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Open Container Technologies and OpenStack - Sorting Through Kubernetes, the OCI & the CNCF


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Presentation at the OpenStack Summit in Barcelona, Spain on October 25, 2016.

Containers along with next generation topics such as orchestration and serverless computing continue to draw interest across the application developer and data center operator communities because of the enormous potential of the technology and the rapid pace of change.

As the potential of Docker continues to evolve, Kubernetes emerges as the leading orchestration technology, and the OpenStack Magnum project has matured, many want to see shared governance over the baseline container specification and associated runtime and format/image to protect investments and enable confident adoption of this emerging technology.

Join this session to learn the latest about the Open Container Initiative ( and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation ( - both collaborative projects of the Linux Foundation - that drive the latest cloud native technologies and projects and see how they relate to Magnum and Kuryr.

Daniel Krook, Senior Software Engineer, IBM
Jeffrey Borek, Program Director, Open Tech, IBM
Sarah Novotny, Senior Kubernetes Community Manger, Google

Published in: Software
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Open Container Technologies and OpenStack - Sorting Through Kubernetes, the OCI & the CNCF

  1. 1. Open Container Technologies and OpenStack Sorting through Kubernetes, the OCI, and the CNCF Daniel Krook Jeffrey Borek Sarah Novotny Senior Software Engineer, IBM Program Director, Open Tech, IBM Senior Kubernetes Community Manger, Google @DanielKrook @JeffBorek @SarahNovotny
  2. 2. Our background is in open source and open standards Daniel Krook • Customer partner for open technologies adoption (OpenStack, Cloud Foundry, Docker, OpenWhisk) • Senior Software Engineer, IBM Cloud • @DanielKrook Jeffrey Borek • IBM representative to the OCI & CNCF, Chair of Docker Governance Advisory Board • WW Program Director, Open Technologies and Partnerships, Cloud Computing • @JeffBorek Sarah Novotny • Google representative to OCI & CNCF, Open Source Community Wonk • Senior Program Manager, Kubernetes Community • @SarahNovotny
  3. 3. What you will learn today • The benefits and tradeoffs of container technology and its organic community based evolution over time • How containerization fits into OpenStack, and in particular how it uses Kubernetes for both Containers-as-a-Service and its own control plane • What the container focused Linux Foundation collaborative projects aim to achieve • Open Container Initiative • Cloud Native Computing Foundation • How OCI and CNCF container standardization affects OpenStack via Kubernetes
  4. 4. Container technology today enables greater density, faster startup, and more consistent packaging of applications Containers provide isolation for processes sharing compute, networking, and storage resources on a host system. They are logically similar to virtualized machine instances but share the host kernel and avoid hardware emulation. Applications can be packaged with all the additional dependencies that they need, above what is provided by the host. This makes them efficient to run, easy to move from host to host, and enable more granular control of applications. There are tradeoffs and drawbacks, however, including isolation. Consider the analogy of buying a house (VM) versus renting an apartment (container). Diagram source: Exploring Opportunities: Containers and OpenStack Abstractions required for VMs, not used by containers
  5. 5. Many innovations from many organizations have influenced container technology innovation over time Jails VServer Zones cgroups Namespaces LXC Docker FreeBSD Jails expand on Unix chroot to isolate files 1999 Linux-VServer ports context isolation, but required recompilation Solaris Zones bring the concept of snapshots Google introduces Process Containers, merged as cgroups Red Hat adds user namespaces, limiting root access in containers IBM creates LXC, providing user tools for cgroups and namespaces Docker provides simple user tools and images. Containers go mainstream 20082004 20062001 2008 2013 Not an exhaustive list, nor is an evolution implied. OpenVZ (Parallels), Warden (Cloud Foundry) , rkt (CoreOS), and others also represent container innovation.
