Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
 
GKA, 2009-2010 HIV 2009   Deel 2: HIV en AIDS 250 plaatjes Adri Thomas, Kruytgebouw Kamer O503, tel 253 3971 Ontwikkelings...
Preview-1 <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses and vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology and Introduction </li><...
Contents first part 1-75 HIV 2009   <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MHC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccines, viruses ...
Typical course of HIV-infection Science 1996, Pennisi en Cohen <ul><li>Number of T-helpers (CD4 + -cells) decreases after ...
The immune system HIV 2009   Alberts 4th ed 24.1-2
Immuunsysteem (Engelhard) <ul><li>Witte bloedcellen, lymfocyten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
A human lymph node HIV 2009   Alberts 4th ed 24.16-17
A human lymph node HIV 2009   Alberts 4th ed 24.16-17
Humorale immuniteit <ul><li>B-lymfocyt (bursa fabricius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antilichaam (Ab) bindt Ag (antigeen) zoals ...
Humorale immuniteit <ul><li>B-lymfocyt (bursa fabricius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antilichaam (Ab) bindt Ag (antigeen) zoals ...
Cellulaire immuniteit <ul><li>T-lymfocyt (thymus=zwezerik) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bestrijdt extra- en intracellulaire Ag </...
Two ways to activate the immune system <ul><li>Lymphokines are hormones or growth factors of the immune system </li></ul><...
Activation of a dendritic cell Hackstein & Thomson   Nature Reviews Immunology   4 (2004) 24-35   HIV 2009   Migration Dif...
Peptide generation for the MHC Nature 419, 2002, 444-445 <ul><li>MHC: major histocompatibiliteitcomplex  or   HLA: human l...
Peptide generation for the MHC Nature 419, 2002, 444-445 <ul><li>MHC: major histocompatibiliteitcomplex  or   HLA: human l...
Activation of T helper <ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen </li></ul></ul><...
Activation of a CTL and a T helper HIV 2009
Structure of MHC-I and its peptide <ul><li>Heavy chain </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter ß2m microglobulin chain </li></ul><ul><li...
Structure of MHC-II and peptide <ul><li>alpha subunit </li></ul><ul><li>beta subunit </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd  subunit: pept...
MHC-I maturation <ul><li>Intracellular proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host! (L...
Maturation of MHC-II <ul><li>Two large MHC subunits bind invariant chain </li></ul><ul><li>ER    Golgi </li></ul><ul><li>...
Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa ...
Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa ...
Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa ...
Gag-pol eiwit HIV-1 HIV 2009   MGARASVLSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGGKKKYKLKHIVWASRELERFAVNPGLLETSEGCRQILGQLQPSLQT GSEELRSLYNTVATLYCVHQ...
Gag-pol eiwit HIV-1 <ul><li>T-cel epitoop TAFTIPSI in protease deel </li></ul>HIV 2009   MGARASVLSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGGKKKYKLKH...
Antigen and environment determine TH1-TH2 choice HIV 2009   Alberts 4th ed 24.66
Antigen and environment determine TH1-TH2 choice HIV 2009   Alberts 4th ed 24.66
Summary: Immune system activation Silverthorn, Human Physiology HIV 2009
Immuunsysteem activatie Silverthorn, Human Physiology <ul><li>After activation, a small number of memory cells are made </...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

GKA deel 2 college 1

1,456 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

GKA deel 2 college 1

  1. 2. GKA, 2009-2010 HIV 2009 Deel 2: HIV en AIDS 250 plaatjes Adri Thomas, Kruytgebouw Kamer O503, tel 253 3971 Ontwikkelingsbiologie a.a.m.thomas@uu.nl
  2. 3. Preview-1 <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses and vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology and Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Genes and proteins of HIV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse transcriptase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Topics in 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Koch postulates </li></ul><ul><li>Host and virus resistence </li></ul><ul><li>Infectivity and porte d éntree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M- and T-tropic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of dendritic cell </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009 <ul><li>Topics in 1993 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HAART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIV and the immune systeem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T-cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topics in 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HAART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T-cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells, half-life & summary </li></ul>
