experience is essential to boost the applicant’s confidence and meet the prospective
employers’ expectations. For the teaching profession, practice teaching and related
seminars are important factors that employers look into.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 16
Calhoun & Robinson (1995) in Encyclopedia of Education illumined that
business education is designed to provide general education and career technical
education needs, specifically specialized instruction to prepare students for careers
in business, fundamental instruction to help students to assume their economic roles
as consumers, workers and citizens, and background instruction to assist students in
preparing for professional careers requiring advanced study.
Great teachers make a difference. Chamberlain (2002) cites that teachers
have a passion that seeps through the skin - a love of learning – and that great
progress, she calls a revolution is made but a working hum and engagement is now
not enough; what are now needed are quality learning conversations between
teachers and learners, extending rather than supervising, linking to the child’s world,
creating lines of desires, not seeing the curriculum as straightjacket.
Anyone with an office job knows there are so much to deal with, some of
which can hinder a career, that making the wrong move or speech can lead him/her
to fall off the corporate ladder he/she had only just begun climbing (Singletary,
2014).
Choosing a job, which is in line with one’s interests, values, goals, and
abilities, helps to make work and life more satisfying, thus transform a job into a
career. It will help in meeting self-actualization needs - in becoming the best one can
become (Mc Ginley, 1980).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 17
Venable (2011) as cited by Polestar Consulting (2016) underscores the
importance of understanding that career choice entails several influencing factors:
individual, cultural, social, environmental, and gender. The combination and
interaction of various influences on decision-making are unique to individuals and
the situation. There may be multiple options, several good-fits, instead of a single,
right choice, but as an individual changes, learns and experiences new things, and
as external factors change, such as the economy, he or she will continue to revise
and fine-tune his/her career choices.
Local Literature
The Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) program envisions itself
as a high-quality curriculum that aims to produce secondary, vocational, and college
teachers in business and office technology that are capable of adopting to change,
staying focused and productive in an increasingly global and digital educational
workplace.
Most BBTE graduates who were supposed to join the teaching profession
eventually become employed as office workers. Although the field of office work is
allied to teaching as job target of the BBTE program, the career shift might blur the
career prospects of undergraduates.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 18
Meily (2005) stresses the paradoxical point that parents, teachers, politicians,
and adults are teachers in the communities insofar as the youth observe, emulate,
and imitate the adults; hence, everyone is responsible for the kind of future the youth
shall have. Meily punctuates the role education plays in making life less difficult for
each other in the community and in creating a better future for those who will be left
behind.
Teaching is considered a complex and many-faceted task. To prepare for this
job, the teacher should go through a pre-service education. Knowledge of ethical
standards for teachers is likewise important for them to do a good job of teaching.
Relativo (2005) avers that teachers do not perform teaching only; they also
perform the roles of a community leader, confidante, friend, parent, counselor, and
obedient and respectable citizen of the Republic.
On the down side, the teaching is not financially rewarding profession. Given
the rising standards of living of the modern society, the average salary of a school
teacher would not suffice to provide for the comfort of a family. Thus, more and more
teachers have left teaching to find better opportunities in another job locally or
abroad even as domestic helpers.
Acero, Javier & Castro (2007) point out that the concept of teaching as an
ideal profession has remained strong through the years despite several constraints
and challenges such as raising salaries, enjoying health benefits, upgrading school
facilities, and meeting the demands of professional development. Notwithstanding
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 19
these challenges, teaching still offers the best personally rewarding opportunity of
affecting the lives of individuals and the society in general.
Raquedar (2003) underscores the importance given by employers for training
as integral part of an organization, which involves proper instruction for the jobs at
hand, development of good human relations, and enhancement of desirable
personality and character.
Similarly, Tabunan (2003) states the importance of on-the-job training (OJT)
in the students’ learning process and development. OJTs allow students to
experience the realities of business routines, thus prompting them to improve their
skills and other qualifications for better employability.
In choosing a career path, a student must have a clear set of goals. Having
goals in life serves as a guide to what one hopes to achieve. And whether one is a
student or an educator, a successful career requires putting one’s heart into
everything one aspires to be.
Most individuals tend to pursue careers where they can find real enjoyment,
job security, and professional growth.
Foreign Studies
Several studies have been conducted to investigate the possible factors that
influence a student’s pursuance of teaching or office work.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 20
Fizer (2013) identifies factors that can influence a college student’s choice for
a career: (1) the quality of life that they ought to have when they become old; (2)
academic factors where the students choose their major based on their academic
performance; (3) personality where the students who believe in themselves have
more confidence and are more likely to go far; (4) parental and peer factors; and (5)
gender, insofar as men have a more liberal and progressive style of thinking and
women prefer hierarchical style of thinking.
McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expound that the family income, occupation of
the parents, wish and peers influences moderately affect the decision of the students
in choosing their career. Further, mass media such as newspapers, magazines,
television program, and social work literature also affect the students’ career
choices.
Career selection is one of many important choices students make in
determining future plans (Burnchett, 2002). Thompson (2005) affirms that the
employability of a person sometimes depends on the training and seminars which he
or she has attended; hence, employees should have sufficient education and
training to enable them to undertake the technical phases of the job and to possess
the required manual effectively. However, the needs of society changes due to the
growth of science and technology. Thus, the knowledge, skills, and trainings may not
meet the needs of the present society.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 21
The article The learning infrastructure discusses the necessity to meet the
needs of the business industry as a must for all colleges, pointing out that the
trainings to be offered should be constant so as not to become obsolete due to
changing technologies. Moreover, pre-service trainings are necessary for a student’s
orientation on career and employment.
Thomas (2003) as cited by Buton (2010) reports that nearly all the problems
associated with job training are very simple to overcome, that most trainees usually
take pride in learning new skill, that new skills gained for mutual benefits are good
for the trainee to improve his future employment value, and that the supervisors are
frequently the only persons in the organization that teach the basic knowledge and
the many key skills that group needs to learn. Hence, on-the-job training should
never stop.
Chukwurah (2006) concludes that teacher education concerns the production
of teachers at all levels, and has been recognized as major concern for the nation
since no school, whatever level can be run without the teacher. Hence, teacher
education plays prominent roles in preparing students to become more responsible
citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit their personal and
professional lives.
In this study, this may determine the interest of the students – whether they
are interested in teaching the next generations, more interested in doing office tasks,
or even more interested in doing other jobs beyond the promise of the course they
had taken.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 22
Local Studies
Personal interest, abilities, skills, and value are the most influential factors in
choosing a career. Thus, students should be given all the chances to learn and
develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations. Conversely, career
counselors could give more emphasis on this environmental factor during individual
and small group career counseling sessions (Pabiton, 2007).
The major influences on people’s career choices most often cited in the
literature are the interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents
also exert the strongest influence on adolescents’ aspiration followed by the teacher,
friends and relatives. It would be unreasonable to extend some of these influential
factors, not just adolescent aspirations but also in career decision making. Self-
efficacy and parental support predicted youth expectations to attend college.
Parental environments influence career decisions both directly and indirectly with its
relationship to outcome expectations. The people, places and things surrounding
students as they grow up do not affect their own outlook about careers (Mattison,
2002).
Kwak (n.d.) as cited by Caraede (n.d.) reveals that both father and mother’s
educational backgrounds greatly influence the decision-making of the child. In that
manner, the parents being good role models would be satisfactorily succeeded by
their children.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 23
Students learn about the changing nature of the work place, the value of work
to the society, and the connection of work to the achievement of personal goals.
Learning Standards for Career Development and Occupational Studies at
Three Levels reports that students must possess certain traits for them to be
knowledgeable about the world of work, explore career options, and relate personal
skills, aptitudes, and abilities for future career decisions: (1) continue development of
a career plan that would assist in the transition from school to eventual entry into a
career option; (2) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship among personal
interest, skills and abilities, career research; (3) demonstrate an understanding of
the relationship between the changing future of work and educational requirements;
and (4) understand the relationship of personal choices to future career decisions.
Francisco (n.d.) emphasizes that a pre-service teacher is like a pencil who
from time to time should experience painful sharpening insofar as this painful
sharpening enables him or her to develop teaching competencies and character.
Bautista in her study The Employability of PUP Bachelor in Office
Administration Graduates: An Evaluation suggests that necessary steps should be
undertaken to arouse the interests of the students particularly in pursuing the type of
job that is in line with the course they have taken up.
Graduate education among educators becomes a necessity due to the
increasing competition in our society, as well as rapid educational changes and
technological advancement since there are more jobs that enter the country which
require skills that would not only be at par with the others but outdo them. A
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 24
graduating student should be fully aware that he must continually grow and learn,
advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations
(Pegarido 1998).
Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed Literature and Studies
The related literature and studies discussed above prove helpful to the
researchers in determining and analyzing the career path of fourth year Bachelor in
Teacher Education students.
Waugh (2006), Holland (2006) and Derr (1982) agree that a career is
basically based on individual choices.
Keasly & Nead (n. d.) stress that since senior year is the time when students
start to organize and search for jobs and graduate from school, training and
seminars give clear views on setting priorities and opportunities to help students
develop skills and understanding that would prepare them for successful.
Mc Ginley (1980) and Venable (2011) agree that career choice is based on
many factors that may influence the success level in the job, the dominant factors
being that the choice must be parallel with the student’s interest, level of satisfaction,
learning, and experience.
Meily (2005) underscores the importance of responsibility for teachers insofar
as they impact on the society in general. Relativo (2005) puts premium on pre-
service education as a requisite for every budding teacher. Thompson (2005) agrees
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 25
but puts more value to sufficient education and training because employability
sometimes depends on it.
Fizer (2013) enumerates factors that play in making career choices such as
interest in field, and academic factors where the students choose their major based
on their academic performance. Basow (2012) reports that students’ career choices
are moderately affected by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television
program, and social work literature but least affected by the university recruitment
program and college catalogue.
Burnchett (2002) and Thompson (2005) agree that employees should have
sufficient and constant education and training so as not to become obsolete due to
changing technology. Similarly, Buton (2010) and Chukwurah (2006) reach an
agreement that supervisors play prominent roles in preparing students to become
more responsible citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit
their personal and professional lives.
Pabiton (n.d.) credits personal interest, abilities, skills, and value as big
factors that determine the career choice of students. Mattison (2002) adds that
major influential factors include self-efficacy, expectations, and family, teacher,
friends and relatives. Further, Kwak recognizes educational background of parents
as a factor that affects the career choice of children.
Indeed, these foreign and local literature and studies bolster the conduct of
the current study, as these provide the proper framework and concepts hereto.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 26
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter deals with the methodology of the study. It covers the research
method and instrument used, research design, population and sampling,
respondents, data gathering procedures, and statistical treatment of data.
Method of Research
This study used the descriptive survey method to determine the factors that
influence the pursuance to teaching or office work of the graduating fourth year
students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the
Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.
Descriptive research obtains facts about existing conditions in a
phenomenon, and describes and interprets revealing conditions or relationships that
exist or do not exist, practices that prevail or do not, beliefs or points of view or
attitudes that are held or not, processing that are going on or otherwise effects that
are being felt, or trends that are developing (Calderon, 2012).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 27
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique
The respondents for this study composed of 182 graduating students of
Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) of Polytechnic University of the
Philippines Mabini Campus, during the second semester of academic year 2016-
2017. Specifically, responses of respondents were taken within the period of
November 2016 to March 2017 using modified questionnaires as instruments in
gathering information about the factors that influence the respondents’ career
choices.
There were two categories of specialization of the respondents: (1) those
majoring in Business in Technology and Livelihood Education; and (2) those
majoring in Information Technology Education.
The researchers used the convenience sampling technique to generate 171
out of 182 students based on the availability of the respondents.
Table 1
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Section and Specialization
Section and
Specialization
Frequency Percentage (%)
BBTE-TLE 4-1D 29 16.96
BBTE-TLE 4-2D 23 13.45
BBTE-TLE 4-3D 30 17.54
BBTE-TLE 4-4D 27 15.79
BBTE-ITE 4-1N 24 14.04
BBTE-ITE 4-2N 38 22.22
Total 171 100.00
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 28
Table 1 demonstrates the number of respondents per section. The
researchers covered all the sections of fourth year BBTE students. Most of the
respondents came from BBTE-ITE 4-2N with a total number of thirty-eight (38) at
22.22%, followed by BBTE-TLE 4-3D with the sum of thirty (30) at 17.54%, BBTE-
TLE 4-1D with a total number of twenty-nine (29) at 16.96%, BBTE-TLE 4-4D with
the sum of twenty-seven (27) at 15.79%, BBTE-ITE 4-1N with a total number of
twenty-four (24) at 14.04%, and BBTE-TLE 4-2D with twenty-three (23) at 13.45%,
all comprising 171 respondents (100%).
