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ideas@work vol.4


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ideas@work is a collection of whitepapers published by UNC Executive Development.

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ideas@work vol.4

  1. 1. VOLUME 4 BUSINESS INSIGHTS FROM UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT WHITE PAPERS FEATURED: Beyond Smiley Sheets: Measuring the ROI of Learning and Development Leadership Agility: Using Improv to Build Critical Skills Talent Builders: Lead the Way in Developing Your People Wired to Learn: How New Technologies Are Changing L&D Delivery Ready to Serve: How and Why You Should Recruit Veterans
  2. 2. A message from the President and Associate Dean of Executive Development at UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School Welcome to the latest volume of ideas@work, a journal Another paper featured in this volume is titled Beyond Smiley dedicated to exploring best practices in talent management. Sheets: Measuring the ROI of Learning and Development. Each edition of ideas@work includes a collection of our This paper offers recommendations to help you evaluate the latest white papers in which members of the UNC team ROI of your leadership development efforts and provides share the knowledge and expertise they’ve gained from examples of companies that have effectively demonstrated working with our partners as they develop their talent all the value of their talent development programs. We’ve around the world. also included a white paper that explores the use of improv to develop more agile business leaders and another that This volume of ideas@work features 5 new white papers examines how new technologies are changing the way covering a range of current talent development topics. organizations deliver learning and development. Our fifth Talent Builders: Lead the Way in Developing Your People is white paper details why companies should hire U.S. veterans an informative piece co-authored by our friends and and provides useful resources, suggestions and tips to help colleagues - Marc Effron, Corey Seitz and Jim Shanley – you recruit those who have served our country. three noted and respected leaders in global talent management. In addition to this article, the authors recently I hope that you find value in this latest edition of led our first Talent Management Institute, a new program ideas@work. If you’re interested in our resource library designed specifically for talent management leaders. We had that includes past issues of ideas@work and all of our a very impressive group here in Chapel Hill for the inaugural white papers, on-demand webinars, research, and more, program in November, and we’re looking forward to another please visit our website ( great program in June. I hope you can join us. As always, thank you for your support of UNC Executive Development. Susan Cates Consistently ranked one of to developing socially At UNC Executive the world’s best business responsible, results-driven Development, we are schools, UNC Kenan-Flagler leaders distinguishes our committed to providing Business School is known programs. We educate new, impactful learning for experiential learning people at every stage of experiences to help our and teamwork, superior their careers and prepare partners successfully teaching, innovative them to lead successfully manage and develop their research and a collaborative in the global business employee talent. culture. Our commitment environment.2 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  3. 3. Inside this issue Beyond Smiley Sheets: Measuring the ROI of Learning and Development page 4 Leadership Agility: Using Improv to Build Critical Skills page 14 Talent Builders: Lead the Way in Developing Your People page 24 Wired to Learn: How New Technologies Are Changing L&D Delivery page 34 Ready to Serve: How and Why You Should Recruit Veterans page 44 (Note: The information or conclusions expressed in the following white papers are the authors’ review of findings expressed by the organizations. All brand representations are registered trademarks owned by the respective companies or organizations.) 3
  4. 4. Beyond Smiley Sheets: Measuring the ROI of Learning and Development Keri Bennington Account Director UNC Executive Development Tony Laffoley Program Director UNC Executive Development Introduction A recent report by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and to establish robust measures that capture ROI so that & Development found that evaluation was a top priority even the most critical of reviewers can see the value of among learning and development (L&D) professionals L&D programs in an organization. (Personnel Today staff, 2012). Despite this fact, calculating In the mid-1990s, Laurie Bassi, then a researcher for return on investment (ROI) on development programs is the American Society for Training and Development, still rarely done; a McKinsey Quarterly report found that discovered that the more a company invested toward only 8 percent of organizations actually evaluate the value developing employees, the higher its stock value went of L&D initiatives (Palmer, 2010). And too often, those the following year (McCann, 2011). Her research put who do track ROI rarely go beyond asking for feedback actual dollar figures to something L&D professionals from participants immediately after the event. have known for years-- investing in employees pays off. With today’s challenging economy, L&D budgets are Learning opportunities result in higher levels of employee receiving more scrutiny than ever. Participant feedback promotion, retention, satisfaction, skills and knowledge, forms (i.e., smiley sheets) administered immediately after and this translates to better organizational performance. a learning program are no longer enough, and HR and Yet connecting the dots by demonstrating a real bottom- talent management professionals are feeling the pressure line ROI remains a continued challenge. to look for more solid evidence to justify the investment in their programs. This is particularly the case in leadership development programs, where the focus is often on the Promise development of intangible skills. Because L&D programs To help connect the dots and overcome the challenge of often provide more long-term value rather than short- measuring the ROI of development programs, this white paper: term effects, senior leaders may consider eliminating them as an easy way to cut costs. Even if executive • Reviews the classic four-level model of evaluation. sponsors are satisfied today, they may not be tomorrow. • Discusses the challenges in assessing value for new It makes sound fiscal sense to go beyond smiley sheets and existing development initiatives.4 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  5. 5. MEASURING THE ROI OF LD PROGRAMS• ffers suggestions on how to ensure that LD O performance or behavior and how those changes have evaluations reflect what executive leadership expects. benefited the entire organization (i.e., bottom-line• rovides steps to consider when evaluating the ROI of P results). development programs. Kirkpatrick argued that to obtain a meaningful evalua-• hares examples of companies that have effectively S tion, it was necessary to evaluate the LD experience demonstrated the value of their LD programs. at each level. This has proven easier said than done. Most learning professionals find it a challenge to assess beyond the first level to demonstrate long-term learningKirkpatrick’s Four Levels and organizational benefits, and it is this longer-term, bottom-line impact that many senior leaders want to see.of EvaluationDonald Kirkpatrick is perhaps best knownfor creating the classic four-level modelof evaluation. His simple paradigm—which still serves as an excellentframework when evaluatingdevelopment programs—identifiedfour distinct evaluation tiers:1. Reaction2. Learning3. Behavior4. ResultsThe first level, reaction, capturesparticipants’ satisfaction with theexperience immediately following theevent. These smiley sheets gatherparticipants’ thoughts and feelings aboutthe program, the moderator, the content,the venue, etc.Level two, learning, captures the increase inknowledge, skills or capabilities as a result of the experience.Level three, behavior, assesses the transfer of learning—whetherparticipants successfully applied what they learned to their work.This level can also involve assessing changes in behavior andattitudes that result from the experience.The final level, results, assessesparticipants’ changes in 5
