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Galera Cluster 4 for MySQL 8 Release Webinar slides

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The much anticipated release of Galera Cluster 4 for MySQL 8 is now Generally Available. Please join Codership, the developers of Galera Cluster, and learn how we improve MySQL High Availability with the new features in Galera Cluster 4, and how you can benefit from using them. We will also give you an idea of the Galera 4 short term road map, as well as an overview of Galera 4 in MariaDB, MySQL and Percona.

Learn about how you can load data faster with streaming replication, how to use the new system tables in the mysql database, how your application can benefit from the new synchronization functions, and how Galera Cluster is now so much more robust in handling a bad network for Geo-distributed Multi-master MySQL. We will go through a quick install of a 3-node Galera Cluster as well.

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Galera Cluster 4 for MySQL 8 Release Webinar slides

  1. 1. Colin Charles, colin.charles@galeracluster.com | 4 June 2020 Galera Cluster 4 for MySQL 8
  2. 2. Agenda • Codership • What is Galera replication? • Galera Cluster 4 for MySQL 8 • Comparison of the offerings of Galera Cluster 4 • Conclusion
  3. 3. Codership • Codership are the original makers and engineers of Galera Cluster, a multi- master, virtually synchronous replication solution for the MySQL ecosystem • If you use Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) or MariaDB Galera Cluster, you directly benefit from the work done by the team at Codership • Remember that beyond engineering, you may also purchase 24/7 support, training, consulting and a whole lot more!
  4. 4. Codership • The developers and experts of Galera Cluster • Established in 2007, 3 founders, all engineers • Seppo Jaakola, CEO, Teemu Ollakka, CTO, Alex Yurchenko, architect • Services business model, producing 100% open source software • Thousands of users in various industries: e-commerce, betting/gambling, telecoms, banking, insurance, gaming, healthcare, media, marketing, advertising, travel, education, software as a service, PaaS, IaaS, etc.
  5. 5. What is Galera replication? • A generic replication plugin for database servers • Uses the replication API to interact with a DBMS (via the wsrep API project, fully open source on GitHub) • wsrep == writeset replication • The database and Galera plugin must have the same wsrep API version
  6. 6. Galera Cluster • MariaDB Server (which comes with Galera Cluster) has over 12 million downloads as of March 2017; Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) has over 1.3 million downloads; more from galeracluster.com; we can’t count distributions! • Cloud platforms recommend Galera Cluster usage for High Availability — e.g. OpenStack • Thousands of users in various industries (e-commerce, gaming, telecom, banking, insurance, healthcare, SaaS, IaaS, PaaS, etc) have trusted Galera Cluster over a decade. • MySQL Community Award: Application of the Year 2014 • Included in many mainstream Linux/BSD distributions (Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, RHEL8, openSUSE, FreeBSD, etc.)
  7. 7. Galera Cluster is all about multi-master replication • Can be described as virtually synchronous replication • High Availability with no data loss, and consistent data across all nodes — no Single Point of Failure (SPoF) • Quorum based failure handling • Optimistic concurrency control • 100% multi-master cluster (all nodes are equal in terms of having the data, so no lagging secondaries, 24/7 availability, etc.) • This is a core feature of the product by design, has automatic transaction conflict detection and management, and your application can issue any transaction to any Galera Cluster node. Works well in WAN/Clouds • Parallel replication • You do not need automatic failovers via a framework, no need to designate single nodes for writes and the rest for reads, configuration is simple, easier handling of scheduled downtime
  8. 8. Galera Cluster optimised for the cloud • Optimised network protocol as packets are only exchanged over the WAN at transaction commit time • Topology-aware replication, so each transaction is sent to the data centre only once • Detection and automatic eviction of unreliable nodes • eviction if due to network flaps or node failure, will not be able to rejoin without manual intervention • Split brain recovery/management • Traffic encryption (key in the cloud)