Description of Respondents
The respondents for the research were the graduating fourth year BBTE
students of S.Y. 2016-2017 of both majors, Information Technology Education (ITE)
and Business Technology and Livelihood (BTL) at the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila. They are both male and female.
Research Instrument
In order to obtain the desired data from the fourth year BBTE students, the
researchers of this study used survey questionnaires as the major instrument,
composed of three parts – profiles of the respondents, checklist, and a ranking scale
of the different factors that influence the pursuance of teaching and office works of
the students.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 29
The first part of questionnaire was about the student’s profile (name, gender,
section and specialization). The second part of the questionnaire was a checklist
composed of seven items. Respondents were asked to answer each question by
checking the corresponding box in the columns.
The third part of the questionnaire was about the different factors that
influence the pursuance to teaching or office works composed of 25 items. The
rating scale or Likert four-point scale used in the questionnaire composed of 4 –
strongly agree; 3 – agree; 2 – disagree; 1 – strongly disagree).
Likert Scale
Degree of the Agreement of Respondents
Scale Range Verbal Interpretation
1 1.00-1.50 Strongly Disagree
2 1.51-2.50 Disagree
3 2.51-3.50 Agree
4 3.51-4.00 Strongly Agree
Data-Gathering Procedure
The researchers used the questionnaire for the gathering of the desired data.
The researchers asked the permission of the Dean, Dr. Junithesmer D.
Rosales of College of Education, to conduct the survey about the determinants of
career path of BBTE students. After the researchers obtained the approval of Dr.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 30
Rosales, the researchers administered the survey to the fourth year BBTE students
during their vacant periods.
The questionnaires that had been validated by research experts and panelists
had been distributed to the respondents, who answered the respective questions
based on their knowledge, the researchers assuring the respondents that the data
gathered would be treated with utmost confidentiality.
The results were tallied and tabulated according to the frequency of the items
checked by the respondents. After the tabulation, results were interpreted using
various statistical tools.
Statistical Treatment of Data
For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the data gathered were coded,
tallied and tabulated subjected to the following statistical treatment:
1. Frequency and Percentage
The frequency and distributions were used to categorize the respondents
according to their personal background variables such as sex, section and
specialization in the first part of the questionnaire. The researchers used the formula
below to determine the proportion of students who answered in certain way in the
second part of the questionnaire:
𝐏 =
𝐅
𝐍
×𝟏𝟎𝟎
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 31
Where:
P = Percentage
F = Frequency
N = No. of Respondents
2. Ranking
The researchers used the ranking technique in the study to compare the
importance of the items analyzed. Ranking as a descriptive measure ought to
describe numerical data in addition to percentage. This was used in the second part
of the questionnaire.
3. Weighted Mean
Another technique used by the researchers in the study was the weighted
mean. This was used in order to determine the average responses of the different
options in the third part of the questionnaire to analyze the data to the respondents’
degree of agreement.
Formula:
𝐖𝐌 =
∑ 𝐟𝐱
𝐧
Where:
WM = Weighted Mean
∑ fx = the sum of all products of f and x, f being
frequency of each weight and x as the weight of each
operation.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 32
n = total number of respondents
4. Pearson r Correlation
Pearson r Correlation was used to determine the significant relationship
between the determinants of teaching and office works. Pearson r Correlation has
been widely used in statistics to measure the relationship between the linear related
variables. For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally
distributed to the following formula variables are used to calculate the Pearson r
correlation.
r =
∑ (Xi − X̅)(Yi − Y̅)n
i=1
√∑ (Xi − X̅)2n
i=1 √∑ (Yi − Y̅)2n
i=1
Where:
r = Pearson r correlation coefficient
n = number of value in each data
∑ xy = sum of the products of paired scores
∑ y = sum of y scores
∑ x2
= sum of squared x scores
Interpretation for Pearson r
If the p-value is <0.05, reject hypothesis, otherwise accept the hypothesis,
there being no significant relationship.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 33
Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data gathered together with the statistical analysis and its
interpretation.
Table 2
Profile of Respondents in Terms of Sex.
Sex Frequency Percentage (%)
Female 103 60.23
Male 68 39.77
Total 171 100.00
Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents
in terms of sex. Majority of the respondents were female with a frequency of one
hundred three (103) and percentage of 60.23%, while male respondents were sixty-
eight (68) or the percentage of 39.77%.
Table 3 below presents the type of school where the respondents prefer to
teach. Majority or one hundred thirteen (113) of the respondents (66.08%) prefer to
teach in public schools, forty-eight (48) with a percentage of 28.07% prefer either
public or private schools, and ten (10) or 5.85% prefer the private schools.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 34
Table 3
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of School They Prefer to Teach
Prefer Frequency Percentage (%)
PUBLIC 113 66.08
PRIVATE 10 5.85
EITHER 48 28.07
Total 171 100.00
Table 4 below illustrates the place of work the respondents prefer. Majority of
the respondents with a total number of one hundred twenty-nine (129) having a
percentage of 75.44% prefer to teach in urban areas, while forty-two (42) or 24.56%
prefer the rural areas.
Table 4
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work
Place Frequency Percentage (%)
URBAN 129 75.44
RURAL 42 24.56
Total 171 100.00
Table 5
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Option to take LET
Like Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 160 93.57
No 7 4.09
Undecided 4 2.34
Total 171 100.00
Table 5 presents the decision of the respondents in taking licensure
examination for teachers. Majority with a total number of one hundred sixty (160) or
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 35
93.57% of the respondents opted to take the licensure examination, seven (7) or
4.09% opted not to, and four (4) or 2.34% were undecided whether to take the
licensure examination or not.
Table 6
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree
Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 132 77.19
No 12 7.02
Undecided 27 15.79
Total 171 100.00
Table 6 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s
degree. Majority of the respondents with the total of one hundred thirty-two (132) or
77.19% opted to pursue Master’s degree, twenty-seven (27) or 15.79% were
undecided whether to pursue Master’s degree or not, and twelve (12) or 7.02%
decided not to pursue Master’s degree.
Table 7
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Teach
Plan Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 64 37.43
No 77 45.03
Undecided 30 17.54
Total 171 100.00
Table 7 above presents the decision of the respondents in terms of planning
to teach abroad. Majority of the respondents answered no with a total number of
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 36
seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% do not opt to teach abroad, sixty-four (64) or 37.43%
would opt to teach abroad, and thirty (30) or 17.54% were undecided whether to
teach abroad or not.
Table 8 below reveals the level of education the respondents prefer to teach.
Majority of the respondents or ninety-seven (97) with a percentage of 56.73% prefer
high school, fifty-nine (59) or 34.50% prefer college, and fifteen (15) or 8.77% prefer
the elementary level.
Table 8
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Level Students to Teach
Level Frequency Percentage (%)
Elementary 15 8.77
High School 97 56.73
College 59 34.50
Total 171 100.00
Table 9
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Subject
Matter to Teach
Subject Matter Frequency Rank
Computer (ICT) 90 1
Marketing related 21 8
Management 26 5.5
T.L.E 84 2
Business Technology 37 3
Office Procedure 25 7
Stenography 27 4
Entrepreneurship 26 5.5
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 37
Table 9 above presents the list of subject matters the respondents prefer to
teach. Majority or ninety (90) of the respondents chose to teach computer (ICT),
eighty-four (84) preferred TLE, thirty-seven (37) preferred Business Technology,
twenty-seven (27) preferred stenography, twenty-six (26) preferred Management,
another twenty-six (26) Entrepreneurship, twenty-five preferred Office Procedure,
and twenty-one preferred Marketing.
Table 10
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms Preferred Office in which to Work
Nature of Office Frequency Percentage (%)
Public 80 46.78
Private 28 16.37
Either 63 36.84
Total 171 100.00
Table 10 shows the type of office in which the respondents preferred to work.
Majority or eighty (80) or 46.78% of the respondents preferred to work in public
schools, sixty-three (63) or 36.84% opted for either public or private schools, and
twenty-eight (28) or 16.37% opted to work in private schools.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 38
Table 11
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work
Place Frequency Percentage (%)
Urban 148 86.55
Rural 23 13.45
Total 171 100.00
Table 11 presents the place of work the respondents preferred. Majority or
one hundred forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in
urban areas, and twenty-three (23) or 13.45% preferred the rural areas.
Table 12
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Taking CSC Examination
Like Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 153 89.47
No 11 6.43
Undecided 7 4.09
Total 171 100.00
Table 12 presents the decision of the respondents in taking the civil service
examination. Fifty-three (153) respondents or 89.47% answered yes, they would
take the civil service examination, eleven (11) or 6.43% said no, while seven (7) or
of 4.09% were undecided.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 39
Table 13
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree
Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 122 71.35
No 12 7.02
Undecided 37 21.64
Total 171 100.00
Table 13 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s
degree. Majority of the respondents answered yes with the total of one hundred
twenty-two (122) having a percentage of 71.35%, meaning they want to pursue
Master’s degree, followed by undecided with a count of thirty-seven (37) having a
percentage of 21.64%, in which the respondents didn’t know whether to pursue
Master’s degree or not, and last, is no with the lowest total number of twelve (12)
having a percentage of 7.02%.
Table 14
Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Work Abroad
Plan Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 81 47.37
No 58 33.92
Undecided 30 17.54
No Response 2 1.17
Total 171 100.00
Table 14 presents the decision of the respondents in working abroad. Majority
of the respondents answered yes with a total number of eighty-one (81) having a
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 40
percentage of 47.37%, meaning they want to work abroad, followed by no with a
count of fifty-eight (58) and a percentage of 33.92% in which they don’t want to work
abroad, next is undecided with a total number of thirty (30) having a percentage of
17.54%. and last is no response with the lowest total number of two (2) and a
percentage of 1.17%.
Table 15
Familial-Related Factors for Pursuing Teaching
Familial-Related Factors
SA A D SD
Weighte
d Mean
Verbal
Interpretatio
n
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Childhood experience - I
pretended to be a teacher
when I was a child.
54 81 21 15 3.02 Agree
Mother as a role model -
My mother is a teacher.
40 55 34 42 2.54 Agree
Father as a role model -
My father is a teacher.
35 37 46 53 2.32 Disagree
Parents/Guardians
decisions -My parents
wanted me to be a
teacher.
42 58 42 29 2.66 Agree
Parents educational
attainment -My parents
did not graduate from
college so they liked me
to finish my degree to be
a teacher.
80 60 14 17 3.19 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 2.75 Agree
Table 15 describes the family-related factors for the respondents’ choice to
pursue teaching. These factors – Parents’ educational attainment (My parents did
not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be a teacher),
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 41
Childhood experience (I pretend to be a teacher when I was a child),
Parents/Guardians decisions (My parents want me to be a teacher), and Mother as a
role model (My mother is a teacher) – generated Agree responses with weighted
means of (3.19), (3.02), (2.66), and (2.54), respectively. On the other hand, Father
as the role model (My father is a teacher) received Disagree responses at a
weighted mean of (2.32).
As a whole, familial-related factors generated an overall weighted mean of
(2.75). These results are comparable to the study of Peled (2004) which found
that fathers were less involved in parenting their adolescents than mothers did,
insofar as adolescents were more securely attached to their mothers than to their
fathers. In his previous study, the father had a low influence to their children’s
decisions.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 42
Table 16
Individual-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching
Individual-related
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Abilities - I have the ability
to face crowd such as
students.
68 95 5 3 3.33 Agree
Interests - I am interested
in teaching.
65 92 12 2 3.29 Agree
Behavior/Personality - I
have the patience to teach
children.
64 91 15 1 3.27 Agree
Self-expectancy - I expect
myself to be a teacher in
the future.
65 86 18 2 3.25 Agree
Achievement needs - I
want to improve my career
development in teaching.
82 74 10 5 3.36 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.30 Agree
Under Table 16, the following factors generated Agree responses from
respondents at the weighted mean of (3.36), (3.33), (3.29), (3.27), and (3.25),
respectively: Achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in
teaching), Abilities (I have the ability to face crowd such as students), Interests (I am
interested in teaching), Behavior/Personality (I have the patience to teach children)
and Self-expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future).