  6. 6. The Challenges in lead the discussion. Some questions to keep in mind when speaking with executive sponsors: Assessing the Effectiveness • What correlations will be considered valid measures of a Learning Program of ROI? For example, one could correlate a leadership development program that targets high performance Not surprisingly, evaluating effectiveness is particularly and strategic change with an increase in employee challenging when the targeted outcomes involve softer motivation and engagement survey scores and/or skills such as improved collaboration, decision making, retention rates. innovativeness and the ability to think strategically— • When the learning program can’t take all of the credit, common learning objectives in many leadership what attribution will it receive? If it is agreed that the development programs. It can be difficult to assign a program will have a positive effect on a particular hard-dollar value to such skills, or to show a correlation organizational goal, but it cannot be attributed with between the learning initiative and the acquisition of the 100 percent of the achievement of that goal, delve targeted skills. It is also often a struggle to find the time further with senior leaders to agree on a percentage of to follow-up appropriately after the program has occurred credit. For example, the learning program could receive (a step that is important in determining long-term impact partial credit (i.e., 5 percent) for any operational cost and transfer of learning). Additionally, if the post-program savings found in the supply chain process. evaluation process and measures were not carefully planned at the program development stage, such post- Baseline assessments may be taken during this phase mortem evaluation may lack a budget and adequate if part of the evaluation will be a “before and after” support. assessment. For example, if a goal is to improve collaboration across departments, a baseline assessment These challenges can be overcome, however, and the among participants from each department can occur acquisition of skills—even soft skills—can be assessed. before the program and again at appropriate intervals afterward (three months, six months, and one year) to The Critical Conversation: determine the level of improvement. Connecting ROI to Palmer (2010) recommends five steps for HR and talent management professionals to take when designing Expectations successful learning and development programs: 1. Know the organization’s strategic priorities. In an article published by Denmark-based management firm Mannaz, Scott Saslow from the Institute of Executive 2. nderstand how the LD function can contribute to U Development emphasized that successful evaluation those priorities. starts well before the learning event occurs, at the 3. dentify LD programs that will support the I pre-program stage. In fact, it should begin at the needs organization’s strategic direction. assessment stage, as the organization explores existing and anticipated skills gaps and identifies ways to close 4. uild it with metrics. B those gaps. 5. itch it like you’re the CFO. P It is at this point that LD managers should have a critical When designing a program from the ground up, these conversation with senior leaders to answer the question, steps ensure that a focus on ROI is directly connected to “What will constitute success for this learning initiative?” the organization’s strategic priorities. Mutual agreement on the evaluation criteria at this stage is critical, and LD professionals should come prepared to6 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  7. 7. MEASURING THE ROI OF LD PROGRAMSTips to Measuring ROI Don’t go overboard. ROI need only demonstrate value beyond a reasonable doubt.1. Find out what the executive sponsor identifies as success and stick to that. Shift from a quality to a results mindset. When designing LD programs, it’s all2. about delivering a quality experience that encourages learning. When evaluating, it’s about results. When calculating ROI, focus less on the quality of the experience and more on the effect of learning. Calculate ROI continuously. Always know how the LD program is performing so3. adjustments can be made. This not only helps improve the program, but can justify how dollars are being spent at any time. Build a step-by-step case for ROI. Analyze organizational needs and develop strategic4. learning plans, prioritize them and present them with sound justification—based on anticipated ROI – about why senior leaders should support them. Gather data beyond the program delivery and don’t forget data that is already5. available. Evaluation and feedback should come from as many sources as feasibly possible—from participants, their supervisors, peers and senior leaders. ROI isn’t just about money. When analyzing results, consider such learning6. measurements as quality, effectiveness, job impact and business results.7. conservative in ROI calculations. To compensate for bias, self-reported ROI should Be be factored down and follow-up evaluations should be weighed more than evaluations reported immediately after the program. Represent the money outlay as a per participant ratio. Personalize it. Show the per8. participant cost (versus a total cost) to make the investment more palatable (e.g., for this target population we are looking at a $7,000 investment in learning for an employee responsible for, on average, $1million worth of business). Communicate the story behind the numbers. This is where using anecdotal9. information can be helpful in confirming the numbers. It never hurts to highlight data with meaningful examples.10. the ROI numbers are low, don’t be discouraged. ROI is intended to assess what is If working and what should be shelved or revamped.Source: Garvey, 2012. 7
  8. 8. Example: Texas Health Resources Senior leaders at Texas Health Resources (THR) realized that they needed to cost-effectively develop all of their employees to deliver a comprehensive, integrated and coordinated level of care with a “culture of excellence.” The organization developed partnerships with local colleges to improve learning programs. THR evaluated the ROI of this program by looking at the number of registered nurses (RNs) who passed their licensure exams, decreased vacancy rates for RN positions, and faster time to productivity. THR found that RNs participating in the program had an almost 100 percent pass rate on their licensure exams. Vacancy rates for RN positions fell from 11 percent to 2 percent, employee familiarity with equipment, facilities and hospital policies increased, and employee orientation time fell from three to two weeks. Source: Chief Learning Officer staff, 2010 It’s Never Too Late to Have that Critical Conversation and to Assess a Program’s ROI But what should LD managers do when asked to provide and talent management professionals should begin with more measurable ROI data for established learning an understanding of the desired learning outcomes, programs? and this starts by having critical conversations with all key stakeholders--senior leaders, supervisors, peers It is important to remember that it is never too and subordinates--all of whom can play a role in the late to have that critical conversation about what evaluation process. constitutes a successful learning experience. HR and talent management professionals should initiate this Regardless of when that critical conversation occurs, conversation, keeping in mind that even if senior leaders