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The Official RDA Toolkit - Opportunities for Efficiency - Thurstan Young

CILIP MDG
CILIP MDG

“The RDA Day is programmed by the UK Committee on RDA. Using activities and games throughout informative presentations, the RDA Day will inform and engage metadata practitioners and managers on a content standard which integrates well with the metadata needs of the 21st century” Paper presented on the UKCoR RDA Day during the Metadata & Discovery Group Conference (6th - 8th Sept 2023 at IET Austin Court, Birmingham)

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The Official RDA Toolkit:
Opportunities for Efficiency
Presented to RDA Day 2023
Birmingham, England, 8th September 2023
Thurstan Young,
British Library
Overview (1)
What does RDA say about efficiency?
Overview (2)
Purpose and scope
RDA is designed to take advantage of the efficiencies and flexibility in data capture, storage, retrieval, and
display made possible with new database technologies. RDA is also designed to be compatible with the
legacy technologies still used in many resource discovery applications.
Guidance > Introduction to RDA
Cost efficiency
The metadata should meet functional requirements of an application in a cost-efficient manner to produce
standardized data allowing for broad data exchange.
Guidance > Introduction to RDA > Objectives and principles governing RDA
Overview (3)
The Official RDA Toolkit supports efficient resource discovery by:
• Meeting fundamental user needs
• Reducing the requirement for manual intervention
• Increasing the scope programmed intervention
• Increasing the scope for reuse of bibliographic metadata
Overview (4)
The Official RDA Toolkit offers a means of achieving efficient
resource discovery by:
• Minimum Description
• Shortcut Elements
• Basic Transcription
• Manifestation Statements
Minimum Description (Background 1)
minimum description
A description that is the least data required for a well-formed metadata description set.
Resources > Glossary
Minimum description of a resource entity
A minimum metadata description set of a resource entity must conform to the requirements and constraints given in
Guidance: Resource description. Coherent description of an information resource.
Guidance > Resource description > Minimum description of a resource entity
Minimum coherent description
A coherent description of an information resource must include a description of at least one of its entities. An entity is
described by recording a value for at least one appellation element of the entity using the recording method appropriate
for the element. An entity is related to another entity by recording a value for a relationship element using any of the
recording methods.
Guidance > Resource description > Coherent description of an information resource

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The Official RDA Toolkit - Opportunities for Efficiency - Thurstan Young

