Researcher: What is the cause of soil fertility decline in central Mali? Marka agropastoralist: There are not enough cattle, and so not enough manure for the fields. Researcher: What is the cause of soil fertility decline in central Mali? Fulani agropastoralist: There are too many fields for the number of cattle. 04/03/13
04/03/13 MARKA: 39% of Marka cited establishment of rules between farmers and herders. 29% citing the importance of village chiefs in process. Collective action and organization. “ Authorities profit from herders money, … authorities should stay out of issues with the cattle, and leave it between the villages and the herders”. FULANI: Emphasis on individual responsibility “ To avoid conflicts, the farmers have to pay attention to their fields, the herders their herds. Like that, if everyone guards their property, they would never beat each other”. “ It is necessary that the administrative authorities must be involved in order to open the trails that are planted over by fields”. Both Marka and Fulani responses confirm Painter et al’s description of the approche terroir. It is favoring the sedentary farmers and disadvantaging extensive pastoralists. Marka call for increased decentralization of NRM power. Fulani call for an establishment of boundaries between farming and herding spaces. This desire to enclose an open access resource can be seen as a defensive action against the threat of losing it altogether.
04/03/13 Scientists: Presumed availability of cow manure; Scientists’ access to standardized supply; Publishability of rigorous results Farmers: differential quality of manures; different pathways of access, technical considerations of application Soil fertility trials Differential applications of cow manure Presumed availability of cow manure Scientists’ access to standardized supply Publishability of rigorous results Goat and sheep manure? Goats and sheep integral part of HH economies Farmers’ LK values goat and sheep manure highly Led to simultaneous comparative trials Testing LK Illustrating ↑ diversity of options
04/03/13 Use of goat and sheep manure turned out as having best results in biophysical modeling
How do farmers manage their own resources (tradeoffs in terms of materials, money, time, etc.)? How does research relate 04/03/13
Workshop Trade-off Analysis - CGIAR_20 Feb 2013_Keynote Todd Crane
Impact as encounter: Research and agrarian culturesTodd A. Cranetodd.firstname.lastname@example.orgKnowledge, Technology and Innovation
Achieving Impact Outline Introduction Conceptual clarifications Examples of encounter between research and practice Concluding remarks
Conceptual clarifications Impact Culture Behaviors and technologies (material) Social organization (institutional) Knowledge, beliefs and values (ideational)
Rural Development Goals Marka Fulani Maintain extensive Maintain extensive agriculture pastoralism Intensify pastoralism Intensify agriculture ↑ local authority ↑ national authority (Crane 2010)
Co-production of Knowledge? Micro-politics and soil fertility trials Cow manure applications • 2t/year • 5t/3years
Co-production of Knowledge? Micro-politics and soil fertility trials Goat and sheep manure? • Goats and sheep integral part of HH economies • Farmers’ LK values goat and sheep manure highly Why only cow manure? • Presumed ↑ availability of cow manure • Scientists’ access to standardized supply • Publishability of rigorous results • Political objective of program Led to comparative trials Validating local knowledge Illustrating ↑ diversity of options
ENSO-based forecasts and Ag. Risk Mgmt.El Niño La Niña
Facilitating Use of ENSO-based DSS Enable users to evaluate forecasts Publish forecast history Publish forecast performance records Explain probability upfront Integrate users’ feedback Content Form Medium http://agroclimate.org/ (Crane et al. 2010)
Tradeoffs in climate adaptation Seasonal forecasts and agric. planning in Indonesia Is information the main constraint? (Siregar and Crane 2011)
Action Research Convergence of Sciences – Strengthening Innovation Systems (http://www.cos-sis.org/) Benin, Ghana, Mali Simultaneous on farm-innovation AND institutional change • Undirected change • Avoiding preset indicators • Not modeled, but practiced
Change as self-organization Farmers’ practice as Dynamic Heterogenous Complex Policy Science Science Policy Development 3.0 ? Practice Leeuwis, Sherwood and Crane 2012
Concluding Remarks on Achieving Impact Tradeoffs, thus “impacts”, are inherently political Change is too complex to plan or predict perfectly, it is emergent from practice and relationships Impact requires stepping outside of systems perspectives Achieving impact is a process, not a goal Avoid pre-defined targets (and indicators) Research on research
References Crane, T A. 2009. "If farmers are first, do pastoralists come second? Political ecology and participation . in central Mali, in Farmer First Revisited: Innovation for Agricultural Research and Development. Edited " by I. Scoones and J. Thompson, pp. 88-91. Bourton on Dunsmore, UK: Practical Action Publishing. —. 2010. Of models and meanings: Cultural resilience in socio-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 15:19. —. submitted. Participatory technology development as cultural encounter between farmers and researchers: Bringing science and technology studies into agricultural anthropology. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment. Crane, T A., C. Roncoli, and G. Hoogenboom. 2011. Adaptation to climate change and climate . variability: The importance of understanding agriculture as performance. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 57:179-185. Crane, T A., C. Roncoli, J. Paz, N. E. Breuer, K. Broad, K. T Ingram, and G. Hoogenboom. 2010. Forecast . . skill and farmers skills: Seasonal climate forecasts and risk management among Georgia (U.S.) farmers. Weather, Climate and Society 2:44-59. Röling, N., D. Hounkonnou, D. Kossou, T W. Kuyper, S. Nederlof, O. Sakyi-Dawson, M. Traoré, and A. . van Huis. 2012. Diagnosing the scope for innovation: Linking smallholder practices and institutional context: Introduction to the special issue. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 60–63:1-6. Sherwood, S., C. Leeuwis, and T A. Crane. 2012. Development 3.0: Development practice in transition. . Farming Matters 12:40-41. Siregar, P R., and T A. Crane. 2011. Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to . . Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia. Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment 33:55-69.
Quantum physics ? Is light a particle or a wave? Yes, depending on what tools you use to analyse it. Systems is just one analytical approach http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7059/full/nature04040.html
Farmer Back to Farmer Rhoades RE, Booth RH (1982) Farmer-back-to-farmer: A model for generating acceptable agricultural technology. Agricultural Administration 11:127-137.