  9. 9. Branch Variants
  10. 10. Galera Replication Versions • There have been many major releases (1,2,3,4) • Current production head is at 3.29 for Galera 3, and 4.5 for Galera 4 • There have been many wsrep API versions (1..25) • Current major version is wsrep API 26 which corresponds with Galera 4 (wsrep API 25 corresponds with Galera 3) • There are wsrep API changes that require you to perform a rolling upgrade
  11. 11. Galera 4 & MySQL 8 • MySQL 8.0.19 with Galera Cluster 4 was made GA on 21 May 2020 and announced on 25 May 2020 • Comes with wsrep API 26 and the Galera 4.5 library • wsrep is integrated into the release of MySQL 8 that is shipped • You can download and use it now: https://galeracluster.com/downloads/ #downloads
  12. 12. What new features are there? • Streaming replication • support for large transactions • base platform for new features • Group commit support • Improved foreign key support • Network resiliency
  13. 13. Streaming Replication • The base for supporting huge transactions • In Galera Cluster 3, a transaction processes on the “master node” (i.e. node that client connected to, to execute the transaction) until commit time • For large transactions, the writeset will be large, hard to process • So wsrep_max_ws_size exists to prevent large transactions
  14. 14. Streaming Replication • This is new in Galera Cluster 4 to enable running transactions of unlimited size in a cluster • You can of course still reject large transactions
  15. 15. What is a large transaction? • LOAD DATA that is large…? •  wsrep_max_ws_rows and wsrep_max_ws_size. Limit the transaction rows to 128 KB and the transaction size to 1 GB. wsrep_max_ws_size has a maximum upper limit of 2GB, beyond which it is rejected • Guide to handle large transactions: http://galeracluster.com/library/kb/best/ large-transactions.html including the use of pt-archiver • One practical test: https://www.percona.com/blog/2015/10/26/how-big-can- your-galera-transactions-be/
  16. 16. Streaming Replication • Transactions are replicated, gradually in small fragments, during transaction processing • i.e. before an actual commit, Galera replicates a number of small sized fragments (transaction fragmentation) • Size threshold for fragment replication is configurable • Replicated fragments are applied in slave threads preserving the transaction state in all cluster nodes • fragments hold locks in all nodes and cannot be conflicted later • Streaming replication allows nodes to process writesets greater than 2GB
  17. 17. Configuring Streaming Replication • Session variables (dynamic): • wsrep_trx_fragment_unit — unit metrics for fragmenting, options are bytes (writesets in bytes), rows (number of rows modified), statements (number of SQL statements issued) • wsrep_trx_fragment_size — threshold size in units when fragments will be replicated. 0 means no streaming.
  18. 18. Using Streaming Replication • Due to excessive logging and elevated replication overhead, streaming replication will cause degraded transaction throughput rate • Best use case? Use streaming replication to cut large transactions • Set the fragment size to around 10,000 rows • Applications can also set streaming replication on/off on a need-by-need basis (requires changes to application naturally)
  19. 19. New metadata — wsrep tables in mysql database • There are some new Galera Cluster system tables SHOW TABLES FROM mysql LIKE 'wsrep%'; +---------------------------+ | Tables_in_mysql (wsrep%) | +---------------------------+ | wsrep_cluster | | wsrep_cluster_members | | wsrep_streaming_log | +---------------------------+
  20. 20. wsrep_cluster • Contains current view of the cluster, some identity information and also cluster capabilities SELECT COLUMN_NAME FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_schema='mysql' AND table_name='wsrep_cluster'; +------------------+ | COLUMN_NAME | +------------------+ | cluster_uuid | | view_id | | view_seqno | | protocol_version | | capabilities | +------------------+