asking the right questions to gauge what stakeholders express satisfaction with anecdotes and smiley sheets expect is vital. Some LD professionals may make now, long-term satisfaction and expectations can change inaccurate assumptions about key stakeholder with little notice. To stress the point again, HR and talent expectations (Carder, 2012). This is because they fail to management professionals should work with senior ask the right questions about what the measurement leaders to mutually identify ROI measures (beyond smiley outcomes should reflect, and as a result, design sheets) that are linked to the organization’s key strategic measurements that are off the mark, too complex or too objectives. impractical to execute. In other words, what do senior leaders want? What do they consider “successful” when ROI measures should be related to performance after the it comes to learning outcomes? LD experience and, according to some, tied to a dollar figure. For example, time saved or increased output (or For some organizational cultures, executives may see both) as a result of improved performance following feedback and anecdotes from participants as sufficient to participation in a development program can then be assess the value of an in-house leadership development compared to a dollar figure (Lang, 2012). program. Again, it is important to remember that while this may be enough to assess the learning in the short Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick, however, argue that tying term, LD managers should ask themselves if it will be ROI to a dollar figure may not always be the best metric enough in the next three to five years and identify more and suggest that calculating the return on expectations robust measures that even a chief financial officer would (ROE) may be a better one. When considering ROE, HR find hard to dispute.8 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  9. 9. MEASURING THE ROI OF LD PROGRAMSWays to Evaluate LD These metrics can be used effectively for standard training and development programs. The challenge,Initiatives however, is to capture the less tangible, more higher- order benefits of learning, such as revenue generationThe metrics that could be used to evaluate LD or cost-savings realized through application exercisesinitiatives are extensive. Here is a laundry list of built into the program. Because leadership programsmeasures that organizations often use to evaluate often focus on the development of skills such astheir learning programs: adaptability, collaboration, communication, decision making, innovativeness and leading change, the verage change in performance appraisal ratings A• intangible benefits are more challenging to measure over time using conventional metrics (Kalman, 2012). ustomer satisfaction ratings C• Linda O’Connell, principal of Learnologies, LLC, recommends blending ROI metrics with participant mployee engagement survey scores E• and stakeholder feedback and anecdotes to better urnover rates T convey the total value of leadership development• programs. Jack Philips, chair of the ROI Institute agrees. ercentage of promotions P• He recommends integrating anecdotal evidence at the same time traditional data is collected. It can then be roductivity rates over time P• used to augment the data when it is reported to senior etention rates R leaders (Kalman, 2012).•What Fortune 500 Companies AreUsing to Measure LD Effectiveness• mployee replacement costs* E• urnover costs T• conomic value of employee behaviors E• conomic benefits of increased job satisfaction, E organizational commitment or similar job attributes*According to the Society for Human ResourceManagement, the average replacement cost of anemployee is between 100 and 125 percent of theemployee’s annual salary.Source: Green Brainard, 2005 9
  10. 10. Steps to Consider When Evaluating the ROI of Development Programs The following steps can serve as guidelines for LD If possible, request the same feedback from the professionals who want to create development programs participants’ supervisor, peers and subordinates. To that effectively demonstrate ROI. build collaboration and to set expectations, identify this goal during the planning phase and conduct a baseline Step 1: Have that Critical Conversation assessment before the program This cannot be emphasized enough. The first step in any evaluation process—regardless of when that process Step 3: Include Real Business begins—is to initiate a discussion with senior leaders to identify what success for each learning program means Challenges in the Program to them. Leadership programs often focus on helping high- potential employees think and act more strategically. Step 2: Make Smiley Sheets More Robust To measure such a program’s effectiveness, consider Smiley sheets can be biased due to the immediacy effect. building actual strategic business challenges into the To minimize this bias, re-assess participants three to six design so participants can apply what they are learning. months after the program and combine the data with For example, if the strategic challenge is global expansion, concrete examples from participants that outline how challenge individuals or teams to craft a market-entry they have applied what they learned. plan and have them present it to senior leaders. Such a deliverable, if implemented, can represent significant ROI in the eyes of executives. Example: Owens Corning Senior leaders at Owens Corning credit the company’s culture of innovation as a key reason why the company remains an industry leader in the glass fiber industry. When the company approached UNC Executive Development, they wanted to expand on that culture and foster innovation that lead to real business results. Therefore, it was important that the program be developed with measures that could be reviewed at its conclusion. Owens Corning worked with the university to design and deliver a two-week “Innovation Boot Camp” for some of their global business leaders with an objective that at the end of the experience, participants would be ready to return to their offices with an innovative idea that could be commercialized and developed into a new product, service or solution. The first week of the program focused on teaching teams business foundations. The second week focused on the development of the innovative ideas identified by participant teams. At the end of the program, teams presented their ideas to peers and received a “go or no go” recommendation to determine whether the idea should be presented to Owens Corning’s senior executive team. Owens Corning measured program success by tracking the number of innovative ideas senior executives identified as most viable and approved to develop further. The company has significantly increased market share and revenue in targeted growth areas, offering two very concrete measurements of the program’s success.10 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  11. 