As a whole, individual-related factors in choosing a career generated an
overall weighted mean of (3.30).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 43
Table 17
Societal-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Career
Societal- related Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Educational experiences -
Due to my experiences I
learned to love teaching.
62 101 8 0 3.32 Agree
Peer Influences – People
around me want to be
teachers and already are
teachers.
42 90 35 4 2.99 Agree
Mass media - The
teaching profession is in
demand work according
to media.
51 96 17 7 3.12 Agree
Profession reputation -
Being a teacher is a
respectable profession.
91 75 4 1 3.50 Agree
Figure model - I am
inspired by my teacher to
be a teacher.
67 90 13 1 3.30 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.25 Agree
Table 17 shows the following societal-related factors generating Agree
responses with weighted mean of (3.50), (3.32), (3.30), (3.12), and (2.99),
respectively: Profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession),
educational experiences (Due to my experiences I learned to love teaching), model
figure (I am inspired by my teacher to be a teacher), mass media (The teaching
profession are in demand work according to media) and peer influences (People
around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 44
As a whole, societal-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall
weighted mean of (3.25).
Relativo (2005) earlier pointed out that a school teacher is not just a teacher
but also a community leader, a confidante, a friend, a parent, a counselor, and a
very respectable citizen. Waugh (2006) states that students do not decide alone but
ask their family, friends, or relatives for advice.
Table 18
Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Teaching
Psychosocial- emotional
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Decision-making - I think
critically before I decide
whether I’ll be a teacher.
67 92 11 1 3.32 Agree
Willingness to learn - To
adapt changing skills and
techniques in teaching.
84 76 11 0 3.43 Agree
Confidence level - I am
confident that I will be a
good teacher.
57 95 19 0 3.22 Agree
Own happiness –
Teaching is my passion.
72 78 19 2 3.29 Agree
Presence of assertiveness
- I give my statement
confidently on teaching.
55 102 11 3 3.22 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.29 Agree
Table 18 illustrates that following psychological-emotional factors generated
Agree responses from the respondents with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.32), (3.29),
(3.22), and (3.22), respectively: Willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 45
techniques in teaching), own happiness (Teaching is my passion), decision-making
(I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be a teacher), confidence level (I am
confident that I will be a good teacher), and presence of assertiveness (I give my
statement confidently on teaching).
As a whole, psychosocial-emotional-related factors in choosing a career
generated an overall weighted mean of (3.29).
Fizer (2013) stated that personality plays a role in choosing a career where
the students who believe in themselves have more confidence and are more likely to
go for what they want instead of settling for something that is comfortable.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 46
Table 19
Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Teaching
Competencies- related
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Stenography skills - I
could leach stenography
subjects.
40 98 29 3 3.03 Agree
Keyboarding skills - I
could teach keyboarding
subjects.
85 76 9 1 3.43 Agree
Bookkeeping skills - I
could teach accounting
subjects.
48 81 36 6 3.00 Agree
Clerical skills (e.g. sorting
tiles) I could teach
business subject.
74 82 14 1 3.34 Agree
Communication skills - I
could communicate to
students effectively.
70 90 10 1 3.34 Agree
Computer literacy - I
could teach computer
subjects.
85 81 5 0 3.47 Agree
Writing skills - I could
express my thoughts
through writing that I can
share to my students.
67 92 10 2 3.31 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree
Table 19 shows that the factors on computer literacy (I could teach computer
subjects), keyboarding skills (I could teach keyboarding subjects), communication
skills (I could communicate to students effectively), clerical skills (I could teach
business subject), writing skills (I could express my thoughts through writing that I
can share to my students), stenography skills - I could leach stenography subjects),
and bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) generated Agree
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 47
responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.47), (3.43), (3.34), (3.34),
(3.31), (3.03), and (3.00), respectively.
As a whole, competencies-related factors in choosing a career generated an
overall weighted mean of (3.27).
Pabiton (2007) noted that the students must be given all the chances to learn
and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations insofar as the
necessity to meet the needs of the business industry is a must for all colleges and
that the trainings should be constant and in sync with the latest technology.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 48
Table 20
Familial-related Factors in Office Work
Familial- related Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Childhood experience - I
pretend to be an office
worker when I was a
child.
41 91 23 16 2.92 Agree
Mother as a role model -
My mother is an office
worker.
41 51 46 33 2.58 Agree
Father as a role model -
My father is an office
worker.
31 61 44 35 2.51 Agree
Parents/Guardians
decisions -My parents
want me to be an office
worker.
42 78 29 22 2.82 Agree
Parents educational
attainment -My parents
did not graduate to
college so they like me to
finished my degree to be
an office worker.
73 70 17 11 3.20 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 2.81 Agree
Table 20 reveals the following familial-related factors in pursuing office work
generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted mean of (3.20), (2.92),
(2.82), (2.58), and (2.51), respectively: parent’s educational attainment (My parents
did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office
worker), childhood experience (I pretended as an office worker when I was a child),
parent’s/guardian’s decisions (My parents want me to be an office worker), mother
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 49
as a role model (My mother is an office worker), and father as a role model (My
father is an office worker).
As a whole, familial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree
responses with an overall weighted mean of (2.81).
Table 21
Individual-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work
Individual-related
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Abilities - I can work
independently as an office
professional.
76 87 7 1 3.39 Agree
Interests - I am interested
in office works.
74 86 11 0 3.37 Agree
Behavior/Personality - I
am impatience so I prefer
office works.
51 87 27 6 3.07 Agree
Self-expectancy - I expect
myself to be an office
professional in the future.
67 89 15 0 3.30 Agree
Achievement needs - I
want to improve my
career development in
office works.
83 81 5 2 3.43 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.31 Agree
Table 21 reveals that individual-related factors in pursuing office work
generated Agree responses from respondents, with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.39),
(3.37), (3.30), and (3.07), respectively: achievement needs (I want to improve my
career development in office works), abilities (I can work independently as an office
professional), interests (I am interested in office works), self-expectancy (I expect
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 50
myself to be an office professional in the future), and behavior/personality (I am
impatience so I prefer office works).
As a whole individual-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree
responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.31).
Raquedar (2003) reported that most of the companies and offices considered
training as an integral part of an organization, insofar as training involves job
instruction regarding the particular work, human relation, personality development
and psycho-emotional stability. Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to
a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that
constitute their backgrounds.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 51
Table 22
Societal-related Factors in Office Work
Societal- related Factors
SA A D SD Weigh
ted
Mean
Verbal
Interpreta
tion
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Educational experiences -
Due to my experiences I
learned to love office
works.
52 105 12 2 3.21 Agree
Peer Influences - People
around me want to works in
the office and already an
office worker.
46 89 31 4 3.04 Agree
Mass media - The office
works are in demand work
according to media.
43 99 21 8 3.04 Agree
Profession reputation -
office professional is a
respectable profession.
72 90 6 3 3.35 Agree
Figure model - Someone I
idolized is an office
professional.
55 98 16 2 3.20 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.17 Agree
Table 22 reveals that the following societal-related factors in pursuing office
work generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.35),
(3.21), (3.20), (3.04), and (3.04), respectively: profession reputation (Office
professional is a respectable profession), educational experiences (Due to my
experiences I learned to love office work), model figure (Someone I idolized is an
office professional), mass media (The office works are in demand work according to
media), and peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and
already an office worker.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 52
Generally, societal-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree
responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.17).
McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expounded that students are moderately affected
by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social
work literature.
Table 23
Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Office Work
Psychosocial- emotional
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Decision-making - I think
critically before I decide
whether I’ll be an office
professional.
64 93 12 2 3.28 Agree
Willingness to learn - To
adapt changing skills and
techniques in office works.
76 80 14 1 3.35 Agree
Confidence level - I am
confident that I will be a
good office professional.
58 94 14 5 3.20 Agree
Own happiness - Office
work is my passion.
59 87 22 3 3.18 Agree
Presence of assertiveness
- I give my statement
confidently on office works.
59 94 13 5 3.21 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.24 Agree
Table 23 reveals that the following psychosocial-related factors in pursuing
office work generated Agree responses from responses with weighted mean of
(3.35), (3.28), (3.21), (3.20), and (3.18), respectively: willingness to learn (To adapt
changing skills and techniques in office works), decision-making (I think critically
before I decide whether I’ll be an office professional), presence of assertiveness (I
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 53
give my statement confidently on office works), confidence level (I am confident that
I will be a good office professional), and own happiness (Office work is my passion).
Generally, these psychosocial-emotional factors generated Agree responses
with an overall weighted mean of (3.24).
Mc Ginley (1980) stated that students choose careers that are in line with
their interests, values, goals, and abilities.
Table 24
Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work
Competencies- related
Factors
SA A D SD
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
4 3 2 1
Frequency
Stenography skills - I
could be efficient in jotting
down notes as an office
professional.
43 100 25 3 3.07 Agree
Keyboarding skills - I have
a fast typing skills as an
office professional.
76 84 10 0 3.39 Agree
Bookkeeping skills - I
could do basic accounting
works as an office worker.
46 89 33 3 3.04 Agree
Clerical skills (e.g. sorting
tiles) - I could be a
productive office worker.
75 83 12 1 3.36 Agree
Communication skills - I
have good oral skills as an
office professional.
66 91 12 2 3.29 Agree
Computer literacy - I could
be efficient in computer
works as an office worker
80 87 3 1 3.44 Agree
Writing skills – As an
office worker I could write
business memo/letters.
70 87 9 5 3.30 Agree
Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 54
Table 24 reveals that the following competency-related factors in pursuing
office work generated Agree responses with weighted mean of (3.44), (3.39), (3.36),
(3.30), (3.29), (3.07), and (3.04), respectively: computer literacy (I could be efficient
in computer work as an office worker), keyboarding skills (I have a fast typing skills
as an office professional), clerical skills (I could be a productive office worker),
writing skills (As an office worker I could write business memo/letters),
communication skills (I have good oral skills as an office professional), stenography
skills (I could be efficient in jotting down notes as an office professional), and
bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting works as an office worker).
Generally, these competency-related factors generated Agree responses with
an overall weighted mean of (3.27).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 55
Table 25
Correlation between Office Works and Teaching According to
Familial-related Factors
Office Works
Familial Factors (Teaching)
Pearson
Coefficient
p-
value
Decision Remarks
Familial- related
Factors
0.676 0.000
Reject
Ho
Significant
Individual-related
Factors
0.093 0.228
Accept
Ho
Not
Significant
Societal- related
Factors
0.255 0.001
Reject
Ho
Significant
Psychosocial-
emotional Factors
-0.017 0.827
Accept
Ho
Not
Significant
Competencies- related
Factors
0.153 0.045
Reject
Ho
Significant
NOTE: if p-value is less than the level of significance which is 0.05 reject the null hypothesis
otherwise accepts. Pearson coefficient values: ±0.76 - ±0.99 Very Strong; ±0.51 - ±0.75 Strong; ±0.26
- ±0.50 Moderate; ±0.11 - ±0.25 Weak; ±0.01 - ±0.10 Very Weak
Table 25 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching
according to familial-related factors by using Pearson r correlation shows that the
familial-related, societal-related, and competencies-related factors got p-value of
(0.001) and (0.045) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the
null hypothesis is rejected. This means that the relationship between familial-related
factors of the office work and teaching is strong with Pearson coefficient value of
(0.676).
Mattison (2002) stated that the major influences on people’s career choices
are interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents also exert the
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 56
strongest influence on adolescent aspiration, followed by the teacher, friends and
relatives.