  • 1. The Official RDA Toolkit: Opportunities for Efficiency Presented to RDA Day 2023 Birmingham, England, 8th September 2023 Thurstan Young, British Library
  • 2. Overview (1) What does RDA say about efficiency?
  • 3. Overview (2) Purpose and scope RDA is designed to take advantage of the efficiencies and flexibility in data capture, storage, retrieval, and display made possible with new database technologies. RDA is also designed to be compatible with the legacy technologies still used in many resource discovery applications. Guidance > Introduction to RDA Cost efficiency The metadata should meet functional requirements of an application in a cost-efficient manner to produce standardized data allowing for broad data exchange. Guidance > Introduction to RDA > Objectives and principles governing RDA
  • 4. Overview (3) The Official RDA Toolkit supports efficient resource discovery by: • Meeting fundamental user needs • Reducing the requirement for manual intervention • Increasing the scope programmed intervention • Increasing the scope for reuse of bibliographic metadata
  • 5. Overview (4) The Official RDA Toolkit offers a means of achieving efficient resource discovery by: • Minimum Description • Shortcut Elements • Basic Transcription • Manifestation Statements
  • 6. Minimum Description (Background 1) minimum description A description that is the least data required for a well-formed metadata description set. Resources > Glossary Minimum description of a resource entity A minimum metadata description set of a resource entity must conform to the requirements and constraints given in Guidance: Resource description. Coherent description of an information resource. Guidance > Resource description > Minimum description of a resource entity Minimum coherent description A coherent description of an information resource must include a description of at least one of its entities. An entity is described by recording a value for at least one appellation element of the entity using the recording method appropriate for the element. An entity is related to another entity by recording a value for a relationship element using any of the recording methods. Guidance > Resource description > Coherent description of an information resource
  • 7. Minimum Description (Background 2) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: appellation of manifestation • or Manifestation: title of manifestation • or Manifestation: title proper • or Manifestation: access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: authorized access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: identifier for manifestation Guidance > Resource description > Minimum description of a resource entity
  • 8. Minimum Description (Background 3) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must also include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: expression manifested with a value of: • Expression: appellation of expression • or Expression: title of expression • or Expression: preferred title of expression • or Expression: access point for expression • or Expression: authorized access point for expression • or Expression: identifier for expression • or IRI for an expression •or Manifestation: work manifested with a value of: • Work: appellation of work • or Work: title of work • or Work: preferred title of work • or Work: access point for work • or Work: authorized access point for work • or Work: identifier for work • or IRI for a work
  • 9. Minimum Description: Example (1) Cover Title Page (Preferred Source) Title Page Verso
  • 10. Minimum Description (Example 2) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: appellation of manifestation • or Manifestation: title of manifestation • or Manifestation: title proper • or Manifestation: access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: authorized access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: identifier for manifestation Guidance > Resource description > Minimum description of a resource entity
  • 11. Minimum Description (Example 3) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must also include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: expression manifested with a value of: • Expression: appellation of expression • or Expression: title of expression • or Expression: preferred title of expression • or Expression: access point for expression • or Expression: authorized access point for expression • or Expression: identifier for expression • or IRI for an expression •or Manifestation: work manifested with a value of: • Work: appellation of work • or Work: title of work • or Work: preferred title of work • or Work: access point for work • or Work: authorized access point for work • or Work: identifier for work • or IRI for a work
  • 12. Minimum Description: Example (4) Relationship View: Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper My name is Red
  • 13. Minimum Description: Example (5) MARC 21 View: 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. $l English 24510 $a My name is red.
  • 14. Minimum Description: not the same as “Core” (1) Relationship View: Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper My name is Red statement of responsibility Orhan Pamuk ; translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar place of publication New York name of publisher Alfred A. Knopf date of publication 2001 extent xv, 417 pages carrier type volume identifier for manifestation 0375406956 (alk. paper)
  • 15. Minimum Description: not the same as “Core” (2) MARC 21 View: 020 ## $a 0375406956 (alk. paper) 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. $l English 24510 $a My name is Red / $c Orhan Pamuk ; translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar. 264 1# $a New York : $b Alfred A. Knopf, $c 2001. 300 ## $a xv, 417 pages. 338 ## $a volume $2 rdacontent
  • 16. Shortcut Relationships (Background 1) Shortcut An element that relates two RDA entities that are indirectly associated through one or more other RDA entities. Resources > Glossary Relationship shortcuts A shortcut is a relationship element that directly relates two RDA entities that are indirectly related through one or more intermediary entities. This allows the two entities to be associated without recording any of the intermediary entities or relationships. Information about an intermediary entity cannot be inferred from the value of a shortcut. For example, Manifestation: work manifested relates a manifestation and a work. It is a shortcut for: 1.Manifestation: expression manifested 2.Expression: work expressed Guidance > Introduction to RDA > Data elements
  • 17. Shortcut Relationships (Background 2) work manifested Definition and Scope A work that is embodied by a manifestation Prerecording This element is a shortcut for the following chain of relationships: Manifestation: expression manifested for an expression that is embodied by the manifestation Expression: work expressed for a work that is realized by the expression The element does not identify any expression that realizes the work. For general guidance on shortcuts, see Guidance: Introduction to RDA. Data elements. Relationship shortcuts. Entities > Manifestation > work manifested
