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Limits to Integration: lessons from experiments in the landscape approach in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia

CIFOR-ICRAF
CIFOR-ICRAF
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Presented by Moira Moeliono (CIFOR-ICRAF) at 2023 FLARE Annual Meeting, 12-16 Oct 2023, Nairobi

Limits to Integration: lessons from experiments in the landscape approach in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia

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Limits to Integration: lessons from experiments
in the landscape approach in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia
Moira Moeliono, E. Linda Yuliani, Valentinus Heri, Hasantoha Adnan, James Reed
COLANDS INDONESIA SITE: KAPUAS HULU REGENCY
Landscape approaches: Collaborative Management of
Danau Sentarum Wetlands Catchment Areas
(hereinafter ‘the Catchment’), 451,440 ha, 73 villags,
55,000 human population
Status Extent (Ha) %
National Park 118,803.42 26,32
Protection forest 67,569.41 14,97
Limited production forest 8,965.70 1,99
Production forest 43,468.96 9,63
Other land uses 199,557.27 44,20
Water (drier months) 13,075.33 2,90
Total 451,440.09 100,0
MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDERS, SECTORAL APPROACHES
• Farmers, industry, government, NGOs
competing to ‘develop’ the area
• Conservation areas governed from the
central government; development and the
people are managed by formal institutions
(the regency and village government)
and/or informal (customary/traditional)
institutions
• Sectoral approaches, fragmented
institutions
è Communication? Coordination?
Integration?
INTEGRATION?
• More than the sum of its parts
• More than collaboration
• Multi-stakeholder platforms and bridging
organizations and individuals are seen as
key in overcoming such challenges
OPERATIONALIZING LA: COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE DANAU
SENTARUM CATCHMENT AREAS
• A series of multi-stakeholders workshops on
the development in the landscape:
• Common vision, goals, expected changes in 2026
(see picture)
• Strategic program of each sector (ToC)
• PCI for linking programs and collaborative
monitoring
• Smaller/thematic multi-stakeholder
workshops/activities to strengthen local
institutions:
• Watershed community forum, tengkawang (illipe
nut) farmers network, waste management, social
forestry
Other Actors and Projects (working in parallel, independently)
Review and
reflection on
previous
management
plan à Common
vision/ goals
Development of Theory of Change
President’s regulation no.
60/2021 on Saving
National Priority Lakes
Regional Medium
Term Development
Plan 2021-2026
Principles, criteria and indicators
for collaborative monitoring
Sectoral strategic planning and
budgetting at regency and
provincial level
Ad

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Limits to Integration: lessons from experiments in the landscape approach in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia

