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Nasac oa forum 2015


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Consultative Forum on Open Access: Towards high level interventions for research and development in Africa

Network of African Science Academies - NASAC
Nairobi, Kenia, 29-30 January 2015

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Nasac oa forum 2015

  1. 1. Towards global cooperative noncommercial open access - contributions from Latin America @dominiquebabini Consultative Forum on Open Access: Towards high level interventions for research and development in Africa Network of African Science Academies - NASAC Nairobi, Kenia, 29-30 January 2015
  2. 2. vision The International Council for Science (ICSU) advocates the following goals for open access (2014): The scientific record should be: • free of financial barriers for any researcher to contribute to; • free of financial barriers for any user to access immediately on publication assembly/news/ICSU%20Report%20on%20 Open%20Access.pdf
  3. 3. Pay to publish (APC): a new enclosure for contributions from less privileged countries/institutions/researchers: USD 2.097/2.727 per article, for article processing charges (APCs) by “subscription publishers” USD 1.418 average per article by “non-subscription publishers” Source: Björk B-C, Solomon D.(2014). Developing an effective market for open access article processing charges. issues/Open-access/Guides/WTP054773.htm The risk of open access becoming integrated into existing commercial publishing
  4. 4. secure global basic open access (no fee for users, no fee for publishing) • Research output in shared interoperable open access digital repositories: – Institutional repositories – National rep. – Regional rep. – International rep. – Thematic rep. – journal collections (63% journals do not charge APC´s) Value-added services with diversity of business models: overlay journals, megajournals, additional services for repositories, as: peer-review, impact indicators, etc.
  5. 5. “By making available research generated in poor countries in addition to knowledge created in well- endowed institutions, institutonal repositories could play a role in bridging the global knowledge gap. Research institutions and universities have the primary mission of creating, sharing, and disseminating knowledge, which are public goods. Open access through institutional repositories is a low-cost and low- barrier strategy for achieving this mission”. Leslie Chan (2014, p.295)
  6. 6. towards a global noncommercial cooperative open access ecosystem - contributions from Latin America
  7. 7. Latin American context • largest gap between rich and poor • research+dissemination: mainly government-funded + int. cooperation • subsidized scholarly publishing - not outsourced to commercial publishers • evaluation process rewards publishing in international IF journals • output in local language, in local publications: lacks international visibility, access and recognition • output in English, in int. journals: lacks local visibility and access for non- subscribers+civil society+policy makers 22 countries Population: 600.000.000 Map source: Wikipedia Main languages: Spanish/Portuguese Scientific output (main countries): Brazil, México, Argentina, Colombia, Chile
  8. 8. research output poorly represented in international indexes Source: Juan Pablo Alperín (2014). World scaled by number of documents in Web of Science by Authors Living There. LSE Impact Blog . . 16 % quality journals from Latin America in Scopus (841 Journals) and 5 % in WoS (294 journals)
  9. 9. regional Open Access declaration (2005) Salvador de Bahía (Brazil) Declaration on Open Access: The Developing World Perspective (promoted by SciELO) We urge governments to make Open Access a high priority in science policies including: • requiring that publicly funded research is made available through Open Access; • considering the cost of publication as part of the cost of research; • strengthening the local OA journals, repositories and other relevant initiatives; • promoting integration of developing countries scientific information in the worldwide body of knowledge. We call on all stakeholders in the international community to work together to ensure that scientific information is openly accessible and freely available to all s/public/documents/declaration.htm
  10. 10. Latin America: regional cooperative approach to open access 1. regional subject digital repositories 2. regional open access journal portals 3. regional network of institutional repositories
  11. 11. agriculture health Social sciences Environmental health public administration labour REGIONAL SUBJECT REPOSITORIES
  12. 12. Latin America open access journals 3.500 quality journals in the region (945 from Brazil), subsidized by academic and scientific institutions 76% are OA No APC tradition in the region  Benefits of OA wide adoption Visibility + access More possibilities of citations to research results  Trends in Latin America • Journals improve quality and multiply visibility, access, indicators, participating in journal portals – Regional journal portals – National portals of quality journals – University journal portals