Table 26
Correlation between Office Work and Teaching based on
Individual-related Factors
Office Works
Individual Factors (Teaching)
Pearson
Coefficient
p-
value
Decision Remarks
Familial- related
Factors
0.178 0.020 Reject Ho Significant
Individual-related
Factors
0.552 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Societal- related
Factors
0.314 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Psychosocial-
emotional Factors
0.245 0.001 Reject Ho Significant
Competencies- related
Factors
0.332 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Table 26 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching
through individual-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial-
related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and
competencies-related factors got p-values of (0.020) and (0.001) which is less than
the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This
means that individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching
with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 57
Table 27
Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on
Societal-related Factors
Office Works
Societal Factors (Teaching)
Pearson
Coefficient
p-
value
Decision Remarks
Familial- related
Factors
0.251 0.001 Reject Ho Significant
Individual-related
Factors
0.310 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Societal- related
Factors
0.615 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Psychosocial-
emotional Factors
0.389 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Competencies- related
Factors
0.366 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Table 27 which displays the relationship between the office work and teaching
based on societal-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial-
related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and
competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.001) which is less than the level of
significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that
individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching with a
Pearson coefficient value of (0.615).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 58
Table 28
Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on
Psychosocial-emotional Factors
Office Works
Psychosocial - Emotional Factors (Teaching)
Pearson
Coefficient
p-
value
Decision Remarks
Familial- related
Factors
0.068 0.380
Accept
Ho
Not Significant
Individual-related
Factors
0.266 0.000
Reject
Ho
Significant
Societal- related
Factors
0.357 0.000
Reject
Ho
Significant
Psychosocial-
emotional Factors
0.621 0.000
Reject
Ho
Significant
Competencies- related
Factors
0.331 0.000
Reject
Ho
Significant
Table 28 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching
based on psychosocial-emotional factors using Pearson r correlation shows that
individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies-
related factors got a p-value of (0.000) which is less than the level of significance
(0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that psychosocial-
emotional factors of the office work and teaching are strongly related with a Pearson
coefficient value of (0.621).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 59
Table 29
Correlation between Office Works and Teaching through
Competencies-related Factors
Office Works
Competencies Factors (Teaching)
Pearson
Coefficient
p-
value
Decision Remarks
Familial- related
Factors
0.214 0.005 Reject Ho Significant
Individual-related
Factors
0.383 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Societal- related
Factors
0.405 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Psychosocial-
emotional Factors
0.365 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Competencies- related
Factors
0.867 0.000 Reject Ho Significant
Table 29 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching
based on competencies-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that
familial-related, individual-related, societal-related, psycho-social-emotional-related
and competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.005) which is less than the
level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means
that competencies-related factors of office work and teaching are very strongly
related with Pearson coefficient value of (0.867).
These results are related to the study of Pegarido (1988) which stated that a
graduating student should be fully aware that he must continuously grow and learn,
advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations. It
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 60
emphasized that, to become fully effective, students should pursue another course,
take Masters and Doctorate degrees.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 61
Chapter 5
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and
recommendations of the study.
Summary
The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinant factors of
career path between teaching and office work among fourth year Bachelor in
Business Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.
The researchers hypothesized that there is no significant relationship
between the determinants of teaching and office work using descriptive survey
method to determine the factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office
work of the graduating fourth year BBTE students. The major instrument used in this
study was survey questionnaire in which frequencies and percentage, ranking,
weighted mean and Pearson r correlation were determined using statistical
treatment.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 62
Findings
Based on the results gathered, the following findings are hereby presented:
1. Majority of the respondents are females with a frequency of one hundred
three (103) and percentage of 60.23%. On the other hand, males comprised
of sixty-eight (68) respondents with a percentage of 39.77%.
2. In teaching profession in terms of type of school, 113 or 66.08% of the
respondents preferred to teach in public schools, while ten (10) or 5.85%
preferred the privates schools. The preferred place of teaching was the urban
areas among 129 or 75.44% of the respondents, while 42 or 24.56%
preferred the rural areas. The respondents would opt take the Licensure
Examination for Teachers (LET) with a frequency of 160 or 93.57% while 4
respondents with a percentage of 2.34% were undecided whether to take the
exam or not. In terms of pursuing Master’s Degree, majority or 132 (77.19%)
of the respondents answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% of the respondents
answered no. In terms of teaching abroad, seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% of
respondents answered no, while 30 or 17.54% were undecided whether to
teach abroad or not. As to the level of education, 97 or 56,73% of the
respondents preferred to teach high school students, 15 or 8.77% preferred
the elementary school students. As regard list of subjects, ninety (90) at rank
1 preferred to teach ICT, while twenty-one (21) at rank 8 preferred to teach
Marketing-related subjects.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 63
In office profession in terms of type of office they preferred to work, public or
government office work generated the highest response with 80 or 46.78%,
while private companies received the lowest with 28 or 16.37%. One-hundred
forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in urban
areas, while 23 or 13.45% preferred the rural areas. In terms of taking up the
civil service examination, 153 or 89.47% of the respondents answered yes,
while seven (7) or 4.09% were undecided. As regard pursuing master’s
degree, 122 or 71.35% answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% answered no. As to
working abroad, majority or 81 (47.37%) answered positively, 30 (17.54%)
were undecided, and two (2) or 1.17% gave no response.
3. As regard familial-related factors in pursuing teaching, parent’s educational
attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished
my degree to be a teacher) garnered the highest weighted mean of 3.19 with
a verbal interpretation of Agree, while the father as the role model (My father
is a teacher) had the lowest weighted mean of 2.32 with a verbal
interpretation of Disagree. As regard individual-related factors, achievement
needs (I want to improve my career development in teaching) were agreed to
by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.36, while self-
expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future) was agreed to the
least with weighted mean of 3.25. In the aspect of societal-related factors,
profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession) was
agreed to by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.50, while peer
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 64
influences (People around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher)
was agreed to the least with weighted mean of 2.99. On the part of
psychosocial-emotional factors, respondents agreed to willingness to learn
(To adapt changing skills and techniques in teaching) with the highest
weighted mean of 3.43, as well as to presence of assertiveness (I give my
statement confidently on teaching) with weighted mean of 3.22. In the aspect
of competencies-related factors, respondents agreed with highest weighted
mean of 3.47 to computer literacy (I could teach computer subjects) as well
as to bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) with the least
weighted mean of 3.00.
In terms of familial-related factors relating to office work, the respondents
agreed with the weighted mean of 3.20 to parent’s educational attainment (My
parents did not graduate from college so they like me to finished my degree to
be an office worker), as well as to father as a role model (My father is an
office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 2.51. As to individual-related
factors, the respondents agreed to achievement needs (I want to improve my
career development in office work) with the highest weighted mean of 3.43,
as well as to behavior/personality (I am impatient so I prefer office work) with
the lowest weighted mean of 3.07. On the part of societal-related factors,
respondents agreed to profession reputation (Office professional is a
respectable profession) with the highest weighted mean of 3.35 as well as to
peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and already an
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 65
office worker) with the least weighted average mean of 3.04. On the aspect
of psychosocial-emotional factors, the respondents agreed to willingness to
learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works) with highest
weighted mean of 3.35, as well as to own happiness (Office work is my
passion) with the least weighted mean of 3.18. In the aspect of competencies-
related factors, respondents agreed to computer literacy (I could be efficient
in computer works as an office worker) with the highest weighted mean of
3.44, as well as to bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting work as an
office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 3.04.
4. The relationship between office work and teaching according to familial-
related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value
of (0.676). On the other hand, the relationship between office work and
teaching according to individual-related factors has been found to be strong
with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552). The relationships are both strong
between the office work and the teaching according to societal-related factors
has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.615), as
well as the relationship between the office work and the teaching through
psychosocial-emotional factors with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.621).
Lastly, the relationship between the office work and the teaching according to
competencies-related factors has been found to be very strong with a
Pearson Coefficient value of (0.867).
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 66
Conclusions
Based on the foregoing findings, the researcher drawn the following
conclusions:
1. Most of the respondents were female, because teaching courses are mostly
taken by female than male.
2. In teaching profession, the respondents preferred to teach in public schools
than in private schools located in urban areas than in rural areas; majority of
the respondents opted to take LET while the least were undecided. Moreover,
majority of the respondents would pursue Master’s degrees while the least
answered no. In addition, most of the respondents had no plan to teach
abroad while the least were still undecided; majority of them liked to teach in
high school while the least preferred the elementary school. Most of the
respondents preferred to teach ICT, while the least preferred Marketing-
related subjects.
In office profession, majority preferred to work in a public or government
offices than in private offices located in urban than in rural areas. Most of the
respondents also opted to take the civil service examination and majority
would pursue a Master’s degree. Additionally, most of the respondents
considered working abroad.
3. Among the factors affecting the choices for teaching and office work, parents’
educational attainment, achievement needs, professional reputation,
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 67
willingness to learn, and computer literacy were the highest determinants
identified by the respondents. On the other hand, the factors father as the role
model, self-expectancy and behavior/personality, peer influences, presence
of assertiveness and personal happiness, and bookkeeping skills were the
least determinants in choosing a career path for the respondents.
4. There is a significant relationship between the factors of teaching and office
work.
Recommendations
Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researchers would
recommend the following:
1. Conduct studies covering other year levels of BBTE and other Education
students of PUP or other universities and to enhance the questionnaire that
would consider other probable factors.
2. The College of Education in collaboration with professors and staff should
encourage the students to optimize career development in rural areas or in
private institutions after graduating. With the help of the professors or
advisers of each class, they should persuade their students to take a LET or
civil service examination for better professional qualifications. Furthermore,
they should motivate their students to pursue post-graduate and graduate
degrees.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 68
3. Parents should encourage, guide, motivate and inspire their children in
carefully choosing their career and profession.
4. The College of Education should constantly conduct comprehensive career
development seminars and trainings to properly prepare and equip the
students toward a carefully-chosen career and profession.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 69
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Thesis Chapter 1 to 5

  • 1. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction One of the most crucial and important decisions a person has to make is in choosing the perfect career. This can be one of the measures whether an individual will be successful in the future or not. The tentative steps during this stage include self-realization, role try-outs, occupational explorations in school, and finding the first job are. During this stage, teenagers need guidance in the proper selection of their desired career. Educational privilege and other resources that society makes available allow students to be efficient and effective, thereby letting them to make right decisions considering their innate capacities (Pablo et al., 2011). The teaching profession requires prolonged preparation for navigating future students, because individuals who have undergone preparation to teach can grow in various ways. Future teachers can be specialists in a particular field such as dean of the students, guidance counselor, school psychologist, and curriculum specialist (Linden, 1990). The students must be ready to enter the professional world. Thus, they should have career plans and strategies to meet the demands of the real corporate
  • 2. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 2 world. Essentially, making such career plan would help them to be ready in this reality either in teaching or in performing office works (Bautista, 2003). Background of the Study The College of Education (COEd) is the oldest college of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP), a state university. COEd offers Bachelor’s degrees in Secondary Education (BSE), elementary education (BEEd), Business Teacher Education (BBTE), and post-baccalaureate in Teacher Education (PBTE). BBTE is a four-year degree program which prepares students in two career tracts: Business Technology and Livelihood Education (BTLE), and Information Technology Education (ITE); both of which prepare students to teach specific courses effectively across the learning areas in elementary, secondary, college, and vocational-technical schools. This program is designed to equip students with office skills, basic of personal finance, decision-making techniques needed to be wise consumers, application of economic principles to an increasingly international marketplace, and the skills in establishing a business. Students master the applications of knowledge and acquire workplace skills particularly in the teaching of technology and livelihood education, information technology, research and service. Upon completion of the BBTE program, graduates may join the teaching profession as teachers or as non-teaching office staff, either in private or
  • 3. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 3 government entities. As a teacher, one needs to have the right attitude, the proper disposition and teaching skills. This study has been conducted to determine the career path of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students in teaching or non-teaching office work. Participants BBTE students were asked to identify the factors or determinants for them to know their preferred work or job after graduating from the programs. Further, this study would aim to serve as guide in achieving the participants’ career choice as educators or as office professionals. Theoretical Framework A theory is a well-founded statement or set of ideas that explains observed facts or phenomena. Some theories helped the researchers in conducting this study in a way that they explain essential ideas relating to the research. This study was anchored on the concepts in career education, law of readiness, and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Based on the concepts in career education, the students should develop understanding of their decision–making process and be equipped with strategies to implement the decision relative to their personal and professional development. Herr (1972) as cited by Magisos (1973) identified the variety of inputs to such an approach as the following concepts: that choice occurs under conditions of uncertainty or risk; that a choice between various possible courses of action can be
  • 4. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 4 conceptualized as motivated by two interrelated set of factors – the individual’s valuation of different alternatives, and his appraisal of his chances of being able to realize each of the alternatives; that the process of making a decision between uncertain outcomes requires reconciliation of several general factors; that the decision-making includes identifying and defining one’s values; and what they are and what they are not, where they appear and where they do not. Thorndike’s laws of learning (1932) include: law of effect, law of exercise, and law of readiness. Applied in choosing a career, the law of readiness states that individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. Essentially, an individual seeks ways to fulfill his needs. Individual or human motivation is guided by a hierarchy of or ladder of needs (Wayne, 2000). Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs proposes that motivation is the result of a person’s attempt at fulfilling five basic needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self- actualization – which needs create internal pressures that can influence a person’s behavior (Jamali, 2015). Physiological needs are those needs required for human survival such as air, food, water, shelter, clothing and sleep; safety needs include those needs that provide a person with a sense of security and well-being. Social needs are important to humans so that they do not feel alone, isolated and depressed; on the other hand, esteem needs refer to the need for self-esteem and respect, with self-respect being slightly more important than gaining respect and admiration from others. Self-
  • 5. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 5 actualization needs describe a person’s need to reach his or her full potential. Maslow believed that we naturally strive to climb this hierarchy (Jamali, 2015). There is too much individual variation for the hierarchy of motives to apply to everyone as the critics of Maslow’s theory argue (Rathus, 2012). However, each person pictures the world in a very unique way. These perceptions make a person to phenomenal field. Individuals react to the environment depending on how they perceive it or how they perceive the world (Elliot et al., 2000).