11. MEASURING THE ROI OF LD PROGRAMSDuke Energy has used this approach to good effect. Its In cases where hard data is difficult to identify, thinktwo-week Strategic Leadership Program, focuses on creatively. At IBM Europe, for example, a key aspect ofdeveloping mid-level managers’ leadership skills, teaches a leadership development program for high-potentialparticipants how to evaluate business decisions and how women is a robust mentorship program. To ensureto execute business strategies. The program culminates the mentorship program is working as intended, thewith participants working through an actual strategic company expects participants to be promoted withinchallenge identified by senior executives (Palmer, 2010). a year of the start of the mentorship. Failure to obtain a promotion is seen as the sponsor’s failure, not theStep 4: Integrate Learning Programs candidate’s (Cater Silva, in Kelly, 2012). While this mayinto the Organization’s Performance be too radical a metric for some organizations, the lessonManagement System and Hold All here is not to be afraid to think differently when creating evaluation criteria.Stakeholders AccountableTo increase the probability that the targeted outcomes of Also, do not overlook data that is often readily availablea program remain a focus area for participants, ensure when planning evaluation. Retention rates of programperformance appraisal goals reflect those targeted participants versus non-participants and promotionoutcomes for participants and their supervisors. This step and engagement scores which translate to increasedmay require gathering information about an employee’s employee participation and productivity are areas whereproductivity before and after the program. In cases where employers realize real value. These should be trackedit is too late to gather pre-program data, consider using a and measured, not only for participants, but for theircontrol group of equivalent employees, business units or subordinates and supervisors too.organizations to compare against.Example: J.C. Penny In 2008, J.C. Penney found itself among the bottom of all retailers in customer satisfaction. The organization needed to engage and educate its 155,000 associates in 1,100 stores, logistics centers and headquarters to raise its customer satisfaction rating from 43 percent. J.C. Penney therefore had a straightforward measure for their program’s success: improved customer satisfaction ratings. The retailer educated its associates through a multi-faceted approach that had distinct messages for each targeted population (store leaders, store associates and home office associates). A key to the initiative’s success was to obtain support from all store leaders. Store managers then received the learning so they could “champion” the message. All store associates then participated in learning sessions—delivered by store managers and the training supervisor team--within three months of the store manager’s learning program. Customer satisfaction ratings increased from 48 to 63 percent by the end of 2010, ranking J.C. Penney as top in customer service. Source: Chief Learning Officer staff, 2010, Business Impact Division. 11
  12. 12. Step 5: Assign Participants Actual participants an actual project to manage after the program concludes, and establish check-point measurements as Projects after the Learning Experience the project progresses. Check-point measurements could This step can be particularly helpful when assessing include the participant’s ability to assemble an effective the effectiveness of leadership development programs. strategy, the effectiveness of his or her communication For example, if the goal of a leadership development skills, the ability to acquire the necessary resources and the experience is to improve project management skills, assign ability to meet budgets and timelines. Conclusion Employers today expect all business units to meet higher decide which measures should be used to determine standards of accountability, and the HR and talent the ROI for these programs. This conversation is critical management function is no exception. LD professionals because LD professionals need to demonstrate the value cannot (and should not) accept that smiley sheets will be of their learning programs based on metrics previously enough to demonstrate the ROI of learning programs. agreed to with the ultimate decision makers to justify the Instead, they need to engage senior leaders early to investment in learning and development. Bersin Associates staff (2012 January). Garvey, A. (2012 September 24). Ten tips Lang, A. (2012). Training program Philips, J. (2007). Calculating the The Corporate Learning Factbook 2012, to measure training ROI. Trainingzone. evaluation. Integral Defense impact of ROI on HR programs. ROI Executive Summary. Oakland, CA: Bersin Retrieved from http://www.trainingzone. Solutions. Retrieved from http://www. Institute. Retrieved from http://www. Associates. training-roi/179893. uploads/2012/06/Training-Program- Measuring_ROI.pdf. staff (n.d.). Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation.pdf. learning and training evaluation theory. Green, T. Brainard, M. (2005 April 28). Philips, J. (2008). Measuring ROI in the Retrieved from http:// Calculating the return on investment (ROI) McCann, D. (2011 June 1). Measured public sector. ROI Institute. Retrieved from for organizational development (OD) and response. Retrieved from valuationmodel.htm. human resource (HR) initiatives. Brainard measuring-roi-in-the-public-sector-course- Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.apex- cfm/14577155. materials.pdf. Carder, D. (2012 Spring). Six critical measurement mistakes and how to avoid Nielsen, L. (2012). Dispelling the touchy- Poulin, M. (2012 Spring). Assessing them. Training Industry Quarterly. Retrieved Kalman, F. (2012 January 27). Express feely stigma. OD Practitioner, 44, 1. learning and performance. Training from learning’s ROI through storytelling. Chief Retrieved from Industry Quarterly. Retrieved from http:// Learning Officer. Retrieved from http:// Chief Learning Officer staff (2010). 2010 files/odp-quantifying.pdf/. Business Impact Division. Chief Learning learning-s-roi-through-storytelling/print:1. Saslow, S. (n.d.). Measuring the impact and Officer. Retrieved from http://clomedia. Palmer, S. (2010). Making the business ROI in executive development programs. com/articles/view/business-impact- Kelly, K. (2012). The new business case for learning and development: 5 steps Mannaz. Retrieved from http://www. division-1/print:1. imperative: Recruiting, developing and for success. UNC Kenan-Flagler Business retaining women in the workplace. School. Retrieved from http://www.kenan- executive-development. Chief Learning Officer staff (2010). 2010 UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School. Vanguard Reward. Chief Learning Officer. Retrieved from http://www.kenan- custom-programs/~/media/5D2A2B1BFB79 Yeo, K. (2009 July 22). Measuring Retrieved from 4F8AAA023BD33D68844F.ashx. organizational learning: Going beyond view/3946. custom-programs/~/media/ measuring individual training programs. 3A15E5EC035F420690175C21F9048623. Personnel Today staff (2012 April). Human Resources iQ. Retrieved from http:// Chief Learning Officer staff (2011). 2011 pdf. Measuring the impact of learning: Quick- Vanguard Reward. Chief Learning Officer. fire links. Personnel Today. Retrieved articles/measuring-organizational-learning- Retrieved from from going-beyond-mea/. view/2011-vanguard-division-1/. Articles/23/04/2012/ 58483/measuring-the- impact-of-learning-quick-fire-links.htm.12 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  13. 13. Lead your HR organization into the future.B U S I N E S S A N D H U M A N R E S O U R C E SNow more than ever, senior HR leaders need theknowledge, skills and experience to respond toemerging trends that are shaping the future of globalbusiness. Offered in partnership with the Society forHuman Resource Management (SHRM), UNC’s UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENTBusiness and Human Resources program is designed The Power of equip senior HR leaders with the most up-to-datebusiness knowledge and skills needed to succeed inthe rapidly changing business environment today -and tomorrow.To learn more, visit 13