  3. 4. Contents first part 1-75 HIV 2009 <ul><li>Immunology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MHC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccines, viruses </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS/HIV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function genes and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is AIDS caused by HIV? </li></ul></ul>Interesting, up-to-date link: http://www.iavireport.org/
  4. 5. Typical course of HIV-infection Science 1996, Pennisi en Cohen <ul><li>Number of T-helpers (CD4 + -cells) decreases after infection </li></ul><ul><li>Viremia is controlled. How? </li></ul>HIV 2009 Viremia: Presence of infectious virus in blood
  5. 6. The immune system HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.1-2
  6. 7. Immuunsysteem (Engelhard) <ul><li>Witte bloedcellen, lymfocyten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrofagen (M  ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendritische cellen (DC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Langerhans cellen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T helper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T h1 en T h2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytotoxische T-cel (CTL), T killer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-cel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressie en secretie antilichamen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>M  , DC, en B-cel zijn a ntigeen p resenterende c ellen (APC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenteren peptiden van extracellulaire oorsprong in MHC-II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaan naar lymfeknopen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centra van immuuncellen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Herkenning T-cel van antigeen is sleutel van immuniteit </li></ul>HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.5
  7. 8. A human lymph node HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.16-17
  8. 9. A human lymph node HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.16-17
  9. 10. Humorale immuniteit <ul><li>B-lymfocyt (bursa fabricius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antilichaam (Ab) bindt Ag (antigeen) zoals bacterie, virus in extracellulaire vloeistof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding Ab kan leiden tot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inactivatie antigen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralisatie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ag-Ab complex wordt herkend en opgeruimd door </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complement = cascade van proteolytische enzymen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrofagen: endocytose en proteolyse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADCC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>HIV 2009
  10. 11. Humorale immuniteit <ul><li>B-lymfocyt (bursa fabricius) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antilichaam (Ab) bindt Ag (antigeen) zoals bacterie, virus in extracellulaire vloeistof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding Ab kan leiden tot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inactivatie antigen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralisatie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ag-Ab complex wordt herkend en opgeruimd door </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complement = cascade van proteolytische enzymen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrofagen: endocytose en proteolyse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADCC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>HIV 2009