  • 6. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 6 Conceptual Framework This framework shows the overall outline of the study. It can be expressed by using the input-process-output framework (IPO). FEEDBACK Figure 1 Conceptual Framework OUTPUTPROCESSINPUT 1. Student Profile a. Section b. Gender c. BTE Specialization 2. Chosen Career 2.1 Teaching Profession 2.2 Office Profession 3. Determinant Factors in Career Choice Between Teaching or Office Works in Terms of: 3.1 Familial-related factors 3.2 Individual-related factors 3.3 Societal-related factors 3.4 Psychosocial- emotional factors 3.5 Competencies- related factors • Descriptive Research • Survey Questionnaire • Statistical Treatment • Analysis of Data • Career Orientation • Seminar • Job Fair
  • 7. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 7 Input (I) comprises of the students’ profile such as section, gender, age, and course specialization; the career the students wanted to pursue whether teaching or office work; the determinant factors for choosing teaching career such as the type of school they prefer to teach, place of work, licensure examination for teachers, Master’s degree, plan opportunities abroad, level of education, and subject matter; determinant factors for choosing office work such as the type of office environment they prefer to work, place of work, plan opportunities abroad, and Master’s degree; the determinant factors in career choice between teaching and office profession including familial-related factors, individual-related factors, societal-related factors, Psychosocial-emotional factors, and competencies-related factors. Process (P) indicates the methodology used to meet the objectives of the descriptive study through survey questionnaire, analysis of data, and statistical treatment. Output (O) pertains to factors that would help participants become successful professionals including career orientation, seminar and job fair. Statement of the Problem The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of career path between teaching and office works of fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.
  • 8. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 8 Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Section; b. Gender; c. BTE specialization? 2. What is the career the students would like to pursue in terms of: 2.1 Teaching Profession 2.1.1 Type of school they prefer to teach 2.1.2 Place of work 2.1.3 Licensure Examination for Teachers 2.1.4 Master’s degree 2.1.5 Plan Opportunities abroad 2.1.6 Level of education 2.1.7 Subject matter 2.2 Office Profession 2.2.1 Type of office environment they prefer to work 2.2.2 Place of work 2.2.3 Civil Service Examination 2.2.4 Master’s degree 2.2.5 Plan Opportunities abroad 3. What are the determinants of career path of BTE students in choosing a career between teaching or office works in terms of;
  • 9. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 9 3.1 Familial- related factors; 3.2 Individual-related factors; 3.3 Societal-related factors; 3.4 Psychosocial-emotional factors; 3.5 Competencies-related factors 4. Is there a significance relationship between factors; 4.1 Teaching 4.2 Office works Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office work. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was mainly focused on the determinants of the career path of all graduating fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education of the College of Education of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Mabini Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila, during the second semester of the S.Y 2016-2017.
  • 10. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 10 Significance of the Study The researchers would intend to provide useful insights regarding the factors that influence the preference of BBTE fourth year students whether in teaching or in office work. The useful and relevant information acquired from the study would benefit the following sectors: Administrators. This could motivate and challenge school authorities to device guidelines to aid students in identifying better career choices. Parents. This study would inform parents concerning the career choices of their college-students’ children. Teachers. The findings of this study would brief teachers of the effective strategies and pedagogies to mold their students into skilled and competent teaching and non-teaching professionals. Students. The results of this study would provide students with useful and reflective insights on the different factors that could influence them in pursuing a career path. Researchers. This study would help future researchers consider tackling other factors that might affect graduating students’ preferences for certain careers.
  • 11. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 11 Definition of Terms For better understanding and interpretation of this study, the following terms are operationally defined. Bachelor of Business Teacher Education (BBTE) pertains to a four-year degree course offered by the Polytechnic University of the Philippines that focuses on preparing and training students as skilled and competent teaching and non- teaching office professionals. Career refers to a swift course or a progress extending through the life or a portion of it. Career choice means the preferred type of occupation or profession by college students according to familial-related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional, and competencies-related factors. Career path pertains to both teaching and office professions that a student ought to pursue. Competencies-related factors means skills acquired or mastered. Determinants refer to the effects that change the individual student’s choices. Familial-related factors are direct bearing of parental role in education and career aspirations.
  • 12. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 12 Individual-related factors pertain to personalities of persons that make impact on the career choices. Office skills refer to the skills in accounting, computer software skills, keyboarding, filing, business communications, and other clerical functions that a non-teaching office personnel must possess. Office work refers to the general clerical functions that a non-teaching personnel performs in an office. Psychosocial-emotional factors pertain to emotional, personal and social barriers that prevent an individual from making adequate career choice. Societal-related factors include values, attitudes, and practices of a society that relate to appropriate career choice. Teaching refers to the noble profession that facilitates learning and knowledge processing of students in schools.
  • 13. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 13 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents and discusses foreign and local literature and studies that are closely related to the present research. The information in this chapter was sought to support this study and lead the researchers in determining the factors that influence the pursuit of teaching or office work of fourth year Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Foreign Literature Students are influenced by different academic portions of the class such as the value of the content, the structure, and the workload. Students also looked upon their interest, academic goals, and schedules. Students do not decide alone; and students erratically ask for their family, friends, and or faculties’ advice. Not all courses are as prominent as others, but it is important to know what students want from their classes, and their expectations of themselves (Waugh, 2006).
  • 14. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 14 Holland as cited by Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by the subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personal orientation, which is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational environment; if the orientation is one of indecision, however, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes. Career is viewed as a sequence of work history and reflects a chosen work- related life theme. It demands individual choices in reference to a cognitive map, about the dynamic interaction among work, self, family, and external social forces. This is so even if the person decides to do nothing (Derr, 1982). Education Life states that career planning is an ongoing career development process through which learners attempt to understand their personal, family, school, work, and community experiences and the importance they may have in making career and lifestyle choices. Knowing the right path, making the wise decision and having a good attitude to career planning are keys to success. The choice in their career lies in the steps one takes; for this reason, planning ahead is important.
  • 15. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 15 Keasley in the article A career planning course for parents reports that the senior year is the time for organizing and conducting a job search or graduate school search, when students are heavily involved in more advanced courses in their majors and often have more responsible roles in campus and/or volunteer activities. Balancing these important pursuits and setting priorities is a constant challenge for seniors insofar as they are given chances to show what they learned from school by performing in the job training. Such program prepares the students on for the real job; the training and seminars give senior students clear views on setting their priorities. Tahan (2001) states that one of the biggest key benefits that senior students can obtain from accounting is the experience one can gain from working in the accounting field. This is an important experience that one can gain. It will not only help in the field of accounting, but also help organizing and running a business. Nead in the article A capstone seminar course for Community College pointed out that seminars offer opportunities to help students develop skills and understanding that will prepare them for successful careers. Moreover, not only those paper qualifications such as degree are important in applying for a job. For certain positions, either in teaching profession or in office and other fields, work experience is essential to boost the applicant’s confidence and meet the prospective employers’ expectations. For the teaching profession, practice teaching and related seminars are important factors that employers look into.
  • 16. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 16 Calhoun & Robinson (1995) in Encyclopedia of Education illumined that business education is designed to provide general education and career technical education needs, specifically specialized instruction to prepare students for careers in business, fundamental instruction to help students to assume their economic roles as consumers, workers and citizens, and background instruction to assist students in preparing for professional careers requiring advanced study. Great teachers make a difference. Chamberlain (2002) cites that teachers have a passion that seeps through the skin - a love of learning – and that great progress, she calls a revolution is made but a working hum and engagement is now not enough; what are now needed are quality learning conversations between teachers and learners, extending rather than supervising, linking to the child’s world, creating lines of desires, not seeing the curriculum as straightjacket. Anyone with an office job knows there are so much to deal with, some of which can hinder a career, that making the wrong move or speech can lead him/her to fall off the corporate ladder he/she had only just begun climbing (Singletary, 2014). Choosing a job, which is in line with one’s interests, values, goals, and abilities, helps to make work and life more satisfying, thus transform a job into a career. It will help in meeting self-actualization needs - in becoming the best one can become (Mc Ginley, 1980).
  • 17. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 17 Venable (2011) as cited by Polestar Consulting (2016) underscores the importance of understanding that career choice entails several influencing factors: individual, cultural, social, environmental, and gender. The combination and interaction of various influences on decision-making are unique to individuals and the situation. There may be multiple options, several good-fits, instead of a single, right choice, but as an individual changes, learns and experiences new things, and as external factors change, such as the economy, he or she will continue to revise and fine-tune his/her career choices. Local Literature The Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) program envisions itself as a high-quality curriculum that aims to produce secondary, vocational, and college teachers in business and office technology that are capable of adopting to change, staying focused and productive in an increasingly global and digital educational workplace. Most BBTE graduates who were supposed to join the teaching profession eventually become employed as office workers. Although the field of office work is allied to teaching as job target of the BBTE program, the career shift might blur the career prospects of undergraduates.
  • 18. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 18 Meily (2005) stresses the paradoxical point that parents, teachers, politicians, and adults are teachers in the communities insofar as the youth observe, emulate, and imitate the adults; hence, everyone is responsible for the kind of future the youth shall have. Meily punctuates the role education plays in making life less difficult for each other in the community and in creating a better future for those who will be left behind. Teaching is considered a complex and many-faceted task. To prepare for this job, the teacher should go through a pre-service education. Knowledge of ethical standards for teachers is likewise important for them to do a good job of teaching. Relativo (2005) avers that teachers do not perform teaching only; they also perform the roles of a community leader, confidante, friend, parent, counselor, and obedient and respectable citizen of the Republic. On the down side, the teaching is not financially rewarding profession. Given the rising standards of living of the modern society, the average salary of a school teacher would not suffice to provide for the comfort of a family. Thus, more and more teachers have left teaching to find better opportunities in another job locally or abroad even as domestic helpers. Acero, Javier & Castro (2007) point out that the concept of teaching as an ideal profession has remained strong through the years despite several constraints and challenges such as raising salaries, enjoying health benefits, upgrading school facilities, and meeting the demands of professional development. Notwithstanding
  • 19. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 19 these challenges, teaching still offers the best personally rewarding opportunity of affecting the lives of individuals and the society in general. Raquedar (2003) underscores the importance given by employers for training as integral part of an organization, which involves proper instruction for the jobs at hand, development of good human relations, and enhancement of desirable personality and character. Similarly, Tabunan (2003) states the importance of on-the-job training (OJT) in the students’ learning process and development. OJTs allow students to experience the realities of business routines, thus prompting them to improve their skills and other qualifications for better employability. In choosing a career path, a student must have a clear set of goals. Having goals in life serves as a guide to what one hopes to achieve. And whether one is a student or an educator, a successful career requires putting one’s heart into everything one aspires to be. Most individuals tend to pursue careers where they can find real enjoyment, job security, and professional growth. Foreign Studies Several studies have been conducted to investigate the possible factors that influence a student’s pursuance of teaching or office work.
