Plant Biotechnology

Lecturer, Mother Patern College of Health Sciences
Jan. 24, 2019

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Plant Biotechnology

  1. Plant Biotechnology GROUP THREE (3) General Botany [Bota 103]
  2. • Methods of Biotechnology • Gene Transfer: • Plasmids • Restriction Enzymes • Polymerase Chain Reaction • DNA Ligase and Cloning • The Accomplishment and Opportunities of Plant Biotechnology • Genetic Engineering: • Trans-genic Plant • Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering • Brief History of The First GM crops • Genomics and Proteomics Presentation Outline
  3. Presentation Objectives By the end of this presentation, listeners should know how to: • Define plants biotechnology • Identify the methods of gene transfer • Explain the polymerase chain reaction • Identify some genetically engineered crops • Know the contribution of trans-genic plants to human health and nutrition • Have knowledge of genomics and proteomics
  4. What is Plant Biotechnology? • The application of scientific method to manipulate living cells or organisms for practical uses • It is a biological phenomenon for copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substances • It is a controlled use of biological agents such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use
  5. Historical Overview of Plant Biotechnology • Matthias Schlieden and Theodor Schwan proposed the concept of cell theory in the 19th century • Gottlieb Haberlandt, a German botanist proposed the plant tissue culture.
  6. Historical Overview cont’d • In 1981, scientists at Ohio university proposed the first transgenic animals by transferring genes from other animals into mice • In 1980 genetic engineering was first used
  7. Methods of Plant Biotechnology • Gene Transfer • Plasmids as Vectors • Restriction Enzymes and DNA Ligase • Cloning • Polymerase Chain Reaction • Tissue Culture
  8. Gene Transfer: • It’s the insertion of unrelated genetic information in the form of DNA into cells • Gene can be transferred between species through genetic engineering • Genes can be transfer in two methods; → Vector mediated gene transfer → Direct gene transfer • The result of gene transfer is called trans-genic organism
  9. Gene Transfer Cont’d • Vector-mediated gene transfer is carried out by a factor called • Agrobacterium-mediate transformation • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soil-borne gram-negative bacterium • There are mainly two species of agrobacterium: ̶ A tumefaciens that induces Crown gall disease ̶ A rhizogene that induces hairy root disease • Tumefaciens is a phytopathogen and is treated as the nature’s most effective plant genetic engineer
  10. Gene Transfer Cont’d
  11. Plasmid as Vectors • Vector is an agent that carries gene from one organism to another • Plasmids are self replicating circular DNA molecules in bacteria that are separate from and smaller than the bacteria chromosome, which carries gene in plant • Vectors which carries gene in plants are: ̶ Tobacco mosaic virus ̶ Cauliflower mosaic virus
  12. Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  13. Cauliflower Mosaic Virus
  14. Restriction Enzymes and DNA Ligase • Restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to make recombinant DNA • Restriction enzymes is a DNA cutting enzyme that recognizes specific site in DNA • It produces two ends; sticky and blunc • The most common restriction enzyme is the EcoRI • DNA Ligase is a joining enzyme
  15. Restriction Enzymes and DNA Ligase Cont’d • The steps involve; 1. DNA fragment is firstly isolated 2. Cutting of DNA 3. Joining of DNA
  16. Cloning: • Cloning is the process of genetically producing exact copy of a gene, cell or organism • Cloning produces multiple copies of recombinant DNA • A clone is an exact copy of a gene, cell or organism • Recombinant DNA involves modifying pre-existing genes to form new genes • The most common plasmids used in cloning are: pbr322 and puc18
  17. Cloning Cont’d • The are four steps involved in cloning: 1. Isolation 2. Ligation 3. Transfection 4. Selection
  18. Cloning Into a Plasmid
  19. Gene Cloning
  20. Polymerase Chain Reaction • The polymerase chain reaction clones DNA without using cells. • PCR takes place in a small tube that contains the sample DNA called primers. • It includes all the four nucleotides of DNA coding (a, t, g and c) • PCR is an indispensable tool • Strength of PCR • Weaknesses of PCR
  21. Methods of Inserting Clone Genes Into Plant Cells • There are basically four ways of inserting clone genes into plant cells. ̶ Gene-gun ̶ Electroporation ̶ Micro-injection ̶ Liposomes
  22. Gene Gun: • Gene-gun biolistic particle delivering system originally designed for plant transformation