  11. 12. Cellulaire immuniteit <ul><li>T-lymfocyt (thymus=zwezerik) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bestrijdt extra- en intracellulaire Ag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindt aan MHC-I – peptide = antigeen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M ajor h istocompatibiliteit c omplex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Op alle cellen met een kern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Herkenning T-cel van MHC-I – peptide complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptide uit de cel afkomstig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Van de cel zelf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Van virus, bacterie, tumorgen product (?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>T-cellen scheiden lymfokines uit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interleukines, interferon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reguleren proliferatie, differentiatie en migratie immuuncellen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herkenning T-cel van eigen peptide in MHC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auto-immuniteit </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009
  12. 13. Two ways to activate the immune system <ul><li>Lymphokines are hormones or growth factors of the immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and right different lymphokines! </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009 B- or T-cell with best fit will proliferate and clonally expand!
  13. 14. Activation of a dendritic cell Hackstein & Thomson Nature Reviews Immunology 4 (2004) 24-35 HIV 2009 Migration Differentiation Antigen uptake Antigen processing in endosome Maturation Migration Functional maturation Bone marrow Draining lymph node MHC-II IL-12 TNF IL-10 T cell Bcell NKcell Mature DC iDC HSC Phenotypically mature DC iDC Antigen
  14. 15. Peptide generation for the MHC Nature 419, 2002, 444-445 <ul><li>MHC: major histocompatibiliteitcomplex or HLA: human leukocyte antigen </li></ul>HIV 2009
  15. 16. Peptide generation for the MHC Nature 419, 2002, 444-445 <ul><li>MHC: major histocompatibiliteitcomplex or HLA: human leukocyte antigen </li></ul>HIV 2009
  16. 17. Activation of T helper <ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MHC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.47-48
  17. 18. Activation of a CTL and a T helper HIV 2009
  18. 19. Structure of MHC-I and its peptide <ul><li>Heavy chain </li></ul><ul><li>Lighter ß2m microglobulin chain </li></ul><ul><li>Third subunit: peptide of 9 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of peptide are held in groove </li></ul>HIV 2009
  19. 20. Structure of MHC-II and peptide <ul><li>alpha subunit </li></ul><ul><li>beta subunit </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd subunit: peptide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>held in middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more variable in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-15 amino acids </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009
  20. 21. MHC-I maturation <ul><li>Intracellular proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host! (Leader peptides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteasome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transported into ER by TAP (transporter protein) </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide associates with MHC subunits </li></ul><ul><li>To Golgi and plasma membrane </li></ul>HIV 2009
  21. 22. Maturation of MHC-II <ul><li>Two large MHC subunits bind invariant chain </li></ul><ul><li>ER  Golgi </li></ul><ul><li>Invariant chain cleaved to CLIP </li></ul><ul><li>DM replaces CLIP for peptide from endosome </li></ul><ul><li>Contents of endosome are from outside the cell </li></ul>HIV 2009
  22. 23. Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar aa (R-K, S-T) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binds during assembly in ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy and small chain </li></ul>HIV 2009 MHC-I
  23. 24. Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar aa (R-K, S-T) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binds during assembly in ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy and small chain </li></ul><ul><li>APC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen-presenting cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DC: Dendritic cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two similar chains </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 12-15 aa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal binding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Association with invariant chain </li></ul>HIV 2009 MHC-I MHC-II