  14. 14. Leadership Agility: Using Improv to Build Critical Skills Kip Kelly Director of Marketing Business Development UNC Executive Development Introduction Look around you; everything is changing. The global How can you develop agile business leaders in your organ- economy, medicine, technology, the environment, geo- ization? While knowledge and experience remain critical, politics…you name it and chances are, it is undergoing it is becoming increasingly important to develop leaders dramatic change. Of course, this has always been the with the ability to deal with ambiguity and change, to case – but the rate of change is lead and foster innovation and creativ- increasing. These changes can ity, and to make and implement have dramatic and unexpected decisions quickly. Organiza- consequences for your tions require leaders who organization. Just keeping can adapt, think on their up with the rate of feet and lead with con- change can be a fidence through the significant challenge, shifting business much less anticipating landscape — all skills and staying ahead of and behaviors that the curve. Companies can be a challenge that want to thrive for talent managers in this constantly to develop. Devel- evolving business oping these unique environment need capabilities requires the ability to change a different approach, quickly – and they encouraging some need agile business talent managment leaders who can learn, professionals to em- develop and adapt quickly. brace unconventional14 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  15. 15. LEADERSHIP AGILITY: USING IMPROV TO BUILD SKILLSmethods. In the following pages, we will explore oneof these non-traditional methods – using improv todevelop more agile business leaders. About Improv “ ome people misunderstand improv….It seems SPromise that improv is all about being funny. But it is not. Improv is about being spontaneous. It is aboutThis white paper: being imaginative. It is about taking the unexpected• efines what improv is (and isn’t). D and then doing something unexpected with it….• utlines the rules of improv and discusses how these O The key is to be open to crazy ideas and building rules apply to your organization. on them. And funnily enough, this is exactly what is needed if we are going to make our enterprises• xamines how improv can be used to develop specific E more creative and agile.” skills and behaviors and build agile business leaders. – aul Sloane P• ffers examples of how organizations are using O The Leaders Guide to Lateral Thinking Skills improv to effectively develop talent. (in Gotts and Cremer, n.d.).• rovides practical ways you can introduce improv in P your organization.What Is Improv?In essence, improv, short for improvisation, is There is no doubt that improv can be funny—thinkperforming without a script; it is spontaneous invention Stephen Colbert, Steve Carell, Bill Murray, Wayne(in the form of acting, singing, playing musical Brady, Tina Fey or Amy Poehler. But being funny is notinstruments, etc.) that is often needed to create necessarily the goal, according to Greg Hohn, a membersomething entirely new and unique. Improvisation is of Transactors Improv group since 1989, its executive andoften thought of as “off the cuff” activity, with little artistic director since 1996, and the teacher for UNC’sor no preparation or forethought – but this can be Applied Improvisation for Communication course atmisleading. Giving an impromptu, extemporaneous UNC Kenan-Flagler. Improv is performing without a script,speech or presentation requires skill and confidence that notes Hohn. It’s about working off the top of your head,one can acquire through improv – but it’s not improv. being mindful and reacting to what’s around you andReal improv requires preparation, and often practice, being entirely in the moment—not the past or the future,to develop the ability to act and react in the moment. but the now. “Improv is about realizing that everythingSome of the basic skills improvisation requires are the you need is in the moment. If you are aware of it, youability to listen and be aware of the others, to have can act on it.” explains Hohn.clarity in communication, and to possess the confidence Bob Kulhan, CEO of Business Improvisations in Chicago/to find choices instinctively and spontaneously. New York/Los Angeles, adds honesty to what definesImprovisation can take place as a solo performance or in improv. “Improv teaches people how to react, adapt andcollaboration with other performers. It can be dramatic communicate honestly with each other. Honesty is a keyor comedic – and the popularity of improv comedy to improv,” notes Kulhan, who has worked with the topcontinues to grow. Many people had their first exposure business schools and companies in the world. “The focus,to improv comedy through the British (and subsequent concentration and honesty required in improv readilyAmerican) television show, Whose Line Is It Anyway?, a apply to the communication skills required in business,”popular improvisational comedy show that featured the says Kulhan.short-form style of improvisation. 15
  16. 16. Example: Business Improvisations Business Improvisations ( offers hands-on, custom programs to organizations, based on interviews and meetings with clients. Executive leadership classes encourage creativity, team building, effective communication, conflict management, change management, and more. Program length is determined by the client and can run anywhere from a half day to a week. Business Improvisations, with offices in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles, has offered customized programs to a host of organizations, including Capital One, Ford, Hewitt and Raytheon. Improv “Rules” Improv may imitate life in that it is unpredictable and Negativity stifles creativity and innovation. Saying “yes” totally unscripted, but that doesn’t mean that it is without is about being open to new possibilities. It is positive, “rules”. These rules may vary depending on whom you affirmative, confident and optimistic. Saying “yes” is the ask, but they serve as guidelines for the performers. While first step in turning around a negative organizational these rules appear simple on the surface, following them culture. Saying “yes” can spur creativity, innovation, can be a little more challenging in practice. A master of collaboration and teamwork. Creativity and innovation, improv, Tina Fey, writer, actor, and alumni of Chicago’s incidentally, are talents that several studies identified as famed Second City and Saturday Night Live, discussed her being critical skills business leaders will need in the near rules for improv in her book, Bossypants (see page 19). future (in Theleman, 2011). Her rules apply equally well to the workplace. Tina Fey’s rules for improv: Rule #2: Not only say “yes”, say • Rule #1: Agree and say “yes”. “yes, AND” • Rule #2: Not only say “yes”, say “yes AND”. “Yes” establishes openness and acceptance.“Yes, and” takes that openness and acceptance one step further • Rule #3: Make statements. by building on what another person has said. This is the • Rule #4: There are no mistakes, only opportunities. heart of teamwork and collaboration – when two or more people are working toward a common goal. “Yes, These 4 rules can also be applied towards building better and” is co-creation. As many in the improv industry say, leaders in the workplace. “yes, and” means to accept the gift the other person has offered and then add to it. It is the social lubricant that Rule #1: Agree and say “yes” keeps creativity flowing and communication open. “Yes” is such a simple word, and in improv it is a “Yes, and” can be a very powerful tool in the workplace. governing philosophy. “Yes” is the acceptance of new “Yes, and” allows employees to take ideas and build on ideas and perspectives, and it establishes recognition them to create something altogether new. Information and respect for the person speaking. It ultimately sets is increasingly fragmented throughout an organization - the stage for positive communication and real dialogue. disaggregated into different business units and divisions. In today’s struggling workplaces, it is often easy to “Yes, and” encourages everyone to bring their ideas to be negative and cynical—attitudes that will quickly the table in order to collaborate and co-create. “Yes, and” erode employee morale, engagement and satisfaction.16 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  17. 