  6. 6. Several OpenStack projects leverage containers to more efficiently use resources, deploy faster, and package services more consistently A Docker hypervisor driver for Nova Compute to treat containers and images as the same type of resource as virtual machines. Nova A plugin template for orchestrating Docker resources on top of OpenStack resources. Allows access to full Docker API. Heat Containerizes the OpenStack control services themselves as microservices to simplify the operational experience. Kolla Provides an application catalog of containerized applications that can be deployed to an OpenStack cloud. Murano OpenStack is above all an integration engine, bringing various technologies together through common APIs. Therefore, containers have naturally been plugged into several existing projects and will find their way into other areas as well. Provides an API to manage multi- tenant Containers-as-a-Service leveraging Heat, Nova, and Neutron. Magnum Brings the Neutron networking model to containers. Providing consistency between bare metal, virtual machines, and containers. Kuryr
  7. 7. Introducing the Linux Foundation Open Container Initiative (OCI) A single, open container specification: • Not bound to higher level constructs such as a particular client or orchestration stack • Not tightly associated with any particular commercial vendor or project • Portable across a wide variety of operating systems, hardware, CPU architectures, public clouds, etc. The OCI is a lightweight, open governance structure for the express purpose of creating open industry standards around container formats and runtime Announced June 22, 2015
  8. 8. The OCI aims to meld ecosystems towards an open standard • Users should be able to package their application once and have it work with any container runtime • The standard should fulfill the requirements of the most rigorous security and production environments • The standard should be vendor neutral and developed in the open
  9. 9. The OCI governs a container specification and an implementation Open Container Runtime Spec Docker container runtime implementation: runC (formerly libcontainer) CoreOS runtime implementation: appC (formerly Rocket) Spec and implementation updated in concert Innovation driven into the specOpen Container Initiative ecosystem Community innovation driven into the spec Open Image Format Spec • Open Specification for Container Image • Starting with Docker v2.2 • Announced April 14, 2016
  10. 10. Who’s contributing to the Open Container Initiative?* • The top 15 groups contributing to the OCI represent a broad and diverse group of companies • View the OCI dashboard: * As of October 21, 2016
  11. 11. Introducing the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) •Container packaged •Dynamically managed •Micro-services oriented The CNCF plans to create and drive the adoption of a new set of common container technologies, driven and informed by technical merit and end user value, inspired by Internet-scale computing Announced July 21, 2015
  12. 12. Just as the OCI targets container image portability, the CNCF targets cloud application portability…
  13. 13. CNCF: Cloud Native Reference Architecture
  14. 14. CNCF: Incubation projects Prometheus
  15. 15. OpenStack as a First Class Cloud Provider • Murano Application catalog which can deploy Kubernetes • Kuryr Connects Kubernetes and Docker networking to Neutron Heat Kubernetes specific templates to create clusters Magnum Heat derived method of deploying Kubernetes, Mesos and Docker Swarm clusters
  16. 16. Containerized OpenStack on Kubernetes • Fuel CCP • Kolla • Stackanetes Each project provides tooling to deploy containerized OpenStack control planes on Kubernetes Including Docker containers and automation to deploy common OpenStack services
  17. 17. Kubernetes SIG OpenStack #sig-openstack
  18. 18. Keep an eye on developments in these areas as you formulate your organization's containerization strategy. Please get involved to ensure standards reflect your own usage scenarios. Container technology has evolved over the last 16 years with contributions from many organizations. It will continue to do so with greater collaboration and governance through the Open Container Initiative and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Containerization is used throughout OpenStack in Nova, Heat, Magnum, Kuryr, Kolla, Murano and other big tent projects… …but Kubernetes is emerging as a de facto standard for container clusters in OpenStack and separately governed container standards. The OpenStack Foundation provides governance over Infrastructure-as-a-Service (compute, network, and storage) APIs. The OCI and the CNCF will provide governance of container formats and standardize cloud native architectural patterns.
  19. 19. Open Container Technologies and OpenStack Sorting through Kubernetes, the OCI, and the CNCF Daniel Krook Jeffrey Borek Sarah Novotny Senior Software Engineer, IBM Program Director, Open Tech, IBM Senior Kubernetes Community Manger, Google @DanielKrook @JeffBorek @SarahNovotny