  • 19. Shortcut Relationships : Example (2) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: appellation of manifestation • or Manifestation: title of manifestation • or Manifestation: title proper • or Manifestation: access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: authorized access point for manifestation • or Manifestation: identifier for manifestation Guidance > Resource description > Minimum description of a resource entity
  • 20. Shortcut Relationships : Example (3) Minimum description of a manifestation A minimum description of a manifestation must also include one of the following elements: •Manifestation: expression manifested with a value of: • Expression: appellation of expression • or Expression: title of expression • or Expression: preferred title of expression • or Expression: access point for expression • or Expression: authorized access point for expression • or Expression: identifier for expression • or IRI for an expression •or Manifestation: work manifested with a value of: • Work: appellation of work • or Work: title of work • or Work: preferred title of work • or Work: access point for work • or Work: authorized access point for work • or Work: identifier for work • or IRI for a work
  • 21. Shortcut Relationships: Example (4) Relationship View: Expression: access point for work (work expressed) Benim adım Kırmızı. Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper My name is Red
  • 22. Shortcut Relationships: Example (5) MARC 21 View: 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. 24510 $a My name is Red.
  • 23. Shortcut Relationships: Alternative to “Direct” (1) Relationship View: Expression: access point for work (work expressed) Benim adım Kırmızı. Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper My name is Red
  • 24. Shortcut Relationships: Alternative to “Direct” (2) MARC 21 View: 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. $l English 24510 $a My name is Red.
  • 25. Basic Transcription (Background 1) Guidelines on basic transcription These guidelines may be applied when transcribing unstructured descriptions of manifestation elements and elements of other RDA entities where the option to use transcription guidelines is specified. Preserve the capitalization, punctuation, numerals, abbreviations, and diacritics as they appear on the manifestation. Omit symbols or other images intended to be interpreted as text that are not available in the character set used by the agent who creates the transcription. Transcribe the components of a manifestation statement in the order in which they appear on the manifestation. Guidance > Transcription guidelines > Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 26. Basic Transcription (Background 2) Guidance > Transcription guidelines
  • 27. Basic Transcription (Background 3) Guidelines on basic transcription Guidance > Transcription guidelines > Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 29. Basic Transcription: Example (2) Guidelines on basic transcription These guidelines may be applied when transcribing unstructured descriptions of manifestation elements and elements of other RDA entities where the option to use transcription guidelines is specified. Preserve the capitalization, punctuation, numerals, abbreviations, and diacritics as they appear on the manifestation. Omit symbols or other images intended to be interpreted as text that are not available in the character set used by the agent who creates the transcription. Transcribe the components of a manifestation statement in the order in which they appear on the manifestation. Guidance > Transcription guidelines > Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 30. Basic Transcription (Example 3) Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 31. Basic Transcription: Example (4) Relationship View: Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper MY NAME IS RED statement of responsibility Orhan Pamuk ; translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar place of publication NEW YORK : name of publisher ALFRED A. KNOPF, date of publication 2001
  • 32. Basic Transcription: Example (5) MARC 21 View: 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. $l English 24510 $a MY NAME IS RED / $c Orhan Pamuk ; translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar. 264 1# $a NEW YORK : $b ALFRED A. KNOPF, $c 2001.
  • 33. Manifestation Statements: Background (1) manifestation statement A statement appearing in a manifestation and deemed to be significant for users to understand how the manifestation represents itself. RDA Toolkit > Resources > Glossary Principle of representation A manifestation may carry information that describes the manifestation itself. This information is recorded to follow the principle of representation. A manifestation statement supports the user tasks identify and find. Although some manifestation statements are presented in a standard layout in some publishing traditions, there are no common approaches at global level and across all kinds of manifestation. A manifestation statement is therefore recorded only as an unstructured description. Guidance > Manifestation statements
  • 34. Manifestation Statements: Background (2) manifestation statement Entities > Manifestation > manifestation statement
  • 36. Manifestation Statements: Example (2) Guidelines on basic transcription These guidelines may be applied when transcribing unstructured descriptions of manifestation elements and elements of other RDA entities where the option to use transcription guidelines is specified. Preserve the capitalization, punctuation, numerals, abbreviations, and diacritics as they appear on the manifestation. Omit symbols or other images intended to be interpreted as text that are not available in the character set used by the agent who creates the transcription. Transcribe the components of a manifestation statement in the order in which they appear on the manifestation. Guidance > Transcription guidelines > Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 37. Manifestation Statements: Example (3) manifestation statement Entities > Manifestation > manifestation statement
  • 38. Manifestation Statements: Example (4) Guidelines on basic transcription
  • 39. Manifestation Statements: Example (5) Relationship View: Manifestation: access point for expression (expression manifested) Benim adım Kırmızı. English Manifestation: title proper My name is Red. Manifestation statement MY NAME IS RED Orhan Pamuk translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar ALFRED A. KNOPF NEW YORK 2001.
  • 40. Manifestation Statements: Example (6) MARC 21 View: 24010 $a Benim adım Kırmızı. $l English 24510 $a My name is Red. 881 ##$a MY NAME IS RED Orhan Pamuk translated from the Turkish by Erdağ M. Göknar ALFRED A. KNOPF NEW YORK 2001.
  • 41. Opportunities for Efficiency: Analysis The Official RDA Toolkit’s options for more efficient resource discovery support: • the end user in finding and identifying bibliographic resources (e.g. title indexing, free text searching) • the freeing up of staff time (e.g. for backlog reduction, targeted metadata enhancements) • the increased application of machine driven processes as a means of capturing bibliographic metadata (e.g. object character recognition). • the interoperability of metadata which has been created using different RDA implementation scenarios (e.g. relational / object-oriented vs. flat file).