  • 20. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 20 Fizer (2013) identifies factors that can influence a college student’s choice for a career: (1) the quality of life that they ought to have when they become old; (2) academic factors where the students choose their major based on their academic performance; (3) personality where the students who believe in themselves have more confidence and are more likely to go far; (4) parental and peer factors; and (5) gender, insofar as men have a more liberal and progressive style of thinking and women prefer hierarchical style of thinking. McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expound that the family income, occupation of the parents, wish and peers influences moderately affect the decision of the students in choosing their career. Further, mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature also affect the students’ career choices. Career selection is one of many important choices students make in determining future plans (Burnchett, 2002). Thompson (2005) affirms that the employability of a person sometimes depends on the training and seminars which he or she has attended; hence, employees should have sufficient education and training to enable them to undertake the technical phases of the job and to possess the required manual effectively. However, the needs of society changes due to the growth of science and technology. Thus, the knowledge, skills, and trainings may not meet the needs of the present society.
  • 21. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 21 The article The learning infrastructure discusses the necessity to meet the needs of the business industry as a must for all colleges, pointing out that the trainings to be offered should be constant so as not to become obsolete due to changing technologies. Moreover, pre-service trainings are necessary for a student’s orientation on career and employment. Thomas (2003) as cited by Buton (2010) reports that nearly all the problems associated with job training are very simple to overcome, that most trainees usually take pride in learning new skill, that new skills gained for mutual benefits are good for the trainee to improve his future employment value, and that the supervisors are frequently the only persons in the organization that teach the basic knowledge and the many key skills that group needs to learn. Hence, on-the-job training should never stop. Chukwurah (2006) concludes that teacher education concerns the production of teachers at all levels, and has been recognized as major concern for the nation since no school, whatever level can be run without the teacher. Hence, teacher education plays prominent roles in preparing students to become more responsible citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit their personal and professional lives. In this study, this may determine the interest of the students – whether they are interested in teaching the next generations, more interested in doing office tasks, or even more interested in doing other jobs beyond the promise of the course they had taken.
  • 22. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 22 Local Studies Personal interest, abilities, skills, and value are the most influential factors in choosing a career. Thus, students should be given all the chances to learn and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations. Conversely, career counselors could give more emphasis on this environmental factor during individual and small group career counseling sessions (Pabiton, 2007). The major influences on people’s career choices most often cited in the literature are the interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents also exert the strongest influence on adolescents’ aspiration followed by the teacher, friends and relatives. It would be unreasonable to extend some of these influential factors, not just adolescent aspirations but also in career decision making. Self- efficacy and parental support predicted youth expectations to attend college. Parental environments influence career decisions both directly and indirectly with its relationship to outcome expectations. The people, places and things surrounding students as they grow up do not affect their own outlook about careers (Mattison, 2002). Kwak (n.d.) as cited by Caraede (n.d.) reveals that both father and mother’s educational backgrounds greatly influence the decision-making of the child. In that manner, the parents being good role models would be satisfactorily succeeded by their children.
  • 23. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 23 Students learn about the changing nature of the work place, the value of work to the society, and the connection of work to the achievement of personal goals. Learning Standards for Career Development and Occupational Studies at Three Levels reports that students must possess certain traits for them to be knowledgeable about the world of work, explore career options, and relate personal skills, aptitudes, and abilities for future career decisions: (1) continue development of a career plan that would assist in the transition from school to eventual entry into a career option; (2) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship among personal interest, skills and abilities, career research; (3) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the changing future of work and educational requirements; and (4) understand the relationship of personal choices to future career decisions. Francisco (n.d.) emphasizes that a pre-service teacher is like a pencil who from time to time should experience painful sharpening insofar as this painful sharpening enables him or her to develop teaching competencies and character. Bautista in her study The Employability of PUP Bachelor in Office Administration Graduates: An Evaluation suggests that necessary steps should be undertaken to arouse the interests of the students particularly in pursuing the type of job that is in line with the course they have taken up. Graduate education among educators becomes a necessity due to the increasing competition in our society, as well as rapid educational changes and technological advancement since there are more jobs that enter the country which require skills that would not only be at par with the others but outdo them. A
  • 24. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 24 graduating student should be fully aware that he must continually grow and learn, advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations (Pegarido 1998). Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed Literature and Studies The related literature and studies discussed above prove helpful to the researchers in determining and analyzing the career path of fourth year Bachelor in Teacher Education students. Waugh (2006), Holland (2006) and Derr (1982) agree that a career is basically based on individual choices. Keasly & Nead (n. d.) stress that since senior year is the time when students start to organize and search for jobs and graduate from school, training and seminars give clear views on setting priorities and opportunities to help students develop skills and understanding that would prepare them for successful. Mc Ginley (1980) and Venable (2011) agree that career choice is based on many factors that may influence the success level in the job, the dominant factors being that the choice must be parallel with the student’s interest, level of satisfaction, learning, and experience. Meily (2005) underscores the importance of responsibility for teachers insofar as they impact on the society in general. Relativo (2005) puts premium on pre- service education as a requisite for every budding teacher. Thompson (2005) agrees
  • 25. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 25 but puts more value to sufficient education and training because employability sometimes depends on it. Fizer (2013) enumerates factors that play in making career choices such as interest in field, and academic factors where the students choose their major based on their academic performance. Basow (2012) reports that students’ career choices are moderately affected by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature but least affected by the university recruitment program and college catalogue. Burnchett (2002) and Thompson (2005) agree that employees should have sufficient and constant education and training so as not to become obsolete due to changing technology. Similarly, Buton (2010) and Chukwurah (2006) reach an agreement that supervisors play prominent roles in preparing students to become more responsible citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit their personal and professional lives. Pabiton (n.d.) credits personal interest, abilities, skills, and value as big factors that determine the career choice of students. Mattison (2002) adds that major influential factors include self-efficacy, expectations, and family, teacher, friends and relatives. Further, Kwak recognizes educational background of parents as a factor that affects the career choice of children. Indeed, these foreign and local literature and studies bolster the conduct of the current study, as these provide the proper framework and concepts hereto.
  • 26. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 26 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methodology of the study. It covers the research method and instrument used, research design, population and sampling, respondents, data gathering procedures, and statistical treatment of data. Method of Research This study used the descriptive survey method to determine the factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office work of the graduating fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Descriptive research obtains facts about existing conditions in a phenomenon, and describes and interprets revealing conditions or relationships that exist or do not exist, practices that prevail or do not, beliefs or points of view or attitudes that are held or not, processing that are going on or otherwise effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing (Calderon, 2012).
  • 27. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 27 Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique The respondents for this study composed of 182 graduating students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Mabini Campus, during the second semester of academic year 2016- 2017. Specifically, responses of respondents were taken within the period of November 2016 to March 2017 using modified questionnaires as instruments in gathering information about the factors that influence the respondents’ career choices. There were two categories of specialization of the respondents: (1) those majoring in Business in Technology and Livelihood Education; and (2) those majoring in Information Technology Education. The researchers used the convenience sampling technique to generate 171 out of 182 students based on the availability of the respondents. Table 1 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Section and Specialization Section and Specialization Frequency Percentage (%) BBTE-TLE 4-1D 29 16.96 BBTE-TLE 4-2D 23 13.45 BBTE-TLE 4-3D 30 17.54 BBTE-TLE 4-4D 27 15.79 BBTE-ITE 4-1N 24 14.04 BBTE-ITE 4-2N 38 22.22 Total 171 100.00
  • 28. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 28 Table 1 demonstrates the number of respondents per section. The researchers covered all the sections of fourth year BBTE students. Most of the respondents came from BBTE-ITE 4-2N with a total number of thirty-eight (38) at 22.22%, followed by BBTE-TLE 4-3D with the sum of thirty (30) at 17.54%, BBTE- TLE 4-1D with a total number of twenty-nine (29) at 16.96%, BBTE-TLE 4-4D with the sum of twenty-seven (27) at 15.79%, BBTE-ITE 4-1N with a total number of twenty-four (24) at 14.04%, and BBTE-TLE 4-2D with twenty-three (23) at 13.45%, all comprising 171 respondents (100%). Description of Respondents The respondents for the research were the graduating fourth year BBTE students of S.Y. 2016-2017 of both majors, Information Technology Education (ITE) and Business Technology and Livelihood (BTL) at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila. They are both male and female. Research Instrument In order to obtain the desired data from the fourth year BBTE students, the researchers of this study used survey questionnaires as the major instrument, composed of three parts – profiles of the respondents, checklist, and a ranking scale of the different factors that influence the pursuance of teaching and office works of the students.
  • 29. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 29 The first part of questionnaire was about the student’s profile (name, gender, section and specialization). The second part of the questionnaire was a checklist composed of seven items. Respondents were asked to answer each question by checking the corresponding box in the columns. The third part of the questionnaire was about the different factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office works composed of 25 items. The rating scale or Likert four-point scale used in the questionnaire composed of 4 – strongly agree; 3 – agree; 2 – disagree; 1 – strongly disagree). Likert Scale Degree of the Agreement of Respondents Scale Range Verbal Interpretation 1 1.00-1.50 Strongly Disagree 2 1.51-2.50 Disagree 3 2.51-3.50 Agree 4 3.51-4.00 Strongly Agree Data-Gathering Procedure The researchers used the questionnaire for the gathering of the desired data. The researchers asked the permission of the Dean, Dr. Junithesmer D. Rosales of College of Education, to conduct the survey about the determinants of career path of BBTE students. After the researchers obtained the approval of Dr.
  • 30. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 30 Rosales, the researchers administered the survey to the fourth year BBTE students during their vacant periods. The questionnaires that had been validated by research experts and panelists had been distributed to the respondents, who answered the respective questions based on their knowledge, the researchers assuring the respondents that the data gathered would be treated with utmost confidentiality. The results were tallied and tabulated according to the frequency of the items checked by the respondents. After the tabulation, results were interpreted using various statistical tools. Statistical Treatment of Data For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the data gathered were coded, tallied and tabulated subjected to the following statistical treatment: 1. Frequency and Percentage The frequency and distributions were used to categorize the respondents according to their personal background variables such as sex, section and specialization in the first part of the questionnaire. The researchers used the formula below to determine the proportion of students who answered in certain way in the second part of the questionnaire: 𝐏 = 𝐅 𝐍 ×𝟏𝟎𝟎
  • 31. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 31 Where: P = Percentage F = Frequency N = No. of Respondents 2. Ranking The researchers used the ranking technique in the study to compare the importance of the items analyzed. Ranking as a descriptive measure ought to describe numerical data in addition to percentage. This was used in the second part of the questionnaire. 3. Weighted Mean Another technique used by the researchers in the study was the weighted mean. This was used in order to determine the average responses of the different options in the third part of the questionnaire to analyze the data to the respondents’ degree of agreement. Formula: 𝐖𝐌 = ∑ 𝐟𝐱 𝐧 Where: WM = Weighted Mean ∑ fx = the sum of all products of f and x, f being frequency of each weight and x as the weight of each operation.
  • 32. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 32 n = total number of respondents 4. Pearson r Correlation Pearson r Correlation was used to determine the significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office works. Pearson r Correlation has been widely used in statistics to measure the relationship between the linear related variables. For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally distributed to the following formula variables are used to calculate the Pearson r correlation. r = ∑ (Xi − X̅)(Yi − Y̅)n i=1 √∑ (Xi − X̅)2n i=1 √∑ (Yi − Y̅)2n i=1 Where: r = Pearson r correlation coefficient n = number of value in each data ∑ xy = sum of the products of paired scores ∑ y = sum of y scores ∑ x2 = sum of squared x scores Interpretation for Pearson r If the p-value is <0.05, reject hypothesis, otherwise accept the hypothesis, there being no significant relationship.
  • 33. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 33 Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the data gathered together with the statistical analysis and its interpretation. Table 2 Profile of Respondents in Terms of Sex. Sex Frequency Percentage (%) Female 103 60.23 Male 68 39.77 Total 171 100.00 Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of sex. Majority of the respondents were female with a frequency of one hundred three (103) and percentage of 60.23%, while male respondents were sixty- eight (68) or the percentage of 39.77%. Table 3 below presents the type of school where the respondents prefer to teach. Majority or one hundred thirteen (113) of the respondents (66.08%) prefer to teach in public schools, forty-eight (48) with a percentage of 28.07% prefer either public or private schools, and ten (10) or 5.85% prefer the private schools.