17. LEADERSHIP AGILITY: USING IMPROV TO BUILD SKILLScan be a useful framework for brainstorming, ideation Rule #4: There are no mistakes, onlyand innovation, problem solving, and conflict resolutions. opportunities“Yes, and” can help to foster cooperation amongemployees because it requires active listening, acceptance If you follow the other rules of improv, then theof different points of view, and contribution; it serves to possibilities are limitless – and there are no rather than tear down, which can allow for more You listen, react and create something new, and thishonest and effective interactions. simple act can lead to something novel and unexpected. While there are definitely mistakes to be made in business, this fourth and final rule of improv is aboutRule #3: Make statements accepting and moving on. Improv is about movingAs Fey writes in Bossypants, whatever the problem, be forward and exploring new, unchartered territory – notpart of the solution. People who constantly ask questions looking backward or placing blame. Organizations andput pressure on others to find solutions or to make business leaders can waste a lot of time pouring oversuggestions. We have all worked with those people. They past mistakes and casting blame, which can lead to anhave the power to slow progress, sometimes causing overly cautious culture where everyone is afraid to makethe organization to grind to a halt. Organizations need mistakes and no one takes chances. Good leaders takeproblem solvers, or people who make statements; they responsibility, learn from mistakes and move on. To beneed solutions. There’s no shortage of hard questions and successful now and in the future, companies need tochallenges to overcome, and while it’s important that you be free to try new things, take risks, experiment andask tough questions, organizations need leaders who can innovate. The real failure is not learning from pastbring solutions to the table. Making statements in improv mistakes.sets a direction that everyone can follow. It provides a Popsicles and penicillin, Slinkies and stainless steel,roadmap, not a final destination but a direction. Making Play-doh® and Post-it® notes, they were all “happystatements in improv is leadership – and everyone takes accidents.” The inventors of all these innovationsthe lead - helping to create a path and setting down that regarded their “mistakes” as opportunities androad together. enriched (and in some cases, actually saved) lives. yes AND... 17
  18. 18. How Improv Builds Better Leaders Talent development professionals are tasked with a much-needed skills. Improv, she says, can help employees huge challenge—to create business leaders who have better manage uncomfortable conversations (such as the knowledge and experience to be effective, and the conversations about work performance, feedback, etc.); ability to adapt when that knowledge and experience improve listening skills; and create a supportive and is insufficient. No amount of work experience can nonjudgmental atmosphere (Hastings, 2009). fully prepare senior business leaders for the challenges The rapid-fire nature of improv also improves the ability they will face in the complex and constantly changing to think on one’s feet, a skill that applies well in leadership global economy. How do you prepare individuals for the and negotiation situations (Tutton, 2010). “Improv allows unexpected, when the challenges they will face depend organizations to be more nimble, flexible and open to less on what they know and more on how they think? change. It teaches people and organizations that they Talent management professionals must find ways to can adapt without making it a huge emotional crisis,” help their leaders transcend knowledge and experience says Greg Hohn, a seasoned improvisational artist, to become more dynamic and agile. Business leaders senior lecturer at UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School, need to be outstanding communicators, innovators, and program manager for the soft skills and leadership decision makers, change agents, critical thinkers, not to training company, FIZ. There is also evidence, according mention be able to handle ambiguity, promote teamwork to Gary Golden, associate professor of business at and collaboration, and to be the best coach and mentor Muskingum University in New Concord, Ohio, that improv they can be. It is a tall order indeed. Developing these skills can remove some rigidity and structure that can leadership abilities that are so critical to organizational impede organizational growth (Golden, 2011). success will force many leaders outside of their comfort zones. Improv techniques can be particularly effective in developing future leaders from the “Net Generation”— Talent management professionals should view improv as those recent college graduates and current students a powerful resource in the development of these skills. poised to enter the workplace in the next few years. In many ways, the tools and techniques of improv are This generation likes to learn by doing (e.g., learn by uniquely suited to help business leaders develop these inductive discovery), are visual communicators, enjoy critical skills and behaviors. According to Sara Finch, social interaction, are collaborative, and are emotionally director of learning at Second City Communications in more open than previous generations. These Chicago, the core elements of improv—support, trust characteristics align well with the rules and results of and embracing the ideas of others—align well with these improv (Berk Trieber, 2009). Example: Fiz FIZ ( offers leadership development experiences designed for soft skills such as thinking on one’s feet, creativity and coaching. It puts the principles and techniques of improv theater to work in non-theatrical venues such as corporations, academic institutions, organizations, and professional groups. FIZ programs are experiential and focus on discussion rather than lecture. Their length is tailored to the client’s needs and can range anywhere from 30-minute interactive presentations to in-depth seminars, retreats, and courses that can last from two hours to two weeks or even a semester. FIZ clients include Burt’s Bees, Manpower, Inc., and Microsoft.18 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  19. 19. LEADERSHIP AGILITY: USING IMPROV TO BUILD SKILLSTina Fey’s Rules for Improv “The first rule of improvisation is AGREE. Always agree and SAY YES. When you’re improvising, this means you are required to agree with whatever your partner has created. So if we’re improvising and I say, “Freeze, I have a gun,” and you say, “That’s not a gun. It’s your finger. You’re pointing your finger at me,” our improvised scene has ground to a halt. But if I say, “Freeze, I have a gun!” and you say, “The gun I gave you for Christmas! You bastard!” then we have started a scene because we have AGREED that my finger is in fact a Christmas gun. Now, obviously in real life you’re not always going to agree with everything everyone says. But the Rule of Agreement reminds you to “respect what your partner has created” and to at least start from an open-minded place. Start with a YES and see where that takes you. As an improviser, I always find it jarring when I meet someone in real life whose first answer is no. “No, we can’t do that.” “No, that’s not in the budget.” “No, I will not hold your hand for a dollar.” What kind of way is that to live? The second rule of improvisation is not only to say yes, but YES, AND. You are supposed to agree and then add something of your own. If I start a scene with “I can’t believe it’s so hot in here,” and you just say, “Yeah…” we’re kind of at a standstill. But if I say, “I can’t believe it’s so hot in here,” and you say “What did you expect? We’re in hell.” Or if I say, “I can’t believe it’s so hot in here” and you say, “Yes, this can’t be good for the wax figures.” Or if I say, “I can’t believe it’s so hot in here,” and you say, “I told you we shouldn’t have crawled into this dog’s mouth,” now we’re getting somewhere. To me YES, AND means don’t be afraid to contribute. It’s your responsibility to contribute. Always make sure you’re adding something to the discussion. Your initiations are worthwhile. The next rule is MAKE STATEMENTS. This is a positive way of saying, “Don’t ask questions all the time.” If we’re in a scene and I say, “Who are you? Where are we? What are we doing here? What’s in that box?” I’m putting pressure on you to come up with all the answers. In other words: Whatever the problem, be part of the solution. Don’t just sit around raising questions and pointing out obstacles. We’ve all worked with that person. That person is a drag. It’s usually the same person around the office who says things like “There’s no calories in it if you eat it standing up!” and “I felt menaced when Terry raised her voice.” (Tina Fey’s Rules for Improv continue on page 20.) 19