  • 1. Limits to Integration: lessons from experiments in the landscape approach in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia Moira Moeliono, E. Linda Yuliani, Valentinus Heri, Hasantoha Adnan, James Reed
  • 2. COLANDS INDONESIA SITE: KAPUAS HULU REGENCY Landscape approaches: Collaborative Management of Danau Sentarum Wetlands Catchment Areas (hereinafter ‘the Catchment’), 451,440 ha, 73 villags, 55,000 human population Status Extent (Ha) % National Park 118,803.42 26,32 Protection forest 67,569.41 14,97 Limited production forest 8,965.70 1,99 Production forest 43,468.96 9,63 Other land uses 199,557.27 44,20 Water (drier months) 13,075.33 2,90 Total 451,440.09 100,0
  • 3. MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDERS, SECTORAL APPROACHES • Farmers, industry, government, NGOs competing to ‘develop’ the area • Conservation areas governed from the central government; development and the people are managed by formal institutions (the regency and village government) and/or informal (customary/traditional) institutions • Sectoral approaches, fragmented institutions è Communication? Coordination? Integration?
  • 4. INTEGRATION? • More than the sum of its parts • More than collaboration • Multi-stakeholder platforms and bridging organizations and individuals are seen as key in overcoming such challenges
  • 5. OPERATIONALIZING LA: COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE DANAU SENTARUM CATCHMENT AREAS • A series of multi-stakeholders workshops on the development in the landscape: • Common vision, goals, expected changes in 2026 (see picture) • Strategic program of each sector (ToC) • PCI for linking programs and collaborative monitoring • Smaller/thematic multi-stakeholder workshops/activities to strengthen local institutions: • Watershed community forum, tengkawang (illipe nut) farmers network, waste management, social forestry Other Actors and Projects (working in parallel, independently)
  • 6. Review and reflection on previous management plan à Common vision/ goals Development of Theory of Change President’s regulation no. 60/2021 on Saving National Priority Lakes Regional Medium Term Development Plan 2021-2026 Principles, criteria and indicators for collaborative monitoring Sectoral strategic planning and budgetting at regency and provincial level
  • 7. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES • Institutional fragmentation and jurisdictional mismatches; • Misalignment of locally embedded initiatives and governance structures; • Integration happens at local scale by local stakeholders, in Indonesia this means village level • But, village level does not guarantee that multiple objectives are balanced or equitable inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, • Villages also have limited autonomy • But at village level, adaptive management is more possible • Where different sectors/Stakeholders are operating, villages will select the one most beneficial/profitable
  • 8. TO WHAT EXTENT IS INTEGRATION POSSIBLE? Highly contextual, no blue-print, requires a team of good facilitators at multiple levels • Informal discussions and relation-building not only in the formal MSH events • Strengthening local institutions at village level but also at government level • Willingness at regional level to bridge sectors ( in theory the function of the Planning Agency and District head office) But full integration might not be necessary if there is transparency and capacity for coordination?
  • 9. TO FOSTER INTEGRATION Might require Liaisons (e.g., local partner and individuals): central roles, to function as ‘glue’ between key stakeholder groups and among MSPs • Personal approach • Legitimate person (trusted, well received/embedded) • Able (and willing) to move among sectors and levels • Out of the box and strategic thinker, agile • Capacity, built by previous predecessor
  • 10. Some publications from researching the LA and MSPs processes: • Colfer, Carol J. Pierce, Ramadhani Achdiawan, James M. Roshetko, Elok Mulyoutami, E. Linda Yuliani, Agus Mulyana, Moira Moeliono, and Hasantoha Adnan. "The balance of power in household decision-making: encouraging news on gender in Southern Sulawesi." World development 76 (2015): 147-164. • Fisher et al. Forthcoming in 2022. The Power of Possibility in Landscape Governance: Multiple Lives of Participatory Action Research in Kajang, Sulawesi.in C. C. J. P. Colfer, R. Prabhu, and A. Larson, editors. ACM Revisited #2 (tentative title). Earthscan. • Fisher, M. R. 2019. Beyond Recognition: Indigenous Land Rights and Changing Landscapes in Indonesia. Dissertation. University of Hawai'i at Manoa. • Fisher, M. R., T. Workman, A. Mulyana, B. Institute, M. Moeliono, E. L. Yuliani, C. J. P. Colfer, and U. E. F. B. Adam. 2020. Striving for PAR excellence in land use planning: Multi-stakeholder collaboration on customary forest recognition in Bulukumba, South Sulawesi. Land Use Policy 99: 102997. • Fisher, R. J., R. Prabhu, and C. McDougall. 2007. Adaptive Collaborative Management of Community Forests in Asia: Experience from Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines.in C. J. P. Colfer and R. Prabhu, editors. Adaptive Collaborative Management of Community Forests in Asia: Experience from Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia. • Kusumanto, T., E. L. Yuliani, P. Macoun, Y. Indriatmoko, and H. Adnan. 2005. Learning to Adapt: Managing Forests Together in Indonesia. CIFOR, YGB, PSHK-ODA, Bogor, Indonesia. • Moeliono, M., H. Adnan, A. Mulyana, and L. Yuliani. 2015a. Beneath a leaking (legal) umbrella: an experiment in collaborative management of the TAHURA (Grand Forest Park) Nipa-Nipa. Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi (AgFor Sulawesi) series no. 54. • Moeliono, M., A. Mulyana, H. Adnan, E. L. Yuliani, P. Manalu, and Balang NGO. 2015b. A permit is not enough: community forests (HKM) in Bulukumba. Brief 49. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Program, Bogor, Indonesia. AgFOR series no. 49. • Ros-Tonen, M.A., Reed, J. and Sunderland, T., 2018. From synergy to complexity: the trend toward integrated value chain and landscape governance. Environmental Management, 62, pp.1-14. • Yuliani, E. L., W. T. D. Groot, L. Knippenberg, and D. O. Bakara. 2020. Forest or oil palm plantation? Interpretation of local responses to the oil palm promises in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Land Use Policy 96:104616. • Yuliani, E. L., M. Moeliono, T. Kusumanto, Marzoni, E. Permatasari, H. Adnan, Y. Indriatmoko, and C. J. P. Colfer. Forthcoming in 2022. Revisiting Baru Pelepat: Life after ACM (Jambi, Indonesia).in C. C. J. P. Colfer, R. Prabhu, and A. Larson, editors. ACM Revisited #2 (tentative title). Earthscan.