  • 34. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 34 Table 3 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of School They Prefer to Teach Prefer Frequency Percentage (%) PUBLIC 113 66.08 PRIVATE 10 5.85 EITHER 48 28.07 Total 171 100.00 Table 4 below illustrates the place of work the respondents prefer. Majority of the respondents with a total number of one hundred twenty-nine (129) having a percentage of 75.44% prefer to teach in urban areas, while forty-two (42) or 24.56% prefer the rural areas. Table 4 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work Place Frequency Percentage (%) URBAN 129 75.44 RURAL 42 24.56 Total 171 100.00 Table 5 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Option to take LET Like Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 160 93.57 No 7 4.09 Undecided 4 2.34 Total 171 100.00 Table 5 presents the decision of the respondents in taking licensure examination for teachers. Majority with a total number of one hundred sixty (160) or
  • 35. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 35 93.57% of the respondents opted to take the licensure examination, seven (7) or 4.09% opted not to, and four (4) or 2.34% were undecided whether to take the licensure examination or not. Table 6 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 132 77.19 No 12 7.02 Undecided 27 15.79 Total 171 100.00 Table 6 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s degree. Majority of the respondents with the total of one hundred thirty-two (132) or 77.19% opted to pursue Master’s degree, twenty-seven (27) or 15.79% were undecided whether to pursue Master’s degree or not, and twelve (12) or 7.02% decided not to pursue Master’s degree. Table 7 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Teach Plan Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 64 37.43 No 77 45.03 Undecided 30 17.54 Total 171 100.00 Table 7 above presents the decision of the respondents in terms of planning to teach abroad. Majority of the respondents answered no with a total number of
  • 36. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 36 seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% do not opt to teach abroad, sixty-four (64) or 37.43% would opt to teach abroad, and thirty (30) or 17.54% were undecided whether to teach abroad or not. Table 8 below reveals the level of education the respondents prefer to teach. Majority of the respondents or ninety-seven (97) with a percentage of 56.73% prefer high school, fifty-nine (59) or 34.50% prefer college, and fifteen (15) or 8.77% prefer the elementary level. Table 8 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Level Students to Teach Level Frequency Percentage (%) Elementary 15 8.77 High School 97 56.73 College 59 34.50 Total 171 100.00 Table 9 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Subject Matter to Teach Subject Matter Frequency Rank Computer (ICT) 90 1 Marketing related 21 8 Management 26 5.5 T.L.E 84 2 Business Technology 37 3 Office Procedure 25 7 Stenography 27 4 Entrepreneurship 26 5.5
  • 37. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 37 Table 9 above presents the list of subject matters the respondents prefer to teach. Majority or ninety (90) of the respondents chose to teach computer (ICT), eighty-four (84) preferred TLE, thirty-seven (37) preferred Business Technology, twenty-seven (27) preferred stenography, twenty-six (26) preferred Management, another twenty-six (26) Entrepreneurship, twenty-five preferred Office Procedure, and twenty-one preferred Marketing. Table 10 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms Preferred Office in which to Work Nature of Office Frequency Percentage (%) Public 80 46.78 Private 28 16.37 Either 63 36.84 Total 171 100.00 Table 10 shows the type of office in which the respondents preferred to work. Majority or eighty (80) or 46.78% of the respondents preferred to work in public schools, sixty-three (63) or 36.84% opted for either public or private schools, and twenty-eight (28) or 16.37% opted to work in private schools.
  • 38. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 38 Table 11 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work Place Frequency Percentage (%) Urban 148 86.55 Rural 23 13.45 Total 171 100.00 Table 11 presents the place of work the respondents preferred. Majority or one hundred forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in urban areas, and twenty-three (23) or 13.45% preferred the rural areas. Table 12 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Taking CSC Examination Like Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 153 89.47 No 11 6.43 Undecided 7 4.09 Total 171 100.00 Table 12 presents the decision of the respondents in taking the civil service examination. Fifty-three (153) respondents or 89.47% answered yes, they would take the civil service examination, eleven (11) or 6.43% said no, while seven (7) or of 4.09% were undecided.
  • 39. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 39 Table 13 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 122 71.35 No 12 7.02 Undecided 37 21.64 Total 171 100.00 Table 13 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s degree. Majority of the respondents answered yes with the total of one hundred twenty-two (122) having a percentage of 71.35%, meaning they want to pursue Master’s degree, followed by undecided with a count of thirty-seven (37) having a percentage of 21.64%, in which the respondents didn’t know whether to pursue Master’s degree or not, and last, is no with the lowest total number of twelve (12) having a percentage of 7.02%. Table 14 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Work Abroad Plan Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 81 47.37 No 58 33.92 Undecided 30 17.54 No Response 2 1.17 Total 171 100.00 Table 14 presents the decision of the respondents in working abroad. Majority of the respondents answered yes with a total number of eighty-one (81) having a
  • 40. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 40 percentage of 47.37%, meaning they want to work abroad, followed by no with a count of fifty-eight (58) and a percentage of 33.92% in which they don’t want to work abroad, next is undecided with a total number of thirty (30) having a percentage of 17.54%. and last is no response with the lowest total number of two (2) and a percentage of 1.17%. Table 15 Familial-Related Factors for Pursuing Teaching Familial-Related Factors SA A D SD Weighte d Mean Verbal Interpretatio n 4 3 2 1 Frequency Childhood experience - I pretended to be a teacher when I was a child. 54 81 21 15 3.02 Agree Mother as a role model - My mother is a teacher. 40 55 34 42 2.54 Agree Father as a role model - My father is a teacher. 35 37 46 53 2.32 Disagree Parents/Guardians decisions -My parents wanted me to be a teacher. 42 58 42 29 2.66 Agree Parents educational attainment -My parents did not graduate from college so they liked me to finish my degree to be a teacher. 80 60 14 17 3.19 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 2.75 Agree Table 15 describes the family-related factors for the respondents’ choice to pursue teaching. These factors – Parents’ educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be a teacher),
  • 41. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 41 Childhood experience (I pretend to be a teacher when I was a child), Parents/Guardians decisions (My parents want me to be a teacher), and Mother as a role model (My mother is a teacher) – generated Agree responses with weighted means of (3.19), (3.02), (2.66), and (2.54), respectively. On the other hand, Father as the role model (My father is a teacher) received Disagree responses at a weighted mean of (2.32). As a whole, familial-related factors generated an overall weighted mean of (2.75). These results are comparable to the study of Peled (2004) which found that fathers were less involved in parenting their adolescents than mothers did, insofar as adolescents were more securely attached to their mothers than to their fathers. In his previous study, the father had a low influence to their children’s decisions.
  • 42. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 42 Table 16 Individual-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Individual-related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Abilities - I have the ability to face crowd such as students. 68 95 5 3 3.33 Agree Interests - I am interested in teaching. 65 92 12 2 3.29 Agree Behavior/Personality - I have the patience to teach children. 64 91 15 1 3.27 Agree Self-expectancy - I expect myself to be a teacher in the future. 65 86 18 2 3.25 Agree Achievement needs - I want to improve my career development in teaching. 82 74 10 5 3.36 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.30 Agree Under Table 16, the following factors generated Agree responses from respondents at the weighted mean of (3.36), (3.33), (3.29), (3.27), and (3.25), respectively: Achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in teaching), Abilities (I have the ability to face crowd such as students), Interests (I am interested in teaching), Behavior/Personality (I have the patience to teach children) and Self-expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future). As a whole, individual-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.30).
  • 43. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 43 Table 17 Societal-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Career Societal- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Educational experiences - Due to my experiences I learned to love teaching. 62 101 8 0 3.32 Agree Peer Influences – People around me want to be teachers and already are teachers. 42 90 35 4 2.99 Agree Mass media - The teaching profession is in demand work according to media. 51 96 17 7 3.12 Agree Profession reputation - Being a teacher is a respectable profession. 91 75 4 1 3.50 Agree Figure model - I am inspired by my teacher to be a teacher. 67 90 13 1 3.30 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.25 Agree Table 17 shows the following societal-related factors generating Agree responses with weighted mean of (3.50), (3.32), (3.30), (3.12), and (2.99), respectively: Profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession), educational experiences (Due to my experiences I learned to love teaching), model figure (I am inspired by my teacher to be a teacher), mass media (The teaching profession are in demand work according to media) and peer influences (People around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher).
  • 44. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 44 As a whole, societal-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.25). Relativo (2005) earlier pointed out that a school teacher is not just a teacher but also a community leader, a confidante, a friend, a parent, a counselor, and a very respectable citizen. Waugh (2006) states that students do not decide alone but ask their family, friends, or relatives for advice. Table 18 Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Teaching Psychosocial- emotional Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Decision-making - I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be a teacher. 67 92 11 1 3.32 Agree Willingness to learn - To adapt changing skills and techniques in teaching. 84 76 11 0 3.43 Agree Confidence level - I am confident that I will be a good teacher. 57 95 19 0 3.22 Agree Own happiness – Teaching is my passion. 72 78 19 2 3.29 Agree Presence of assertiveness - I give my statement confidently on teaching. 55 102 11 3 3.22 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.29 Agree Table 18 illustrates that following psychological-emotional factors generated Agree responses from the respondents with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.32), (3.29), (3.22), and (3.22), respectively: Willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and
  • 45. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 45 techniques in teaching), own happiness (Teaching is my passion), decision-making (I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be a teacher), confidence level (I am confident that I will be a good teacher), and presence of assertiveness (I give my statement confidently on teaching). As a whole, psychosocial-emotional-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.29). Fizer (2013) stated that personality plays a role in choosing a career where the students who believe in themselves have more confidence and are more likely to go for what they want instead of settling for something that is comfortable.
  • 46. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 46 Table 19 Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Competencies- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Stenography skills - I could leach stenography subjects. 40 98 29 3 3.03 Agree Keyboarding skills - I could teach keyboarding subjects. 85 76 9 1 3.43 Agree Bookkeeping skills - I could teach accounting subjects. 48 81 36 6 3.00 Agree Clerical skills (e.g. sorting tiles) I could teach business subject. 74 82 14 1 3.34 Agree Communication skills - I could communicate to students effectively. 70 90 10 1 3.34 Agree Computer literacy - I could teach computer subjects. 85 81 5 0 3.47 Agree Writing skills - I could express my thoughts through writing that I can share to my students. 67 92 10 2 3.31 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree Table 19 shows that the factors on computer literacy (I could teach computer subjects), keyboarding skills (I could teach keyboarding subjects), communication skills (I could communicate to students effectively), clerical skills (I could teach business subject), writing skills (I could express my thoughts through writing that I can share to my students), stenography skills - I could leach stenography subjects), and bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) generated Agree
  • 47. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 47 responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.47), (3.43), (3.34), (3.34), (3.31), (3.03), and (3.00), respectively. As a whole, competencies-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.27). Pabiton (2007) noted that the students must be given all the chances to learn and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations insofar as the necessity to meet the needs of the business industry is a must for all colleges and that the trainings should be constant and in sync with the latest technology.
  • 48. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 48 Table 20 Familial-related Factors in Office Work Familial- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Childhood experience - I pretend to be an office worker when I was a child. 41 91 23 16 2.92 Agree Mother as a role model - My mother is an office worker. 41 51 46 33 2.58 Agree Father as a role model - My father is an office worker. 31 61 44 35 2.51 Agree Parents/Guardians decisions -My parents want me to be an office worker. 42 78 29 22 2.82 Agree Parents educational attainment -My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker. 73 70 17 11 3.20 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 2.81 Agree Table 20 reveals the following familial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted mean of (3.20), (2.92), (2.82), (2.58), and (2.51), respectively: parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker), childhood experience (I pretended as an office worker when I was a child), parent’s/guardian’s decisions (My parents want me to be an office worker), mother
  • 49. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 49 as a role model (My mother is an office worker), and father as a role model (My father is an office worker). As a whole, familial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (2.81). Table 21 Individual-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work Individual-related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Abilities - I can work independently as an office professional. 76 87 7 1 3.39 Agree Interests - I am interested in office works. 74 86 11 0 3.37 Agree Behavior/Personality - I am impatience so I prefer office works. 51 87 27 6 3.07 Agree Self-expectancy - I expect myself to be an office professional in the future. 67 89 15 0 3.30 Agree Achievement needs - I want to improve my career development in office works. 83 81 5 2 3.43 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.31 Agree Table 21 reveals that individual-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents, with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.39), (3.37), (3.30), and (3.07), respectively: achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in office works), abilities (I can work independently as an office professional), interests (I am interested in office works), self-expectancy (I expect
  • 50. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 50 myself to be an office professional in the future), and behavior/personality (I am impatience so I prefer office works). As a whole individual-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.31). Raquedar (2003) reported that most of the companies and offices considered training as an integral part of an organization, insofar as training involves job instruction regarding the particular work, human relation, personality development and psycho-emotional stability. Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds.