  13. 13. Regional Latin American OA peer-review journal Portals . • Started 1997 • Network of national quality journals focal points • Today 1.064 journals Latin America • Aprox. 500.000 articles • Bibliometric indicators • Scielo Citation Index WoS . • Started 2003 • In collaboration with journal editors from the region • Today 780 journals LA • Aprox. 280.000 articles • Indicators of scientific output (institutions, countries, subjects) Regional journals harvester: Portal de Portales Latindex
  14. 14. UNESCO supports development of open access regional strategies, national policies, consultations, open access indicators, e.g.:
  15. 15. national policies for identification of quality journals Trends  national lists/portals of quality journals  managed by national research funding agency  In charge of evaluation of scientific and academic journals  quality certification (related with regional quality requirements from Latindex, SciELO and Redalyc  Journals quality certification related to evaluation of researchers pubishing in local journals Examples: Qualis/CAPES (Brazil), NB/CONICET (Argentina), CONACYT (México), Publindex (Colombia), CONICYT (Chile)
  16. 16. University journal portals in Latin America e.g.: universities with more than 100 journals each, in Open Journal System (OJS) platforms UNAM, México Univ. Sao Paulo, Brazil Univ. Chile
  17. 17. Institutional repositories 289 repositories Latin America
  18. 18. From national to regional: high level interventions for aligning national repository networks • Since: 2012 • Members: governments (national networks of digital repositories) • Started with government agreement of 9 countries: Argentina,Brasil,Chile,Colombia, Ecuador, México,Perú,Venezuela, El Salvador • Regional harvester: initial 800.000 digital objects (full text peer- review articles + doctoral and master theses, reports).Driver 2.0 • Support from: governments, initial support IADB USD 1.000.000 (regional public good) • Managed by RedCLARA and funded by governments • Challenges: institutionalization, metadata quality, working with COAR and OpenAIRE for global alignment -open-airecoarsession1carmengloria Contact:
  19. 19. Open Access policies in Latin America Institutional • Few (29 registered in ROARMAP) • Weak (recommendations more than mandates) • Partial (Mainly for thesis) – A good example of mandatory institutional policy: University of São Paulo, Brazil essoEnUS National • AO legislation approved by Congress in – Peru (2013) – Argentina (2013) – Mexico (2014) Requires creation of OA digital repositories for gov.-funded research results • OA legislation proposal in Congress – Brazil (since 2007)
  20. 20. high level interventions for national cooperation of open access repositories – the case of Argentina Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MINCYT) – Digital Repositories Experts Committee (since 2009) to: • Select and adapt international standards for digital repositories • Definition on contents to be considered for national harvester • Requirements for institutions that need financial support for digital repositories – evaluation of funding requests • Draft for OA national legislation proposal • Guidelines for institutions to be members of the: – National System of Digital Repositories (SNRD/MINCYT) • Membership benefits: training, funding, technical support • Promotes regional networks of repositories within country • National harvester • Open access week event • National focal point of La Referencia (regional network of digital repositories) and COAR
  21. 21. Argentina´s national legislation approved in 2013 Main concepts - • Research institutions which receive government funding shall develop individual or shared interoperable open access institutional repositories for research output financed by public funds (journal articles, scientific reports, theses, research data, etc.) • Those institutions will have to issue policies for open access to primary research data in repositories
  22. 22. Argentina´s national legislation approved in 2013 main concepts (2)  Researchers, technologists, faculty, postdoctoral fellows and master and doctoral students whose research activity is financed with public funds, shall deposit or expressly authorize the submission of a copy of the final version of its scientific and technological production published or accepted for publication and/or that has gone through an approval process by a competent authority or jurisdiction in the matter, in the open access digital repositories institutions  Maximum embargo: 6 months (5 years for research data) or expiration of the term of protection of industrial property rights or the termination of previous agreements. During embargo, metadata will be provided in open access.
  23. 23. Regional strategy for Latin America and the Caribbean Recommendations from Regional Consultation on Open Access to Scientific Information, sponsored by UNESCO, Kingston, March 2013 - 23 countries represented • Gold and Green routes are suitable form of OA for the region – For Green routes, inclusive and cooperative OA solutions should be promoted to avoid new enclosures – the Gold OA route in the region should continue its present emphasis on sharing costs. LTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/news/report_open _access_en.pdf
  24. 24. Dominique Babini – CLACSO, Open Access Program University of Buenos Aires/IIGG – Open Access Project @dominiquebabini Thank you!!!!