Editor's Notes

  1. This presentation looks at various opportunities which the new RDA Toolkit offers in terms of achieving cataloguing efficiencies. Examples of application are presented both in terms of entity relationship modelling and MARC 21 encoding.
  2. Let’s look at what the new RDA Toolkit says about minimum description first.
  3. How does this work in practical terms? Here is an example of a resource entity to be described: a translation of the novel “Benim adım Kırmızı” by the Turkish author Orhan Pamuk into English under the title “My Name is red”. Represented here are its cover, title page and title page verso. The title page will provide our preferred source of information.
  4. We will choose the title proper as an element for our minimum description of the resource entity.
  5. Added to this, we will choose an the element “access point for expression” to record the relationship “expression manifested”
  6. The minimum description of a resource entity set out by the new RDA Toolkit is not equivalent to the concept of coreness set out by the original Toolkit. In the original Toolkit, besides the title proper, a statement of responsibility, place of publication, name of publisher, date of publication, extent, carrier type and identifier for the manifestation are all required aspects of description, if present on the resource. This demonstrates one form of efficiency which is possible to achieve through application of the new RDA Toolkit.
  7. Another form of efficiency can be achieved through recording shortcut relationships using the new RDA Toolkit.
  8. Lets return to our resource entity.
  9. This time we’re still going to record the element title proper as part of our minimum description.
  10. But instead of recording an access point for expression to represent the relationship expression manifested, now we’re going to record an access point for work to represent the relationship work manifested.
  11. As a result of indirectly relating the manifestation to the work it is possible to miss out the intermediary description of the expression. Hence, the language of expression can be omitted from the access point, reducing our minimum description from what we had previously.
  12. The new RDA Toolkit supports the recording of both direct and indirect relationships between entities. Here we can see a direct relationship being recorded from the manifestation to the expression and from the expression to the work. The original Toolkit is less flexible than the new Toolkit in that it only allows for recording direct and not indirect or shortcut relationhships.
  13. Basic transcription offers a third way of achieving efficiency using the new RDA Toolkit.
  14. Basic transcription is distinct from normalized or other transcription guidelines which may require that capitalization, punctuation, numerals, abbreviations, and diacritics are added, modified or omitted for purposes of consistent display.
  15. The basic transcription guidelines include options on how to delimit different components of a statement and mark omissions from it if that is preferred.
  16. Lets return to our resource entity again.
  17. We’re going to use a basic transcription to record a set of separate manifestation elements for this resource.
  18. And we’re going to do so using any appropriate punctuation device to delimit the separate components. In this case we’ll use ISBD.
  19. And here we can see the result of that approach with capitalization being preserved as it appears on the record rather than being normalized.
  20. Manifestation statements are the last way that we’ll be looking at today which offers a means of achieving efficiency using the new RDA Toolkit. They allow a whole set (or subset) of information appearing on a transcribed source to be recorded as a single element. This is particularly convenient if, say, one is scanning information from the resource being described using a light pen rather than by hand keying it.
  21. One can record a manifestation statement using a basic transcription, normalized transcription or other transcription guidelines.
  22. Back to our resource entity and the preferred source of description.
  23. This time we’re going to use a basic transcription to record a single manifestation statement for the resource.
  24. And we’ll do so using back slashes to delimit the separate components of the statement.
  25. So here is the end result. We have our minimal description composed of a title proper and expression manifested as well as a manifestation statement taken from the preferred source of information appearing on the resource being described. All of the information taken from the title page is recorded as a single manifestation statement which is broken down with backslash delimiters.