  • 51. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 51 Table 22 Societal-related Factors in Office Work Societal- related Factors SA A D SD Weigh ted Mean Verbal Interpreta tion 4 3 2 1 Frequency Educational experiences - Due to my experiences I learned to love office works. 52 105 12 2 3.21 Agree Peer Influences - People around me want to works in the office and already an office worker. 46 89 31 4 3.04 Agree Mass media - The office works are in demand work according to media. 43 99 21 8 3.04 Agree Profession reputation - office professional is a respectable profession. 72 90 6 3 3.35 Agree Figure model - Someone I idolized is an office professional. 55 98 16 2 3.20 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.17 Agree Table 22 reveals that the following societal-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.35), (3.21), (3.20), (3.04), and (3.04), respectively: profession reputation (Office professional is a respectable profession), educational experiences (Due to my experiences I learned to love office work), model figure (Someone I idolized is an office professional), mass media (The office works are in demand work according to media), and peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and already an office worker.
  • 52. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 52 Generally, societal-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.17). McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expounded that students are moderately affected by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature. Table 23 Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Office Work Psychosocial- emotional Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Decision-making - I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be an office professional. 64 93 12 2 3.28 Agree Willingness to learn - To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works. 76 80 14 1 3.35 Agree Confidence level - I am confident that I will be a good office professional. 58 94 14 5 3.20 Agree Own happiness - Office work is my passion. 59 87 22 3 3.18 Agree Presence of assertiveness - I give my statement confidently on office works. 59 94 13 5 3.21 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.24 Agree Table 23 reveals that the following psychosocial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from responses with weighted mean of (3.35), (3.28), (3.21), (3.20), and (3.18), respectively: willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works), decision-making (I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be an office professional), presence of assertiveness (I
  • 53. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 53 give my statement confidently on office works), confidence level (I am confident that I will be a good office professional), and own happiness (Office work is my passion). Generally, these psychosocial-emotional factors generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (3.24). Mc Ginley (1980) stated that students choose careers that are in line with their interests, values, goals, and abilities. Table 24 Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work Competencies- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Stenography skills - I could be efficient in jotting down notes as an office professional. 43 100 25 3 3.07 Agree Keyboarding skills - I have a fast typing skills as an office professional. 76 84 10 0 3.39 Agree Bookkeeping skills - I could do basic accounting works as an office worker. 46 89 33 3 3.04 Agree Clerical skills (e.g. sorting tiles) - I could be a productive office worker. 75 83 12 1 3.36 Agree Communication skills - I have good oral skills as an office professional. 66 91 12 2 3.29 Agree Computer literacy - I could be efficient in computer works as an office worker 80 87 3 1 3.44 Agree Writing skills – As an office worker I could write business memo/letters. 70 87 9 5 3.30 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree
  • 54. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 54 Table 24 reveals that the following competency-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses with weighted mean of (3.44), (3.39), (3.36), (3.30), (3.29), (3.07), and (3.04), respectively: computer literacy (I could be efficient in computer work as an office worker), keyboarding skills (I have a fast typing skills as an office professional), clerical skills (I could be a productive office worker), writing skills (As an office worker I could write business memo/letters), communication skills (I have good oral skills as an office professional), stenography skills (I could be efficient in jotting down notes as an office professional), and bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting works as an office worker). Generally, these competency-related factors generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (3.27).
  • 55. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 55 Table 25 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching According to Familial-related Factors Office Works Familial Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.676 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.093 0.228 Accept Ho Not Significant Societal- related Factors 0.255 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors -0.017 0.827 Accept Ho Not Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.153 0.045 Reject Ho Significant NOTE: if p-value is less than the level of significance which is 0.05 reject the null hypothesis otherwise accepts. Pearson coefficient values: ±0.76 - ±0.99 Very Strong; ±0.51 - ±0.75 Strong; ±0.26 - ±0.50 Moderate; ±0.11 - ±0.25 Weak; ±0.01 - ±0.10 Very Weak Table 25 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching according to familial-related factors by using Pearson r correlation shows that the familial-related, societal-related, and competencies-related factors got p-value of (0.001) and (0.045) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that the relationship between familial-related factors of the office work and teaching is strong with Pearson coefficient value of (0.676). Mattison (2002) stated that the major influences on people’s career choices are interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents also exert the
  • 56. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 56 strongest influence on adolescent aspiration, followed by the teacher, friends and relatives. Table 26 Correlation between Office Work and Teaching based on Individual-related Factors Office Works Individual Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.178 0.020 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.552 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.314 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.245 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.332 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 26 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching through individual-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial- related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies-related factors got p-values of (0.020) and (0.001) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552).
  • 57. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 57 Table 27 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on Societal-related Factors Office Works Societal Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.251 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.310 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.615 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.389 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.366 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 27 which displays the relationship between the office work and teaching based on societal-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial- related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.001) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.615).
  • 58. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 58 Table 28 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on Psychosocial-emotional Factors Office Works Psychosocial - Emotional Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.068 0.380 Accept Ho Not Significant Individual-related Factors 0.266 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.357 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.621 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.331 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 28 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching based on psychosocial-emotional factors using Pearson r correlation shows that individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies- related factors got a p-value of (0.000) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that psychosocial- emotional factors of the office work and teaching are strongly related with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.621).
  • 59. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 59 Table 29 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching through Competencies-related Factors Office Works Competencies Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.214 0.005 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.383 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.405 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.365 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.867 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 29 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching based on competencies-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial-related, individual-related, societal-related, psycho-social-emotional-related and competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.005) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that competencies-related factors of office work and teaching are very strongly related with Pearson coefficient value of (0.867). These results are related to the study of Pegarido (1988) which stated that a graduating student should be fully aware that he must continuously grow and learn, advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations. It
  • 60. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 60 emphasized that, to become fully effective, students should pursue another course, take Masters and Doctorate degrees.
  • 61. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 61 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Summary The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinant factors of career path between teaching and office work among fourth year Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. The researchers hypothesized that there is no significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office work using descriptive survey method to determine the factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office work of the graduating fourth year BBTE students. The major instrument used in this study was survey questionnaire in which frequencies and percentage, ranking, weighted mean and Pearson r correlation were determined using statistical treatment.
  • 62. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 62 Findings Based on the results gathered, the following findings are hereby presented: 1. Majority of the respondents are females with a frequency of one hundred three (103) and percentage of 60.23%. On the other hand, males comprised of sixty-eight (68) respondents with a percentage of 39.77%. 2. In teaching profession in terms of type of school, 113 or 66.08% of the respondents preferred to teach in public schools, while ten (10) or 5.85% preferred the privates schools. The preferred place of teaching was the urban areas among 129 or 75.44% of the respondents, while 42 or 24.56% preferred the rural areas. The respondents would opt take the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) with a frequency of 160 or 93.57% while 4 respondents with a percentage of 2.34% were undecided whether to take the exam or not. In terms of pursuing Master’s Degree, majority or 132 (77.19%) of the respondents answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% of the respondents answered no. In terms of teaching abroad, seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% of respondents answered no, while 30 or 17.54% were undecided whether to teach abroad or not. As to the level of education, 97 or 56,73% of the respondents preferred to teach high school students, 15 or 8.77% preferred the elementary school students. As regard list of subjects, ninety (90) at rank 1 preferred to teach ICT, while twenty-one (21) at rank 8 preferred to teach Marketing-related subjects.
  • 63. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 63 In office profession in terms of type of office they preferred to work, public or government office work generated the highest response with 80 or 46.78%, while private companies received the lowest with 28 or 16.37%. One-hundred forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in urban areas, while 23 or 13.45% preferred the rural areas. In terms of taking up the civil service examination, 153 or 89.47% of the respondents answered yes, while seven (7) or 4.09% were undecided. As regard pursuing master’s degree, 122 or 71.35% answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% answered no. As to working abroad, majority or 81 (47.37%) answered positively, 30 (17.54%) were undecided, and two (2) or 1.17% gave no response. 3. As regard familial-related factors in pursuing teaching, parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be a teacher) garnered the highest weighted mean of 3.19 with a verbal interpretation of Agree, while the father as the role model (My father is a teacher) had the lowest weighted mean of 2.32 with a verbal interpretation of Disagree. As regard individual-related factors, achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in teaching) were agreed to by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.36, while self- expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future) was agreed to the least with weighted mean of 3.25. In the aspect of societal-related factors, profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession) was agreed to by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.50, while peer
  • 64. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 64 influences (People around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher) was agreed to the least with weighted mean of 2.99. On the part of psychosocial-emotional factors, respondents agreed to willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in teaching) with the highest weighted mean of 3.43, as well as to presence of assertiveness (I give my statement confidently on teaching) with weighted mean of 3.22. In the aspect of competencies-related factors, respondents agreed with highest weighted mean of 3.47 to computer literacy (I could teach computer subjects) as well as to bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) with the least weighted mean of 3.00. In terms of familial-related factors relating to office work, the respondents agreed with the weighted mean of 3.20 to parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate from college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker), as well as to father as a role model (My father is an office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 2.51. As to individual-related factors, the respondents agreed to achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in office work) with the highest weighted mean of 3.43, as well as to behavior/personality (I am impatient so I prefer office work) with the lowest weighted mean of 3.07. On the part of societal-related factors, respondents agreed to profession reputation (Office professional is a respectable profession) with the highest weighted mean of 3.35 as well as to peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and already an
  • 65. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 65 office worker) with the least weighted average mean of 3.04. On the aspect of psychosocial-emotional factors, the respondents agreed to willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works) with highest weighted mean of 3.35, as well as to own happiness (Office work is my passion) with the least weighted mean of 3.18. In the aspect of competencies- related factors, respondents agreed to computer literacy (I could be efficient in computer works as an office worker) with the highest weighted mean of 3.44, as well as to bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting work as an office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 3.04. 4. The relationship between office work and teaching according to familial- related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.676). On the other hand, the relationship between office work and teaching according to individual-related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552). The relationships are both strong between the office work and the teaching according to societal-related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.615), as well as the relationship between the office work and the teaching through psychosocial-emotional factors with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.621). Lastly, the relationship between the office work and the teaching according to competencies-related factors has been found to be very strong with a Pearson Coefficient value of (0.867).
  • 66. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 66 Conclusions Based on the foregoing findings, the researcher drawn the following conclusions: 1. Most of the respondents were female, because teaching courses are mostly taken by female than male. 2. In teaching profession, the respondents preferred to teach in public schools than in private schools located in urban areas than in rural areas; majority of the respondents opted to take LET while the least were undecided. Moreover, majority of the respondents would pursue Master’s degrees while the least answered no. In addition, most of the respondents had no plan to teach abroad while the least were still undecided; majority of them liked to teach in high school while the least preferred the elementary school. Most of the respondents preferred to teach ICT, while the least preferred Marketing- related subjects. In office profession, majority preferred to work in a public or government offices than in private offices located in urban than in rural areas. Most of the respondents also opted to take the civil service examination and majority would pursue a Master’s degree. Additionally, most of the respondents considered working abroad. 3. Among the factors affecting the choices for teaching and office work, parents’ educational attainment, achievement needs, professional reputation,
  • 67. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 67 willingness to learn, and computer literacy were the highest determinants identified by the respondents. On the other hand, the factors father as the role model, self-expectancy and behavior/personality, peer influences, presence of assertiveness and personal happiness, and bookkeeping skills were the least determinants in choosing a career path for the respondents. 4. There is a significant relationship between the factors of teaching and office work. Recommendations Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researchers would recommend the following: 1. Conduct studies covering other year levels of BBTE and other Education students of PUP or other universities and to enhance the questionnaire that would consider other probable factors. 2. The College of Education in collaboration with professors and staff should encourage the students to optimize career development in rural areas or in private institutions after graduating. With the help of the professors or advisers of each class, they should persuade their students to take a LET or civil service examination for better professional qualifications. Furthermore, they should motivate their students to pursue post-graduate and graduate degrees.
  • 68. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 68 3. Parents should encourage, guide, motivate and inspire their children in carefully choosing their career and profession. 4. The College of Education should constantly conduct comprehensive career development seminars and trainings to properly prepare and equip the students toward a carefully-chosen career and profession.
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