  24. 25. Summary MHC-I and II <ul><li>All nucleated cells </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide intracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 8-9 aa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds ends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar aa (R-K, S-T) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>binds during assembly in ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy and small chain </li></ul><ul><li>APC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen-presenting cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DC: Dendritic cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two similar chains </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide 12-15 aa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal binding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Association with invariant chain </li></ul>HIV 2009 <ul><li>Many MHC alleles </li></ul><ul><li>An individual expresses only 3-6 alleles </li></ul>MHC-I MHC-II
  25. 26. Gag-pol eiwit HIV-1 HIV 2009 MGARASVLSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGGKKKYKLKHIVWASRELERFAVNPGLLETSEGCRQILGQLQPSLQT GSEELRSLYNTVATLYCVHQRIEIKDTKEALDKIEEEQNKSKKKAQQAAADTGHSNQVSQNYPIVQNIQG QMVHQAISPRTLNAWVKVVEEKAFSPEVIPMFSALSEGATPQDLNTMLNTVGGHQAAMQMLKETINEEAA EWDRVHPVHAGPIAPGQMREPRGSDIAGTTSTLQEQIGWMTNNPPIPVGEIYKRWIILGLNKIVRMYSPT SILDIRQGPKEPFRDYVDRFYKTLRAEQASQEVKNWMTETLLVQNANPDCKTILKALGPAATLEEMMTAC QGVGGPGHKARVLAEAMSQVTNSATIMMQRGNFRNQRKIVKCFNCGKEGHTARNCRAPRKKGCWKCGKEG HQMKDCTERQANFLREDLAFLQGKAREFSSEQTRANSPTRRELQVWGRDNNSPSEAGADRQGTVSFNFPQ VTLWQRPLVTIKIGGQLKEALLDTGADDTVLEEMSLPGRWKPKMIGGIGGFIKVRQYDQILIEICGHKAI GTVLVGPTPVNIIGRNLLTQIGCTLNFPISPIETVPVKLKPGMDGPKVKQWPLTEEKIKALVEICTEMEK EGKISKIGPENPYNTPVFAIKKKDSTKWRKLVDFRELNKRTQDFWEVQLGIPHPAGLKKKKSVTVLDVGD AYFSVPLDEDFRKYTAFTIPSINNETPGIRYQYNVLPQGWKGSPAIFQSSMTKILEPFRKQNPDIVIYQY MDDLYVGSDLEIGQHRTKIEELRQHLLRWGLTTPDKKHQKEPPFLWMGYELHPDKWTVQPIVLPEKDSWT VNDIQKLVGKLNWASQIYPGIKVRQLCKLLRGTKALTEVIPLTEEAELELAENREILKEPVHGVYYDPSK DLIAEIQKQGQGQWTYQIYQEPFKNLKTGKYARMRGAHTNDVKQLTEAVQKITTESIVIWGKTPKFKLPI QKETWETWWTEYWQATWIPEWEFVNTPPLVKLWYQLEKEPIVGAETFYVDGAANRETKLGKAGYVTNRGR QKVVTLTDTTNQKTELQAIYLALQDSGLEVNIVTDSQYALGIIQAQPDQSESELVNQIIEQLIKKEKVYL AWVPAHKGIGGNEQVDKLVSAGIRKVLFLDGIDKAQDEHEKYHSNWRAMASDFNLPPVVAKEIVASCDKC QLKGEAMHGQVDCSPGIWQLDCTHLEGKVILVAVHVASGYIEAEVIPAETGQETAYFLLKLAGRWPVKTI HTDNGSNFTGATVRAACWWAGIKQEFGIPYNPQSQGVVESMNKELKKIIGQVRDQAEHLKTAVQMAVFIH NFKRKGGIGGYSAGERIVDIIATDIQTKELQKQITKIQNFRVYYRDSRNPLWKGPAKLLWKGEGAVVIQD NSDIKVVPRRKAKIIRDYGKQMAGDDCVASRQDED
  26. 27. Gag-pol eiwit HIV-1 <ul><li>T-cel epitoop TAFTIPSI in protease deel </li></ul>HIV 2009 MGARASVLSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGGKKKYKLKHIVWASRELERFAVNPGLLETSEGCRQILGQLQPSLQT GSEELRSLYNTVATLYCVHQRIEIKDTKEALDKIEEEQNKSKKKAQQAAADTGHSNQVSQNYPIVQNIQG QMVHQAISPRTLNAWVKVVEEKAFSPEVIPMFSALSEGATPQDLNTMLNTVGGHQAAMQMLKETINEEAA EWDRVHPVHAGPIAPGQMREPRGSDIAGTTSTLQEQIGWMTNNPPIPVGEIYKRWIILGLNKIVRMYSPT SILDIRQGPKEPFRDYVDRFYKTLRAEQASQEVKNWMTETLLVQNANPDCKTILKALGPAATLEEMMTAC QGVGGPGHKARVLAEAMSQVTNSATIMMQRGNFRNQRKIVKCFNCGKEGHTARNCRAPRKKGCWKCGKEG HQMKDCTERQANFLREDLAFLQGKAREFSSEQTRANSPTRRELQVWGRDNNSPSEAGADRQGTVSFNFPQ VTLWQRPLVTIKIGGQLKEALLDTGADDTVLEEMSLPGRWKPKMIGGIGGFIKVRQYDQILIEICGHKAI GTVLVGPTPVNIIGRNLLTQIGCTLNFPISPIETVPVKLKPGMDGPKVKQWPLTEEKIKALVEICTEMEK EGKISKIGPENPYNTPVFAIKKKDSTKWRKLVDFRELNKRTQDFWEVQLGIPHPAGLKKKKSVTVLDVGD AYFSVPLDEDFRKYTAFTIPSINNETPGIRYQYNVLPQGWKGSPAIFQSSMTKILEPFRKQNPDIVIYQY MDDLYVGSDLEIGQHRTKIEELRQHLLRWGLTTPDKKHQKEPPFLWMGYELHPDKWTVQPIVLPEKDSWT VNDIQKLVGKLNWASQIYPGIKVRQLCKLLRGTKALTEVIPLTEEAELELAENREILKEPVHGVYYDPSK DLIAEIQKQGQGQWTYQIYQEPFKNLKTGKYARMRGAHTNDVKQLTEAVQKITTESIVIWGKTPKFKLPI QKETWETWWTEYWQATWIPEWEFVNTPPLVKLWYQLEKEPIVGAETFYVDGAANRETKLGKAGYVTNRGR QKVVTLTDTTNQKTELQAIYLALQDSGLEVNIVTDSQYALGIIQAQPDQSESELVNQIIEQLIKKEKVYL AWVPAHKGIGGNEQVDKLVSAGIRKVLFLDGIDKAQDEHEKYHSNWRAMASDFNLPPVVAKEIVASCDKC QLKGEAMHGQVDCSPGIWQLDCTHLEGKVILVAVHVASGYIEAEVIPAETGQETAYFLLKLAGRWPVKTI HTDNGSNFTGATVRAACWWAGIKQEFGIPYNPQSQGVVESMNKELKKIIGQVRDQAEHLKTAVQMAVFIH NFKRKGGIGGYSAGERIVDIIATDIQTKELQKQITKIQNFRVYYRDSRNPLWKGPAKLLWKGEGAVVIQD NSDIKVVPRRKAKIIRDYGKQMAGDDCVASRQDED TAFTIPSI
  27. 28. Antigen and environment determine TH1-TH2 choice HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.66
  28. 29. Antigen and environment determine TH1-TH2 choice HIV 2009 Alberts 4th ed 24.66
  29. 30. Summary: Immune system activation Silverthorn, Human Physiology HIV 2009
  30. 31. Immuunsysteem activatie Silverthorn, Human Physiology <ul><li>After activation, a small number of memory cells are made </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For B- and T cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up immune reaction </li></ul></ul>HIV 2009 ========

×