  23. Electroporation: • Electroporation is a microbiological technique in which an electrical field is applied in cells in order to increase the probability of the cell membrane
  24. Micro-Injection: • Micro-injection it is the use of a micro pipet to inject DNA into a cell.
  25. Liposomes: • Liposomes small spheres made of liquid molecule that can fuse easily with the plasma membrane.
  26. Tissue Culture • Methods that encourage individual plants to express their totipotency in an artificial medium is called tissue culture • The cells first forms a mass of undifferentiated cells called callus • Totipotency forms all types of cells in the body • There are two basic types of tissue culture: ̶ Anther culture ̶ Meristem culture
  27. Anther Culture:
  28. Meristem Culture:
  29. Genetic Engineering • Genetic engineering transfers genes from varieties of organisms into plants. • Genetic engineering has made pest resistant plants • This engineering has also made plants more productive • As well they are resistant to pests
  30. Genetic Engineering Cont’d • Plants has been engineered to resist pests viruses and fungi • This resistance occurs because the plants produce the proteins which prevent the virus from attaching to plant cell • It also blocks the replication of genetic codes in plants • This production of proteins helps plants like papaya against devastating spot ring virus
  31. Genetic Engineering Cont’d • Genetic Engineering is the artificial manipulation, modification and recombination of DNA or other nuclei acid molecules. • Genetic engineering has made plants more resistant to harsh soil conditions and pest. • Plants have been engineered to overproduce than usual
  32. Genetic Engineering Cont’d • Plants are also engineered to be resistant to droughts and other soil conditions • Transgenic plants increases the crop production • Transgenic plants contributes to human health and nutrition
  33. Transgenic Plants • Benefits of transgenic plants to humans ̶ Medical benefits ̶ Industrial benefits ̶ Agricultural benefits ̶ Transgenic plants improves poor access of food
  34. Genetically Engineered Crops Require Extensive Field and Market Testing Before They Are Released • Field testing is creating, using and iterating your offering before offering it to customers • Test marketing is an experiment conducted in a field laboratory (the test market) comprising of actual stores and real life buying situations ,without the buyers knowing they are participating in an evaluation exercise • The sensitivity of a new plant may have increased in fungal disease. • Time frame is 6yrs before it is available on the markets
  35. Genetically Engineered Plants Must Be Safe For Environment and Consumers • It helps in the reduction of malnutrition • It provides vitamins such as vitamin a, iron, zinc, protein, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids • It reduces the level of anti nutritional factors such as cyanogens etc
  36. Advantages of Genetically Modified Crops • Nutritional content can be improved • Genetically modified foods can have a longer shelf life • We receive medical benefits from GM crops • It creates foods that are more appealing to eat • GM foods are easier to transport
  37. Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Crops • GM crops may cause antibiotic resistance • Genes go into different plant species • Independent research is not allowed
  38. Brief History On The First Genetically Modified Crop • The first genetically modified food approved for release was the Flavr Savr tomato in 1994. It was developed by a company called Calgene and it was engineered to have a longer shelf life by inserting an antisense gene that delayed ripening.
  39. Golden Rice • Golden rice is a variety of rice (oryza rice) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthsize beta-carotene, a precursor in the edible parts of rice. • It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin a, a deficiency which each year is estimated to kill 670,000 children under the age of five (5) and cause an additional 500,000 causes of irreversible childhood blindness. • It was done in the philippines in 1999.
  40. Golden Rice:
  41. Genomics and Proteomics • Genomics is the science which determine the nucleotide sequence of a whole genome • The nucleotide sequence specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, in which genomics is related to proteomics, which is the science that deals with organisms’ proteins and functions
  42. References • Nabor, Murray W., INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings, 1301, Sansome Street., San Francisco, CA 94111 • • http://www.biologymad.comresourcesdiffusionrevision. •
  43. THE END • Thanks for your time………… •Questions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! •Contributions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!