  21. 21. wsrep_cluster_members SELECT * FROM mysql.wsrep_cluster_members ORDER BY node_name G *************************** 1. row *************************** node_uuid: e39d1774-7e2b-11e9- b5b2-7696f81d30fb cluster_uuid: bd5fe1c3-7d80-11e9-8913-4f209d688a15 node_name: galera1 node_incoming_address: AUTO *************************** 2. row *************************** node_uuid: eb8fc512-7e2b-11e9- bb74-3281cf207f60 cluster_uuid: bd5fe1c3-7d80-11e9-8913-4f209d688a15 node_name: galera2 node_incoming_address: AUTO *************************** 3. row *************************** node_uuid: 2347a8ac-7e2c-11e9-b6f0- da90a2d0a563 cluster_uuid: bd5fe1c3-7d80-11e9-8913-4f209d688a15 node_name: galera3 node_incoming_address: AUTO
  22. 22. wsrep_streaming_log • contains meta data and row events for ongoing streaming transactions, writeset fragment per row • SELECT * FROM mysql.wsrep_streaming_log G
  23. 23. wsrep functions • WSREP_LAST_SEEN_GTID() — returns GTID for last written transaction observed by client • WSREP_LAST_WRITTEN_GTID() — returns GTID of the last write transaction made by the client • WSREP_SYNC_WAIT_UPTO_GTID() — blocks the client until the node applies and commits the given transaction
  24. 24. Improved foreign key support • Write set certification rules are now optimised to handle foreign keys • If you have previously seen false conflicts in certification in logs, this will now disappear as there’s a tremendous reduction in it
  25. 25. Group commit • Now there is support for group commit that is natively integrated with the MySQL 8 binary log • Commit time concurrency controls have been reworked such that the commit monitor is released as soon as the commit has been queued for a group commit • Transactions thus are committed in groups, while respecting the sequential commit order
  26. 26. Poornetworkconnections? •GaleraClusterisnowalotmoreresilientwhenitcomestohandlingpoor networkconnections •Handlingofirrecoverableerrorsduetopoornetworkconditionshasalsobeen improved,sothatanodewillalways attempttoleavetheclustergracefullyif itisnotpossibletorecoverfromerrorswithoutsacrificingdataconsistency •Thisisgreatforgeo-distributedmulti-masterGaleraClusters
  27. 27. Rolling upgrades are supported • From an existing wsrep 25 (e.g. MySQL 5.7) 3-node cluster • Isolate a node (make one read only, you still have a 2-node cluster for read/write), shutdown the server, upgrade to MySQL 8, start without wsrep_provider, run mysql_upgrade, shutdown the server, restart with wsrep_provider, allow read only access • Now update node 2 as above • Then shutdown node 1, allow read-write access again, and node 1 upgrade is complete • Repeat for node 3
  28. 28. What isn’t here yet, but will be coming (esp. after MariaDB Server 10.5) • Gcache encryption (now in MariaDB Enterprise 10.4) • XA transaction support (needed for sharding cluster) • Non-blocking DDL (coincides with other MariaDB Server non-blocking DDL work) • Cluster error voting (feature within Galera Cluster library, so might even make it into a later release of 10.4)
  29. 29. Quick comparisons with other variants of Galera 4 Release dates • MariaDB Server 10.4.6 was GA with Galera 4 on 18 June 2019 • Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) 8.0.18-9.3 was GA with Galera 4 on 29 April 2020 • Galera 4 with MySQL 8 from Codership was GA on 21 May 2020
  30. 30. Quick comparisons with other variants of Galera 4 Features • MariaDB Server 10.4 includes use of backup locks which you can use with Mariabackup for an SST with a lightweight lock • Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) 8 includes features that you’d be familiar with Percona Server… • comes with ProxySQL • comes with a Kubernetes operator • enhanced encryption thanks to a Vault plugin • mysql_upgrade happens on SST • pxc_encrypt_cluster_traffic is enabled by default
  31. 31. In summary… • Who are the developers of Galera Cluster? Codership. • Who has the most developers of Galera Cluster? Codership. • Who knows the code better than anyone? Codership. • Who decides the roadmap for Galera Cluster? Codership. With our main partner, MariaDB Corporation, and listening closely to the community.
  32. 32. What’s coming next? • Galera 3.30 • Maintenance releases for 5.6 and 5.7 • More features in MySQL 8 • New management tools • MariaDB 10.5
  33. 33. Colin Charles, colin.charles@galeracluster.com | 4 June 2020 Thank you. Questions?

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