  20. 20. (Tina Fey’s Rule for Improv continued from page 19.) MAKE STATEMENTS also applies to us women: Speak in statements instead of apologetic questions. No one wants to go to a doctor who says, “I’m going to be your surgeon? I’m here to talk to you about your procedure? I was first in my class at Johns Hopkins, so?” Make statements with your actions and your voice. Instead of saying “Where are we?” Make a statement like “Here we are in Spain, Dracula.” Okay, “Here we are in Spain, Dracula” may seem like a terrible start to a scene, but this leads us to the best rule: THERE ARE NO MISTAKES, only opportunities. If I start a scene as what I think is very clearly a cop riding a bicycle, but you think I am a hamster in a hamster wheel, guess what? Now I’m a hamster in a hamster wheel. I’m not going to stop everything to explain that it was really supposed to be a bike. Who knows? Maybe I’ll end up being a police hamster who’s been on “hamster wheel” duty because I’m “too much of a loose cannon” in the field. In improv there are no mistakes, only beautiful happy accidents. And many of the world’s greatest discoveries have been by accident. I mean, look at the Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup, or Botox.”. Source: Fey, 2011. How Talent Management Professionals Can Use Improv Using improv for the development of business leaders and behavioral repertoires expand and the process of is particularly appealing because it can be applied professional and personal transformation begin.” immediately and can be continually reinforced. Improv To help sustain that change, Performance of a Lifetime activities and exercises are easy to implement, and they engages executives in improv-based “performance provide tools, tricks and techniques that individuals can coaching groups.” “Executives experience their capacity practice and refine. Applied learning that can be easily to make different kinds of behavioral choices,” says reinforced can provide real sustainable change in an Salit. “In our language, they begin to see and experience organization. themselves and others as performers, as producers of their Cathy Salit, CEO of organizational change firm own conversations, and as creators of new, more varied Performance of a Lifetime and accomplished singer, social relationships. The performance coaching groups actress, director and improvisational comic, agrees that provide a rehearsal environment for real-time direction real organizational change through improv is possible. and support for navigating leadership and communication “We develop people and organizations through the art challenges. We support executives by encouraging them of improvisational performance,” she says. “We use to continue developing their improv ‘muscles’ through improvisation to establish an environment in which we these performance coaching groups. We feel that it is vital can move executives out of their comfort zones and to ongoing development—and to change that sticks.” support them in taking risks, embracing their mistakes and exercising their creativity. Their abilities, mind-sets20 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  21. 21. LEADERSHIP AGILITY: USING IMPROV TO BUILD SKILLSExample: Performance of a Lifetime Performance of a Lifetime ( is a global organizational change company headquartered in New York that develops people and organizations through the art of performance. It designs and delivers customized programs to develop leadership, enhance collaboration and communication, and to drive culture change. Performance of a Lifetime clients include American Express, Credit Suisse, TripAdvisor, Marathon Petroleum, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and PwC.Next Steps: Applying Improv in Your OrganizationImprov can be a very effective method to develop the As you consider whether improv would be effectivecritical skills required for today’s business leaders in a in your organization, you should:hands-on, energizing way. Improv is increasingly finding • Reflect on the qualifications and competencies its way into leadership development programs. Pepsi, that your leaders will require.McDonald’s and the United Way have all used improv – ow well do they align with the skills you can Hin their corporate training programs (Glazer, 2008). U.S. develop with improv?Cellular has used improv to improve diversity awarenessin their organization, and Nike used improv to help • onsider the individual business leaders and whether Cmanagers design new shoes (Hastings, 2009; Thilmany, they would benefit from this type of experience.2007). Alain Rostain, founder of the New York-based – re there specific leaders, teams, divisions or Aconsulting firm Creative Advantage, has used improv with business units that would be appropriate or otherssuch clients as Kraft, Starbucks, GE and R.J. Reynolds to that might resist this non-traditional approach?improve creativity and brainstorming (Golden, 2011). • valuate other leadership development activities EImprov can develop a wide range of skills and behaviors, that may already be in place to develop these skillsbut it does have limitations and may not be the best and whether they would be more or less effectivesolution for every talent development challenge you face. than improv. COMING SOON! IMPROV TO A WORKPLACE NEAR YOU 21
  22. 22. “Improvisation provides a set of tools for developing with an academic partner, they may have established authentic leadership skills, and just like other relationships with reputable improv companies that focus leadership techniques, it is not right for every on leadership development. In some cases, academic occasion,” says Bob Kulhan of Business Improvisations. partners may have improvisation experts on their faculty. “How and when you use these tools must depend on Improvisation courses are part of the curriculum in the the leader, the team and the specific situation.” business schools at UNC Kenan-Flagler, Duke University, UCLA, Columbia University, MIT, the University of Virginia, If you think improv may benefit your organization Carnegie Mellon, and Babson College (Glazer, 2008; and your leadership development efforts, then there Golden, 2011). If you choose to employ improv in your are a number of resources available to you. There are organization, it is strongly recommended that you work a number of excellent companies focused exclusively with a highly trained professional, well-versed in improv on bringing improv to the workplace for leadership and how it applies to leadership development. development. In addition, if your organization works Conclusion Implemented properly, improv can help build trust, leaders feel more self-confident, open, and less afraid to increase collaboration and team building, improve take risks. It can help you and your organization develop communication skills, promote innovation and creativity, the skills and behaviors that are critical to lead in the improve tolerance to ambiguity and change, and help modern global economy. Berk, R. Trieber, R. (2009). Whose Golden, G. (2011 February). Creating gain serious benefits. The Hiring Site. Thilmany, J. (2007 January 1). Acting out. classroom is it anyway? Improvisation as improvisation-enhanced marketing Retrieved from HR Magazine, 52, 1. Retrieved from http:// a teaching tool. Journal on Excellence in coursework. ASBBS, 18,1. Retrieved from article/ SB122244981379579337.html. College Teaching, 20(3), 29-60. editorialcontent/pages/0107agenda_ goldeng.pdf. Ramirez, J. (2010 August 31). Famous training.aspx. staff (2011 February 1). inventions and advances that came about 25 improve tricks that will make you a Gotts, I. Cremer, J. (2012 February). by accident. The Daily Beast. Retrieved Tutton, M. (2010 February 18). Why using better business person. Using improv in business. Smarter Ideas. from improvisation to teach business skills is no Retrieved from Retrieved from http://iangotts.files. newsweek/ galleries/2010/08/31/famous- joke. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn. blog/2011/25-improv-tricks-that-will-make- accidental-discoveries.html. com/2010/BUSINESS/02/18/improvisation. you-a-better-business-person/. business-e2-v1.pdf. business _skills.html/. Smith, N.D. (2011 March 28). Using Christiansen, B. (2011 December 14). Tina Hastings, R. (2009 October 5). improv for business. Slice of MIT. Watson, K. (2011 September 16). Using Fey’s rules for improve…and the workplace. Organizations add drama to diversity Retrieved from rules of improv comedy to build a better Balanced Worklife. Retrieved from http:// and inclusion training. SHRM Online. sliceofmit/2011/03/28/using-improv-for- business. Biznik. Retrieved from http:// Retrieved from business/. rules-for-improv-and-the-workplace/. hrdisciplines/diversity/articles/ pages/ comedy-to-build-a-betterbusiness. organizationsadddrama.aspx. Spencer, S. (2011 November 10). Creative Engineering staff (n.d.). History Improvisation—a different way of solving Wu, L. (n.d.). Economic “natural of improv. Creative Engineering. Retrieved Interview with Greg Hohn (n.d.). business problems yields big rewards. selection” improvisation is imperative from Building trust through improv. Faith Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes. to business survival. Xavier Leadership history.html. Leadership. Retrieved from http://www. com/sites/work-in-progress/2011/11/10/ Center. Retrieved from http://www. improv-different-way-of-solving-business- economic- Fey, T. (2011). Bossypants. New York: building-trust-through-improv. problems-yields-big-rewards/. natural-selection-improvisation-is- Reagan Arthur/Back Bay Books. imperative-to-business-survival/. Kulhan, R. (2012 March 28). Disney cruises Theleman,, B. (2011). Closing the Glazer, E. (2008 September 30). And now, through the rocks. Business Spectator. gaps in leadership development. something completely different. The Wall Retrieved from UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School. Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online. article/SB122244981379579337.html. Retrieved from http://www.kenan- html. Lorenz, M. (2010 February 4). Employers custom-programs/~/media/ who say “yes, and…” to improv comedy D38ECCA30B1341A18E65F85D150E1104. ashx.22 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  23. 23. If you’re ready totake the next step in your career, make a quick trip back to the classroom first.E X E C U T I V E D E V E L O P M E N T I N S T I T U T EAt UNC’s Executive Development Institute,you’ll gain the core knowledge of an MBA programwithout the long-term time commitment. You’llalso learn how to view the business world from asenior executive’s perspective. And you’ll develop the UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENTkey leadership characteristics that lead to effective The Power of Experience.strategic performance. The result? In two weeks,you’ll be fully prepared for that next step.To learn more, visit 23
  24. 24. Talent Builders: Lead the Way in Developing Your People Jim Shanley Partner of The Shanley Group Corey Seitz President of Seitz Talent Consulting Marc Effron President of The Talent Strategy Group Introduction So, you say you want to be known as a leader who builds be taking to build talent in your organization. Developing talent? If that sounds like a reputation that you want, talent is a long-term investment that must be executed by then there are some time-tested actions line leaders in an organization. HR organizations that you should can help pave the way and increase the proba- bility of accelerating development in an organization, but ultimately line leaders must get it done. Even if a company’s practices are robust and up to date, talent manage- ment will fail without serious commitment and execution from line leaders. We have found that there are about a dozen critical actions that all talent builders must take to ensure the development of their people. Most of these actions are not dependent upon anyone but the leader him or herself. Over the years, we have noticed that great talent builders perform most, if not all, of these actions on a consistent basis no matter what organization they are in. What follows is an action plan that will help line leaders become talent builders.24 ALL CONTENT © UNC EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT 2013 To subscribe, visit
  25. 25. TA L E N T B U I L D E R S : D E V E L O P I N G Y O U R P E O P L EPromise Become Students of HowThis white paper will benefit all leaders who are seriousabout managing talent effectively in their organization. to Build Better Leaders,It also provides helpful perspective for HR Professionals Fasterand Talent Management Specialists in the field. The Talent builders stay current on talent management bestauthors, Jim Shanley, Corey Seitz and Marc Effron, are practices. They read at least one book or article a year onthree of the world’s most experienced and accomplished building talent. They invite experts to audit their talentTalent Management Practitioners and have led the Talent building practices and are open to implementing newManagement Function at some of the world’s most innovations that fit their business and talent developmentsuccessful talent machines, including Bank of America, needs. They reach out to great talent developers insideAvon, Novartis and Johnson Johnson. and outside their organization to discuss and learn new tips and tactics to develop their team. Great developers leverage “teaching moments”. They recognize and actWin Today and in the on memorable teaching moments, especially with highFuture potentials. They continually ask their people two critical questions:Talent builders identify the organizational capabilities • What did you learn from that? and talent that they need to have in their organizationto perform at a high level in today’s environment. • What would you do differently next time?In addition, they also look ahead and identify theorganizational capabilities and talent that they willneed to win in the marketplace in 36-48 months. Ensure that TalentThis requires that they assess their talent against bothtoday’s requirements and tomorrow’s projected Is on the Agendarequirements. It means that they must constantly ask Great talent builders communicate to their organizationthemselves, “Am I recruiting and developing against that leadership and talent matters…they are passionatetomorrow’s standards?” They ensure that no matter what that the organizations with better leaders will drive higherform their organization’s talent review process takes, they results. They demand that they and their leaders areare looking to the future and predicting what type of producing leaders better than themselves. They ask theirtalent and how much talent they will need for the future. direct reports several key questions: • Whom do you have in your organization/team today Drive and Expect who is as good or better than you and could replaceWorld-Class Performance you immediately? • Whom do you have in your organization/team who at All Levels has the potential to be as good or better than youThey demand performance that is at a “higher standard”. and could replace you in 1-2 years?Talent builders drive the mindset in their organization that • Whom do you know within the company but outside performance must continually improve. They are never your organization who could replace you (and is assatisfied with status quo performance. They realize that good or better than you?) today and in 1-2 years?without top performance, nothing else much matters. • Whom do you know externally who could replace you today and in 1-2 years? 25